Difference between revisions of "Abnormal Development - Bacterial Infection"
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== Bacterial Vaginosis ==
== Bacterial Vaginosis ==
:'''Links:''' [http://www.cdc.gov/std/bv/STDFact-Bacterial-Vaginosis.htm CDC (USA) Fact Sheet - Bacterial Vaginosis]
'''Links: '''[http://www.cdc.gov/std/bv/STDFact-Bacterial-Vaginosis.htm CDC (USA) Fact Sheet - Bacterial Vaginosis]
== Gram Stain ==
== Gram Stain ==
Revision as of 12:50, 11 October 2010
The variety of bacterial infections that can occur during pregnancy is as variable as the potential developmental effects, from virtually insignificant to major developmental, abortive or fatal in outcome. Some bacteria are common and are part of the normal genital tract flora (Lactobacillus sp), while other bacterial infections are less common or even rare and initially infect/transmit by air or fluids through the different epithelia (genital tract, lungs, gastrointestinal tract).
Note that some infections may have historic or alternative common names, for example Pertussis "whooping cough".
Some Recent Findings
Tuberculosis (TB) during pregnancy This BJOG paper describes a study which highlights lack of awareness about TB in pregnancy. The number of women who die from TB during pregnancy is increasing in the UK. TB has been classified as a priority infectious disease, and TB incidence in the UK is now higher than that in most western European countries.
Tuberculosis in pregnancy in the UK. Knight M, Kurinczuk JJ, Nelson-Piercy C, Spark P, Brocklehurst P; UKOSS. BJOG. 2009 Mar;116(4):584-8. PMID: 19250368
"All 229 of eligible UK hospitals participated (between August 2005 and August 2006), representing 100% coverage of women giving birth in the UK. During this period, a total of 33 women were diagnosed with TB during pregnancy. All of these women were non-white. Researchers found that TB in pregnancy in the UK appears to be exclusively limited to ethnic minority women and almost exclusively to those born outside the UK.The authors noted that screening for TB during pregnancy, while recommended, does not seem to be undertaken routinely. This may contribute to a delay in diagnosis."
Antibiotics during pregnancy "Macrolides or clindamycin during the second trimester of pregnancy to women at risk of preterm births can lower the risk, a new systematic review and meta-analysis by Canadian researchers indicates. But the study also found that giving metronidazole alone in the second trimester is linked with a greater risk of preterm birth in the high risk population. The study's authors, from the University of Montreal and Laval University, Quebec, say that delivery before 37 weeks' gestation complicates between 7% and 11% of all pregnancies, is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, and is responsible for high healthcare costs (Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Canada 2007;29:35-44)." (text from BMJ 2007;334(7587):224)
Giuliani MM, Adu-Bobie J, Comanducci M, Arico B, Savino S, Santini L, Brunelli B, Bambini S, Biolchi A, Capecchi B, Cartocci E, Ciucchi L, Di Marcello F, Ferlicca F, Galli B, Luzzi E, Masignani V, Serruto D, Veggi D, Contorni M, Morandi M, Bartalesi A, Cinotti V, Mannucci D, Titta F, Ovidi E, Welsch JA, Granoff D, Rappuoli R, Pizza M. A universal vaccine for serogroup B meningococcus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jul 6; [Epub ahead of print] "Meningitis and sepsis caused by serogroup B meningococcus are two severe diseases that still cause significant mortality. To date there is no universal vaccine that prevents these diseases. In this work, five antigens discovered by reverse vaccinology were expressed in a form suitable for large-scale manufacturing and formulated with adjuvants suitable for human use. The vaccine adjuvanted by aluminum hydroxide induced bactericidal antibodies in mice against 78% of a panel of 85 meningococcal strains representative of the global population diversity."
