Abnormal Development - Bacterial Infection

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Introduction

The spirochete bacteria treponema pallidum, the cause of syphillis.

The variety of bacterial infections that can occur during pregnancy is as variable as the potential developmental effects, from virtually insignificant to major developmental, abortive or fatal in outcome. Some bacteria are common and are part of the normal genital tract flora (Lactobacillus sp), while other bacterial infections are less common or even rare and initially infect/transmit by air or fluids through the different epithelia (genital tract, lungs, gastrointestinal tract).

Note that some infections may have historic or alternative common names, for example Pertussis "whooping cough".


Maternal uterine tubal damage by bacterial infection (Chlamydia trachomatis) can also lead to Ectopic Implantation.

NSW Pertussis Notification Graph (2012-16)
NSW Pertussis Notification Graph (2012-16)
Bacterial Links: Syphilis | Gonorrhea | Tuberculosis | Listeria | TORCH Infections | Environmental | Category:Bacteria


Environmental Links: Introduction | Low Folic Acid | Iodine Deficiency | Nutrition | Drugs | Australian Drug Categories | USA Drug Categories | Thalidomide | Herbal Drugs | Illegal Drugs | Smoking | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | TORCH Infections | Viral Infection | Bacterial Infection | Zoonotic Infection | Toxoplasmosis | Malaria | Maternal Diabetes | Maternal Hypertension | Maternal Hyperthermia | Maternal Inflammation | Maternal Obesity | Hypoxia | Biological Toxins | Chemicals | Heavy Metals | Radiation | Prenatal Diagnosis | Neonatal Diagnosis | International Classification of Diseases | Fetal Origins Hypothesis

Some Recent Findings

  • Pertussis - There has been a recent significant increase in the total number of pertussis (whooping cough) notifications in NSW, Australia.
  • Tuberculosis (TB) during pregnancy[1] This BJOG paper describes a study which highlights lack of awareness about TB in pregnancy. The number of women who die from TB during pregnancy is increasing in the UK. TB has been classified as a priority infectious disease, and TB incidence in the UK is now higher than that in most western European countries. "All 229 of eligible UK hospitals participated (between August 2005 and August 2006), representing 100% coverage of women giving birth in the UK. During this period, a total of 33 women were diagnosed with TB during pregnancy. All of these women were non-white. Researchers found that TB in pregnancy in the UK appears to be exclusively limited to ethnic minority women and almost exclusively to those born outside the UK.The authors noted that screening for TB during pregnancy, while recommended, does not seem to be undertaken routinely. This may contribute to a delay in diagnosis."
  • Antibiotics during pregnancy[2] "Macrolides or clindamycin during the second trimester of pregnancy to women at risk of preterm births can lower the risk, a new systematic review and meta-analysis by Canadian researchers indicates. But the study also found that giving metronidazole alone in the second trimester is linked with a greater risk of preterm birth in the high risk population. The study's authors, from the University of Montreal and Laval University, Quebec, say that delivery before 37 weeks' gestation complicates between 7% and 11% of all pregnancies, is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, and is responsible for high healthcare costs"
  • A universal vaccine for serogroup B meningococcus[3] "Meningitis and sepsis caused by serogroup B meningococcus are two severe diseases that still cause significant mortality. To date there is no universal vaccine that prevents these diseases. In this work, five antigens discovered by reverse vaccinology were expressed in a form suitable for large-scale manufacturing and formulated with adjuvants suitable for human use. The vaccine adjuvanted by aluminum hydroxide induced bactericidal antibodies in mice against 78% of a panel of 85 meningococcal strains representative of the global population diversity."
  • Optimal timing of ampicillin administration to pregnant women for establishing bactericidal levels in the prophylaxis of Group B Streptococcus [4] "Bactericidal levels of ampicillin in the cord blood are rapidly achieved within 30 minutes of administration of ampicillin to the mother. The increase in the ratio of cord to maternal serum ampicillin levels is directly related to time, suggesting a decrease in the clearance of ampicillin in the newborns as compared to the mothers. The cord blood ampicillin concentration exceeds the maternal concentration and both continue to be above the minimal bactericidal concentrations at 5.6 hours after administration."
More recent papers  
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches


