Abnormal Development - Syphilis
The variety of bacterial infections that can occur during pregnancy is as variable as the potential developmental effects, from virtually insignificant to major developmental, abortive or fatal in outcome. Some bacteria are common and are part of the normal genital tract flora (Lactobacillus sp), while other bacterial infections are less common or even rare and initially infect/transmit by air or fluids through the different epithelia (genital tract, lungs, gastrointestinal tract).
Some Recent Findings
Bacterial staining procedure named after Hans Christian Gram (1853 - 1938). Generally divides bacteria into either:
Gram-positive bacteria purple crystal violet stain is trapped by layer of peptidoglycan (forms outer layer of the cell).
Gram-negative bacteria outer membrane prevents stain from reaching peptidoglycan layer in the periplasm, outer membrane then permeabilized and pink safranin counterstain is trapped by peptidoglycan layer.
Australian NHMRC Recommendations
The Australian NHMRC (1988) recommends neonates be assessed for follow-up care under the following conditions.
- Birthweight less than 1500g or gestational age less than 32 weeks
- Small-for-gestational-age neonates
- Perinatal asphyxia
- Apgar score less than 3 at 5 minutes
- clinical evidence of neurological dysfunction
- delay in onset of spontaneous respiration for more than 5 minutes and requiring mechanical ventilation
- Clinical evidence of central nervous system abnormalities ie., seizures, hypotonia
- Hyperbilirubinaemia of greater than 350umol/l in full term neonates
- Genetic, dysmorphic or metabolic disorders or a family history of serious genetic disorder
- Perinatal or serious neonatal infection including children of mothers who are HIV positive
- Psychosocial problems eg., infants of drug-addicted or alcoholic mothers.
- <pubmed>19250368</pubmed>| Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Canada 2007;29:35-44)." (text from BMJ 2007;334(7587):224
<pubmed>16374219</pubmed> <pubmed>15784499</pubmed> <pubmed>15861401</pubmed> <pubmed>10816189</pubmed> <pubmed>6293753</pubmed>
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- CDC (USA) Public Health Training Network Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (viewable Webcasts requires Media Player) | Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Recommendations
- Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (UK) Infection and Pregnancy - study group recommendations (Jun 2001)
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, October 27) Embryology Abnormal Development - Syphilis. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Syphilis
- © Dr Mark Hill 2020, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G