Colombo DF, Lew JL, Pedersen CA, Johnson JR, Fan-Havard P. Optimal timing of ampicillin administration to pregnant women for establishing bactericidal levels in the prophylaxis of Group B Streptococcus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Feb;194(2):466-70. "Bactericidal levels of ampicillin in the cord blood are rapidly achieved within 30 minutes of administration of ampicillin to the mother. The increase in the ratio of cord to maternal serum ampicillin levels is directly related to time, suggesting a decrease in the clearance of ampicillin in the newborns as compared to the mothers. The cord blood ampicillin concentration exceeds the maternal concentration and both continue to be above the minimal bactericidal concentrations at 5.6 hours after administration."
|The gram-negative bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes the disease Gonorrhea which is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Maternal infection increases the risk of premature birth and ophthalmia neonatorum (infantile purulent conjunctivitis).
Nowicki S, Selvarangan R, Anderson G. Experimental transmission of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from pregnant rat to fetus. Infect Immun. 1999 Sep;67(9):4974-6. "...This study provides the first experimental model that may mimic the transmission of gonococcal infection from mother to the fetus during pregnancy."
|The bacterium spirochete Borrelia Burgdorferi causes Lyme disease. Infection can be through the blood by tick bite.|
Links: CDC (USA) - Lyme Disease
Links: NCBI Bookshelf Medical Microbiology - Mycoplasma | CDC Mycoplasmas: Sophisticated, Reemerging, and Burdened by Their Notoriety
BCG vaccination is not recommended for general use in the Australian population.
BCG is recommended for:
- Aboriginal neonates in areas of high incidence of TB (e.g. Northern Territory, Far North Queensland, northern areas of Western Australia and South Australia)
- neonates and children 5 years and under who will be travelling or living in countries or areas with a high prevalence of TB for extended periods
- neonates born to parents with leprosy or a family history of leprosy
In addition to these recommendations BCG may be considered in the following:
- Children over 5 years who will be travelling or living in countries or areas with a high prevalence of TB for extended periods
- Health care workers (HCWs) who may be at high risk of exposure to drug resistant cases.
(Text Source: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 30 Number 1, March 2006 - The BCG vaccine: information and recommendations for use in Australia)
Links: CDC (USA) - Tuberculosis | CDC (USA) - Tuberculosis Vaccine | NHMRC (Australia) - BCG vaccine | WHO - tuberculosis | WHO Report 2007 - Global tuberculosis control - epidemiology, strategy, financing)
The bacterium Bordetella pertussis can cause the disease Pertussis (Whooping Cough) can lead to infant mortality. (More? [pertussis.htm Pertussis])
May 2005 - First Combination Vaccine Approved to Help Protect Adolescents Against Whooping Cough USA Food and Drug Administration has approved booster immunization against pertussis (whooping cough) in combination with tetanus and diphtheria for adolescents. Pertussis is a highly contagious bacterial disease. (FDA 03 May 2005)
Links: CDC (USA) - Pertussis | Medline Plus - Pertussis | Pertussis Vaccination: Use of Acellular Pertussis Vaccines Among Infants and Young Children Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) |
- Links: CDC (USA) - Staphylococcus | CDC (USA) - emerging infectious diseases | Medline Plus - Staph aureus food poisoning | Medical Microbiology - Staphylococcus
Bacterial vaginosis imbalance of the normal vaginal flora (more anaerobic bacteria and less normal gram-positive bacteria Lactobacillus sp). Maternal infection is associated with a variety of pregnancy abnormalities including preterm birth and poor perinatal outcome.
Bacterial staining procedure named after Hans Christian Gram (1853‚Äì1938). Generally divides bacteria into either:
Gram-positive bacteria purple crystal violet stain is trapped by layer of peptidoglycan (forms outer layer of the cell).
Gram-negative bacteria outer membrane prevents stain from reaching peptidoglycan layer in the periplasm, outer membrane then permeabilized and pink safranin counterstain is trapped by peptidoglycan layer.
Australian NHMRC Recommendations
The Australian NHMRC (1988) recommends neonates be assessed for follow-up care under the following conditions.