Search term: Bacteria Teratogen

Jeoung Hwa Shin, Won Hyun Ji, Chanhee Chae, Shela Gorinstein, Yun Gyong Ahn Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans levels in piglet liver with various diseases. Int J Exp Pathol: 2017, 98(4);214-220 PubMed 29027289

Ramachandran Karthik, Venkatesan Manigandan, Ramachandran Saravanan Toxicity, teratogenicity and antibacterial activity of posterior salivary gland (PSG) toxin from the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Ehrenberg, 1831). J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.: 2017, 1064;28-35 PubMed 28892742

Savita R Tapase, Rahul B Mawlankar, Shiva S Sundharam, Srinivasan Krishnamurthi, Syed G Dastager, Kisan M Kodam Microvirga indica sp. nov., an arsenite-oxidizing Alphaproteobacterium, isolated from metal industry waste soil. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.: 2017, 67(9);3525-3531 PubMed 28867001

Mohammad Ahmadi Jebelli, Afshin Maleki, Mohammad Ali Amoozegar, Enayatollah Kalantar, Behzad Shahmoradi, Fardin Gharibi Isolation and identification of indigenous prokaryotic bacteria from arsenic-contaminated water resources and their impact on arsenic transformation. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.: 2017, 140;170-176 PubMed 28259061

Jingxin Li, Birong Yang, Manman Shi, Kai Yuan, Wei Guo, Mingshun Li, Gejiao Wang Effects upon metabolic pathways and energy production by Sb(III) and As(III)/Sb(III)-oxidase gene aioA in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4. PLoS ONE: 2017, 12(2);e0172823 PubMed 28241045

Neisseria Gonorrhea

Neisseria-gonorrhoeae.jpg
Neisseria Gonorrhea, arrowed within a cell (diplococci) and extracellular (pleomorphic) (Image CDC)
The gram-negative bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes the disease Gonorrhea which is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Maternal infection increases the risk of premature birth and ophthalmia neonatorum (infantile purulent conjunctivitis).

A recent paper has described in the rat mother to the fetus during pregnancy, suggesting this as a model for human transmission.[5]


Links: Abnormal Development - Gonorrhea

Listeria Monocytogenes

Listeria monocytogenes bacteria (Image CDC)

The bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is the pathogenic form of the 7 listeria species. Infection is generally through ingestion of organisms in contaminated food. Maternal symptoms may be mild, fetal effects can range from insignificant through to major abnormalities. Maternal treatment relates to potential developmental effects. Pregnancy greatly increases the risk of listeriosis, with pregnant women about 60% of all cases (male and female) aged 10 to 40 years. Similar effects are seem in other mammalian species.[6] See also the listeriosis review article[7] and the Guinea pig placenta listeria model[8] Generalized suppression of immunity during pregnancy is suggest to have a role in susceptibility, though recent results in a mouse model suggest that susceptibility can occur very early in a pregnancy and may relate to enteric carriage rate.[9]

Infection

  1. ingestion of contaminated food
  2. colonization of the intestine
  3. intestinal translocation
  4. replication in the liver and spleen
  5. either the resolution of infection or spread to other organs resulting in a systemic infection


Links: Abnormal Development - Listeria | Medical Microbiology - Listeria

Lyme Disease

Borrelia burgdorferi, spirochete (or "corkscrew-shaped" bacteria) (Image CDC)

The bacterium spirochete Borrelia Burgdorferi causes Lyme disease. Infection can be through the blood by tick bite.

Links: CDC (USA) - Lyme Disease

Mycoplasma

Mycoplasma in respiratory epithelium (M, mycoplasma; m, microvillus; C, cilia, EM Image CDC)

Mycoplasmas come in many different varieties, occur as part of the normal human flora, and lack a bacterial cell wall. Infection is generally through the female genital tract.

