Difference between revisions of "Abnormal Development - Air Pollution"

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==Some Recent Findings==
 
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* '''The association between maternal exposure to ambient particulate matter of 2.5 μm or less during pregnancy and fetal congenital anomalies in Yinchuan, China: A population-based cohort study'''{{#pmid:30455103|PMID30455103}} "Few studies from western countries have linked prenatal exposure to ambient particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) with increased risk of congenital anomalies. However, the results are mixed. Particularly, evidence is limited for Chinese pregnant women. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we matched the data of all pregnant women laboured in public hospitals during 2015-2016 in Yinchuan, a capital city of northwest China and the data of daily average PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) concentrations of the nearest monitor station. We calculated a time-dependent exposure over the entire pregnancy for each woman. We used a time varying Cox proportional hazards model to explore the association between PM2.5 exposure and the risk of congenital anomalies, after adjusting for individual confounders and other pollutants. RESULTS: A total of 39,386 singleton live births were included in the study, and 530 (1.35%) were with congenital anomalies. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 exposure over the entire pregnancy was significantly associated with increased risk of congenital anomalies, with hazard ratio (HR) of 1.35 [95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.16, 1.58]. For subtype analyses, PM2.5 exposure exhibited a significant association with cardiac anomalies and other unclassifiable anomalies, with HRs of 1.60 (95%CI: 1.24, 2.08) and 1.42 (95%CI: 1.07, 1.89), respectively. The impacts of PM2.5 exposure on orofacial anomalies and musculoskeletal anomalies were not significant. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate high concentration of PM2.5 could increase the risk of congenital anomalies among Chinese, especially for cardiac anomalies. Self-protective measures involving reducing PM2.5 pollution exposure during pregnancy as well as environmental policies aiming to restrict PM2.5 emission could be helpful to reduce the burden of cognitional anomalies."
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Revision as of 16:39, 22 January 2019

Embryology - 20 Nov 2019    Facebook link Pinterest link Twitter link  Expand to Translate  
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Introduction

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Air pollution has recently been identified through statistical studies to be involved with abnormal development (See also smoking). With industrialisation and vehicle produced air pollution, it can consist of particulate matter, heavy metals and a range of chemicals.


In addition to their direct toxic effects, the potential reduction in fetal growth and long-term effects should also be considered. Much of the basic research relies on studies in various animal models of development and we should also consider the ongoing development of new industrial products in the environment with unknown or untested effects upon development.


Environmental Links: Introduction | low folic acid | iodine deficiency | Nutrition | Drugs | Australian Drug Categories | USA Drug Categories | thalidomide | herbal drugs | Illegal Drugs | smoking | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | TORCH | viral infection | bacterial infection | fungal infection | zoonotic infection | toxoplasmosis | Malaria | maternal diabetes | maternal hypertension | maternal hyperthermia | Maternal Inflammation | Maternal Obesity | hypoxia | biological toxins | chemicals | heavy metals | air pollution | radiation | Prenatal Diagnosis | Neonatal Diagnosis | International Classification of Diseases | Fetal Origins Hypothesis

Some Recent Findings

Yinchuan, China
Yinchuan, Ningxia, China
  • The association between maternal exposure to ambient particulate matter of 2.5 μm or less during pregnancy and fetal congenital anomalies in Yinchuan, China: A population-based cohort study[1] "Few studies from western countries have linked prenatal exposure to ambient particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) with increased risk of congenital anomalies. However, the results are mixed. Particularly, evidence is limited for Chinese pregnant women. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we matched the data of all pregnant women laboured in public hospitals during 2015-2016 in Yinchuan, a capital city of northwest China and the data of daily average PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) concentrations of the nearest monitor station. We calculated a time-dependent exposure over the entire pregnancy for each woman. We used a time varying Cox proportional hazards model to explore the association between PM2.5 exposure and the risk of congenital anomalies, after adjusting for individual confounders and other pollutants. RESULTS: A total of 39,386 singleton live births were included in the study, and 530 (1.35%) were with congenital anomalies. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 exposure over the entire pregnancy was significantly associated with increased risk of congenital anomalies, with hazard ratio (HR) of 1.35 [95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.16, 1.58]. For subtype analyses, PM2.5 exposure exhibited a significant association with cardiac anomalies and other unclassifiable anomalies, with HRs of 1.60 (95%CI: 1.24, 2.08) and 1.42 (95%CI: 1.07, 1.89), respectively. The impacts of PM2.5 exposure on orofacial anomalies and musculoskeletal anomalies were not significant. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate high concentration of PM2.5 could increase the risk of congenital anomalies among Chinese, especially for cardiac anomalies. Self-protective measures involving reducing PM2.5 pollution exposure during pregnancy as well as environmental policies aiming to restrict PM2.5 emission could be helpful to reduce the burden of cognitional anomalies."
More recent papers  
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Search term: Air Pollution Teratology

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These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.

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References

  1. Liu C, Li Q, Yan L, Wang H, Yu J, Tang J, Yao H, Li S, Zhang Y & Guo Y. (2019). The association between maternal exposure to ambient particulate matter of 2.5 μm or less during pregnancy and fetal congenital anomalies in Yinchuan, China: A population-based cohort study. Environ Int , 122, 316-321. PMID: 30455103 DOI.

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, November 20) Embryology Abnormal Development - Air Pollution. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Air_Pollution

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G