- Birthweight less than 1500g or gestational age less than 32 weeks
- Small-for-gestational-age neonates
- Perinatal asphyxia
- Apgar score less than 3 at 5 minutes
- clinical evidence of neurological dysfunction
- delay in onset of spontaneous respiration for more than 5 minutes and requiring mechanical ventilation
- Clinical evidence of central nervous system abnormalities ie., seizures, hypotonia
- Hyperbilirubinaemia of greater than 350umol/l in full term neonates
- Genetic, dysmorphic or metabolic disorders or a family history of serious genetic disorder
- Perinatal or serious neonatal infection including children of mothers who are HIV positive
- Psychosocial problems eg., infants of drug-addicted or alcoholic mothers.
Public Health Training Network Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (viewable Webcasts requires Media Player) |
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (UK)
Donders GG. Management of genital infections in pregnant women. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2006 Feb;19(1):55-61.
Goodnight WH, Soper DE. Pneumonia in pregnancy. Crit Care Med. 2005 Oct;33(10 Suppl):S390-7.
Boggess KA. Pathophysiology of preterm birth: emerging concepts of maternal infection. Clin Perinatol. 2005 Sep;32(3):561-9.
Hirsch E, Wang H. The molecular pathophysiology of bacterially induced preterm labor: insights from the murine model. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2005 Apr;12(3):145-55.
Berman SM. Maternal syphilis: pathophysiology and treatment. Bull World Health Organ. 2004 Jun;82(6):433-8.
Doganay M. Listeriosis: clinical presentation. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2003 Apr 1;35(3):173-5.
Goldenberg RL, Hauth JC, Andrews WW. Intrauterine infection and preterm delivery. N Engl J Med. 2000 May 18;342(20):1500-7.
Ross SM. Sexually transmitted diseases in pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 1982 Dec;9(3):565-92.
Guerra B, Ghi T, Quarta S, Morselli-Labate AM, Lazzarotto T, Pilu G, Rizzo N. Pregnancy outcome after early detection of bacterial vaginosis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006 Sep-Oct;128(1-2):40-5. Epub 2006 Feb 3.
Giuliani MM, Adu-Bobie J, Comanducci M, Arico B, Savino S, Santini L, Brunelli B, Bambini S, Biolchi A, Capecchi B, Cartocci E, Ciucchi L, Di Marcello F, Ferlicca F, Galli B, Luzzi E, Masignani V, Serruto D, Veggi D, Contorni M, Morandi M, Bartalesi A, Cinotti V, Mannucci D, Titta F, Ovidi E, Welsch JA, Granoff D, Rappuoli R, Pizza M. A universal vaccine for serogroup B meningococcus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jul 6; [Epub ahead of print]
Colombo DF, Lew JL, Pedersen CA, Johnson JR, Fan-Havard P. Optimal timing of ampicillin administration to pregnant women for establishing bactericidal levels in the prophylaxis of Group B Streptococcus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Feb;194(2):466-70.
Bakardjiev AI, Stacy BA, Portnoy DA. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in the guinea pig placenta and role of cell-to-cell spread in fetal infection. J Infect Dis. 2005 Jun 1;191(11):1889-97.
Goffinet F, Maillard F, Mihoubi N, Kayem G, Papiernik E, Cabrol D, Paul G. Bacterial vaginosis: prevalence and predictive value for premature delivery and neonatal infection in women with preterm labour and intact membranes. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2003 Jun 10;108(2):146-51.
Morley SL, Cole MJ, Ison CA, Camaraza MA, Sotolongo F, Anwar N, Cuevas I, Carbonero M, Campa HC, Sierra G, Levin M. Immunogenicity of a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine against multiple Neisseria meningitidis strains in infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001 Nov;20(11):1054-61.
Nowicki S, Selvarangan R, Anderson G. Experimental transmission of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from pregnant rat to fetus. Infect Immun. 1999 Sep;67(9):4974-6.
Search Jan2006 "bacterial infection" 547,445 reference articles of which 45,020 were reviews.
Search PubMed: term = bacterial infection
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, April 20) Embryology Abnormal Development - Bacterial Infection. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Bacterial_Infection
- © Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G