Links: NCBI Bookshelf Medical Microbiology - Mycoplasma | CDC Mycoplasmas: Sophisticated, Reemerging, and Burdened by Their Notoriety

Syphilis

Treponema-pallidum.jpg
Treponema pallidum (scanning EM, Image CDC)
The bacterium Treponema pallidum causes syphilis which is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Infection can lead to congenital infection with abortion, prematurity, neonatal death or multiple system abnormalities.


Links: Abnormal Development - Syphilis | CDC (USA) Fact Sheet - STD and Pregnancy

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Mycobacterium-tuberculosis.jpgMycobacterium Tuberculosis (scanning EM, Image CDC)
Robert Koch (1843 - 1910) Discoverer of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the organism that causes tuberculosis and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1905.

The gram-positive bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes the disease Tuberculosis (TB) usually initially infecting the lungs. The infection can cross the placenta to infect the fetus infecting many different systems (liver, bones, kidneys, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, skin, lymph nodes).

More than two billion people, one third of the world's total population, are infected with TB bacilli, an airborne infectious disease that is preventable and curable.

The Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine was first used in 1921 as a vaccine for tuberculosis disease and also used in some countries to prevent childhood tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease.

   
Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB2) is a highly drug-resistant strain subset of MDR-TB ([#MDR-Tuberculosis multidrug-resistant TB]) that have significantly worse outcomes, has now been reported in more than 50 countries. (WHO data)

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is defined as resistance to the two most powerful first-line anti-TB drugs (isoniazid and rifampicin).

Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB2) is defined as MDR-TB plus resistance to the most powerful second-line anti-TB drugs (any fluoroquinolone and any of the three injectable drugs: amikacin, capreomycin and kanamycin).

 

WHO Report 2007 - Global tuberculosis new cases 2007.jpg

Australian Recommendations

BCG vaccination is not recommended for general use in the Australian population.

BCG is recommended for:

  1. Aboriginal neonates in areas of high incidence of TB (e.g. Northern Territory, Far North Queensland, northern areas of Western Australia and South Australia)
  2. neonates and children 5 years and under who will be travelling or living in countries or areas with a high prevalence of TB for extended periods
  3. neonates born to parents with leprosy or a family history of leprosy

In addition to these recommendations BCG may be considered in the following:

  1. Children over 5 years who will be travelling or living in countries or areas with a high prevalence of TB for extended periods
  2. Health care workers (HCWs) who may be at high risk of exposure to drug resistant cases.

(Text Source: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 30 Number 1, March 2006 - The BCG vaccine: information and recommendations for use in Australia)


Links: Abnormal Development - Tuberculosis

Melioidosis

(Greek, melis = distemper of asses, oeidēs, resemblance, and osis, a suffix indicating an abnormal condition or disease. The bacteria Burkholderia pseudomallei is normally found in soil surface layers and in muddy surface waters.

  • 1912 - Alfred Whitmore, a British pathologist serving in Burma, and his assistant C. S. Krishnaswami first described melioidosis. The infection became known as Whitmore’s disease.
  • 1925 - Ambrose T. Stanton and William Fletcher identified Burkholderia pseudomallei as the infection’s causative agent, renamed the infection melioidosis because of its clinical resemblance to glanders. Glanders is an infectious disease that is caused by another bacterium Burkholderia mallei.


Links: Queensland Health | CDC - Etymologia: Melioidosis

Bacterial Meningitis

Neisseria meningitidis (arrowed, Image CDC)

The bacterium Neisseria meningitidis or Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) can cause the disease bacterial meningitis.

Hib immunization for infants and children are generally recommended.

Recently a universal vaccine for serogroup B meningococcus has been developed (See meningococcal vaccine 2001[10])


Haemophilus influenzae (bright green immunofluorescence, Image CDC)


Links: CDC (USA) - Meningococcal Disease | Medline Plus - Meningitis |

Pertussis

The bacterium Bordetella pertussis can cause the disease Pertussis (Whooping Cough) can lead to infant mortality.

