Abnormal Development - Air Pollution
|Embryology - 19 Feb 2019 Expand to Translate|
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Air pollution has recently been identified through statistical studies to be involved with abnormal development (See also smoking). With industrialisation and vehicle produced air pollution, it can consist of particulate matter, heavy metals and a range of chemicals.
Vehicle traffic air pollution can consist of several different components including: (elemental carbon, nitrogen dioxide, and ultrafine particle matter (10-700 nm).
In addition to their direct toxic effects, the potential reduction in fetal growth and long-term effects should also be considered. Much of the basic research relies on studies in various animal models of development and we should also consider the ongoing development of new industrial products in the environment with unknown or untested effects upon development.
Some Recent Findings
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Fine ambient particulate matter consists of small particles of 2.5 μm or less in size. While ultrafine particle matter occurs in the range of 10-700 nm.
- Liu C, Li Q, Yan L, Wang H, Yu J, Tang J, Yao H, Li S, Zhang Y & Guo Y. (2019). The association between maternal exposure to ambient particulate matter of 2.5 μm or less during pregnancy and fetal congenital anomalies in Yinchuan, China: A population-based cohort study. Environ Int , 122, 316-321. PMID: 30455103 DOI.
- Guxens M, Lubczyńska MJ, Muetzel RL, Dalmau-Bueno A, Jaddoe VWV, Hoek G, van der Lugt A, Verhulst FC, White T, Brunekreef B, Tiemeier H & El Marroun H. (2018). Air Pollution Exposure During Fetal Life, Brain Morphology, and Cognitive Function in School-Age Children. Biol. Psychiatry , 84, 295-303. PMID: 29530279 DOI.
- Sunyer J, Esnaola M, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Forns J, Rivas I, López-Vicente M, Suades-González E, Foraster M, Garcia-Esteban R, Basagaña X, Viana M, Cirach M, Moreno T, Alastuey A, Sebastian-Galles N, Nieuwenhuijsen M & Querol X. (2015). Association between traffic-related air pollution in schools and cognitive development in primary school children: a prospective cohort study. PLoS Med. , 12, e1001792. PMID: 25734425 DOI.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, February 19) Embryology Abnormal Development - Air Pollution. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Air_Pollution
- © Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G