May 2005 - First Combination Vaccine Approved to Help Protect Adolescents Against Whooping Cough USA Food and Drug Administration has approved booster immunization against pertussis (whooping cough) in combination with tetanus and diphtheria for adolescents. Pertussis is a highly contagious bacterial disease. (FDA 03 May 2005)

Links: CDC (USA) - Pertussis | Medline Plus - Pertussis | Pertussis Vaccination: Use of Acellular Pertussis Vaccines Among Infants and Young Children Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) |

Salmonella

Salmonellosis is the infection caused bacterial genus Salmonella, these are mainly associated with foodborne transmission from contaminated animal–derived meat and dairy products. Though infection can also occur after handling pets, particularly reptiles like snakes, turtles and lizards.


Links: MedlinePlus - Salmonella | CDC - Salmonellosis

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus (scanning EM, Image CDC)

Staphylococcus aureus a gram-positive bacterium commonly present (25% of healthy people and animals) on the skin and nasal surfaces, no vaccines are available. Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB), commonly known as ‘golden staph’ and has risk factors including injectable drug use, haemodialysis, indwelling vascular catheters and immunosuppression.[11] Strains of this bacteria can produce toxins related to food poisoning and be resistant to various antibiotics.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria are resistant to various antibiotics including Methicillin, there are other strains which are resistant to specific antibiotics (vancomycin).

About 2% of Staphylococcus aureus produce a toxin Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) which can be fatal in neonates.


Links: CDC (USA) - Staphylococcus | CDC (USA) - emerging infectious diseases | Medline Plus - Staph aureus food poisoning | Medical Microbiology - Staphylococcus


Cholera

Cholera is an infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The cholera bacterium is usually found in water or food contaminated by faeces and the incubation period ranges from less than one day to five days. The bacteria produces an enterotoxin that causes a watery diarrhoea, leading to severe dehydration and death if treatment is not promptly given. Vomiting also occurs in most patients. Outbreaks are generally associated with poor sanitation and water supply. Recent outbreaks have been identified in Haiti and Mexico.


Links: Medline Plus | Medical Microbiology - Cholera | WHO - Cholera

Chlamydia

Chlamydia trachomatis

Chlamydia trachomatis developmental cycle[12]

A genus of bacteria commonly as a sexually transmitted disease. Chlamydia trachomatis is a a gram-negative bacterium associated with uterine tube damage and infections are a risk factor for ectopic implantation. An infected mother can during childbirth also pass chlamydia to the neonate.

Female genital tract chlamydia trachomatis infection 01.jpg

Female genital tract chlamydia trachomatis infection[12]

Chlamydophila abortus

Chlamydia life cycle cartoon.jpg Originally called Chlamydia psittaci A Chlamydiae species (C. abortus) gram-negative bacteria associated with genital tract infections that causes abortion (chlamydiosis in pregnancy) and fetal death in mammals, including humans, and a major cause of fetal loss in sheep (ovine enzootic abortion) and cattle.

Chlamydia life cycle

Infection begins with the attachment of the elementary bodies (EB) to the surface of target epithelial cells. These cells promote a pseudopod formation to engulf the EB. Inside the cytoplasm this bacterium inhibits the fusion of the vesicle with the cell lysosomes. The nascent inclusion is accompanied by the transition from EBs to reticulate bodies (RB). Late in the cycle, RBs replicate by binary fission to generate both RBs and intermediate bodies (IB). At this stage, antigenic proteins are exposed into the cell surface. An elongated, aberrant RB could be formed at this time with an arrest on chlamydia cycle originating a persistent infection, or continuing the cycle. The various intracytoplasmic inclusions with bacterium inside, can also be fused in this phase, and the agent develop into intermediate bodies (IB), before DNA condensation and RB transformation into a newly EB. The mature inclusion increases in size with EB formation, until becoming infectious and released into the extracellular space to continue a new intracellular cycle.

N – nucleus; G – Golgi apparatus: EB – elementary bodies; RB – reticulate bodies; IB – intermediate bodies. (modified text from figure legend)

Links: Ectopic Implantation

Bacterial Vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis (gram-stained vaginal smear)[13]
Lactobacillus, gram-positive rods among squamous epithelial cells and neutrophils in vaginal smear (Image CDC)
  • Bacterial vaginosis imbalance of the normal vaginal flora (more anaerobic bacteria and less normal gram-positive bacteria Lactobacillus sp).
  • Maternal infection is associated with a variety of pregnancy abnormalities including preterm birth and poor perinatal outcome.[14]


Smear Image Links: L. crispatus | L. crispatus | non-L. crispatus with thin lactobacilli | non-L. crispatus with thin lactobacilli | mixture non-L. crispatus with L. crispatus | mixture non-L. crispatus with L. crispatus | irregular-shaped Gram positive rod | irregular-shaped Gram positive rod | mixture Lactobacillus and bacterial vaginosis-associated | mixture Lactobacillus and bacterial vaginosis-associated | bacterial vaginosis | bacterial vaginosis
Links: Menstrual Cycle - Histology | Histology - Gram Stain | Bacterial Vaginosis | CDC (USA) Fact Sheet - Bacterial Vaginosis

Gram Stain

Bacterial staining procedure named after Hans Christian Gram (1853 - 1938). Generally divides bacteria into either:

  • Gram-positive bacteria - purple crystal violet stain is trapped by layer of peptidoglycan (forms outer layer of the cell).
  • Gram-negative bacteria - outer membrane prevents stain from reaching peptidoglycan layer in the periplasm, outer membrane then permeabilized and pink safranin counterstain is trapped by peptidoglycan layer.


Links: Histology Stains | Medical Microbiology - Gram stain procedure

Australian NHMRC Recommendations

The Australian NHMRC (1988) recommends neonates be assessed for follow-up care under the following conditions.

(see the NHMRC WWW Page)
  • Birthweight less than 1500g or gestational age less than 32 weeks
  • Small-for-gestational-age neonates
  • Perinatal asphyxia
  • Apgar score less than 3 at 5 minutes
  • clinical evidence of neurological dysfunction
  • delay in onset of spontaneous respiration for more than 5 minutes and requiring mechanical ventilation
  • Clinical evidence of central nervous system abnormalities ie., seizures, hypotonia
  • Hyperbilirubinaemia of greater than 350umol/l in full term neonates
  • Genetic, dysmorphic or metabolic disorders or a family history of serious genetic disorder
  • Perinatal or serious neonatal infection including children of mothers who are HIV positive
  • Psychosocial problems eg., infants of drug-addicted or alcoholic mothers.

References

  1. N Jana, S Barik, N Arora Tuberculosis in pregnancy--a major maternal and perinatal challenge. BJOG: 2011, 118(9);1145-6; author reply 1146 PubMed 21749618
  2. M Knight, J J Kurinczuk, C Nelson-Piercy, P Spark, P Brocklehurst, UKOSS Tuberculosis in pregnancy in the UK. BJOG: 2009, 116(4);584-8 PubMed 19250368 | Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Canada 2007;29:35-44)." (text from BMJ 2007;334(7587):224
  3. Marzia M Giuliani, Jeannette Adu-Bobie, Maurizio Comanducci, Beatrice Aricò, Silvana Savino, Laura Santini, Brunella Brunelli, Stefania Bambini, Alessia Biolchi, Barbara Capecchi, Elena Cartocci, Laura Ciucchi, Federica Di Marcello, Francesca Ferlicca, Barbara Galli, Enrico Luzzi, Vega Masignani, Davide Serruto, Daniele Veggi, Mario Contorni, Maurizio Morandi, Alessandro Bartalesi, Vanda Cinotti, Donatella Mannucci, Francesca Titta, Elisa Ovidi, Jo Anne Welsch, Dan Granoff, Rino Rappuoli, Mariagrazia Pizza A universal vaccine for serogroup B meningococcus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2006, 103(29);10834-9 PubMed 16825336
  4. David F Colombo, Jennifer L Lew, Craig A Pedersen, Jeffrey R Johnson, Patty Fan-Havard Optimal timing of ampicillin administration to pregnant women for establishing bactericidal levels in the prophylaxis of Group B Streptococcus. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.: 2006, 194(2);466-70 PubMed 16458647
  5. S Nowicki, R Selvarangan, G Anderson Experimental transmission of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from pregnant rat to fetus. Infect. Immun.: 1999, 67(9);4974-6 PubMed 10456962
  6. M Mitsu Suyemoto, Patricia A Spears, Terri S Hamrick, Jill A Barnes, Edward A Havell, Paul E Orndorff Factors associated with the acquisition and severity of gestational listeriosis. PLoS ONE: 2010, 5(9);e13000 PubMed 20885996
  7. Mehmet Doganay Listeriosis: clinical presentation. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol.: 2003, 35(3);173-5 PubMed 12648833 | PLoS One
  8. Anna I Bakardjiev, Brian A Stacy, Daniel A Portnoy Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in the guinea pig placenta and role of cell-to-cell spread in fetal infection. J. Infect. Dis.: 2005, 191(11);1889-97 PubMed 15871123
  9. M Mitsu Suyemoto, Patricia A Spears, Terri S Hamrick, Jill A Barnes, Edward A Havell, Paul E Orndorff Factors associated with the acquisition and severity of gestational listeriosis. PLoS ONE: 2010, 5(9);e13000 PubMed 20885996
  10. S L Morley, M J Cole, C A Ison, M A Camaraza, F Sotolongo, N Anwar, I Cuevas, M Carbonero, H C Campa, G Sierra, M Levin Immunogenicity of a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine against multiple Neisseria meningitidis strains in infants. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.: 2001, 20(11);1054-61 PubMed 11734711
  11. D H Mitchell, B P Howden Diagnosis and management of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. Intern Med J: 2005, 35 Suppl 2;S17-24 PubMed 16271058
  12. 12.0 12.1 Robert C Brunham, José Rey-Ladino Immunology of Chlamydia infection: implications for a Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine. Nat. Rev. Immunol.: 2005, 5(2);149-61 PubMed 15688042 | Nat Rev Immunol.
  13. Rita Verhelst, Hans Verstraelen, Geert Claeys, Gerda Verschraegen, Leen Van Simaey, Catharine De Ganck, Ellen De Backer, Marleen Temmerman, Mario Vaneechoutte Comparison between Gram stain and culture for the characterization of vaginal microflora: definition of a distinct grade that resembles grade I microflora and revised categorization of grade I microflora. BMC Microbiol.: 2005, 5;61 PubMed 16225680 | PMC1266370 | BMC Microbiol.
  14. Brunella Guerra, Tullio Ghi, Simona Quarta, Antonio Maria Morselli-Labate, Tiziana Lazzarotto, Gianluigi Pilu, Nicola Rizzo Pregnancy outcome after early detection of bacterial vaginosis. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.: 2005, 128(1-2);40-5 PubMed 16460868

Reviews

M Gantert, J V Been, A W D Gavilanes, Y Garnier, L J I Zimmermann, B W Kramer Chorioamnionitis: a multiorgan disease of the fetus? J Perinatol: 2010, 30 Suppl;S21-30 PubMed 20877404

Gilbert G G Donders Management of genital infections in pregnant women. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.: 2006, 19(1);55-61 PubMed 16374219

Kim A Boggess Pathophysiology of preterm birth: emerging concepts of maternal infection. Clin Perinatol: 2005, 32(3);561-9 PubMed 16085020

Emmet Hirsch, Hao Wang The molecular pathophysiology of bacterially induced preterm labor: insights from the murine model. J. Soc. Gynecol. Investig.: 2005, 12(3);145-55 PubMed 15784499

Chris J Cretekos, Scott D Weatherbee, Chih-Hsin Chen, Nilima K Badwaik, Lee Niswander, Richard R Behringer, John J Rasweiler Embryonic staging system for the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata, a model organism for the mammalian order Chiroptera, based upon timed pregnancies in captive-bred animals. Dev. Dyn.: 2005, 233(3);721-38 PubMed 15861401

Mehmet Doganay Listeriosis: clinical presentation. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol.: 2003, 35(3);173-5 PubMed 12648833

R L Goldenberg, J C Hauth, W W Andrews Intrauterine infection and preterm delivery. N. Engl. J. Med.: 2000, 342(20);1500-7 PubMed 10816189

S M Ross Sexually transmitted diseases in pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynaecol: 1982, 9(3);565-92 PubMed 6293753


Articles

Brunella Guerra, Tullio Ghi, Simona Quarta, Antonio Maria Morselli-Labate, Tiziana Lazzarotto, Gianluigi Pilu, Nicola Rizzo Pregnancy outcome after early detection of bacterial vaginosis. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.: 2005, 128(1-2);40-5 PubMed 16460868

Marzia M Giuliani, Jeannette Adu-Bobie, Maurizio Comanducci, Beatrice Aricò, Silvana Savino, Laura Santini, Brunella Brunelli, Stefania Bambini, Alessia Biolchi, Barbara Capecchi, Elena Cartocci, Laura Ciucchi, Federica Di Marcello, Francesca Ferlicca, Barbara Galli, Enrico Luzzi, Vega Masignani, Davide Serruto, Daniele Veggi, Mario Contorni, Maurizio Morandi, Alessandro Bartalesi, Vanda Cinotti, Donatella Mannucci, Francesca Titta, Elisa Ovidi, Jo Anne Welsch, Dan Granoff, Rino Rappuoli, Mariagrazia Pizza A universal vaccine for serogroup B meningococcus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2006, 103(29);10834-9 PubMed 16825336

David F Colombo, Jennifer L Lew, Craig A Pedersen, Jeffrey R Johnson, Patty Fan-Havard Optimal timing of ampicillin administration to pregnant women for establishing bactericidal levels in the prophylaxis of Group B Streptococcus. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.: 2006, 194(2);466-70 PubMed 16458647

Anna I Bakardjiev, Brian A Stacy, Daniel A Portnoy Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in the guinea pig placenta and role of cell-to-cell spread in fetal infection. J. Infect. Dis.: 2005, 191(11);1889-97 PubMed 15871123

F Goffinet, F Maillard, N Mihoubi, G Kayem, E Papiernik, D Cabrol, G Paul Bacterial vaginosis: prevalence and predictive value for premature delivery and neonatal infection in women with preterm labour and intact membranes. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.: 2003, 108(2);146-51 PubMed 12781402

S L Morley, M J Cole, C A Ison, M A Camaraza, F Sotolongo, N Anwar, I Cuevas, M Carbonero, H C Campa, G Sierra, M Levin Immunogenicity of a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine against multiple Neisseria meningitidis strains in infants. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.: 2001, 20(11);1054-61 PubMed 11734711

S Nowicki, R Selvarangan, G Anderson Experimental transmission of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from pregnant rat to fetus. Infect. Immun.: 1999, 67(9);4974-6 PubMed 10456962


Pubmed

Bookshelf

  • Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Edited by VBD Skerman, Vicki McGowan, and PHA Sneath. Washington (DC): ASM Press; 1989. ISBN-13: 978-1-55581-014-6 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK814 PMID 20806452


  • Search Jan2006 "bacterial infection" 547,445 reference articles of which 45,020 were reviews.

Search PubMed: embryonic bacterial infection | prenatal bacterial infection | maternal bacterial infection | Chorioamnionitis

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Abnormal Development - Bacterial Infection. Retrieved October 23, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Bacterial_Infection

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