|Embryology - 18 Jan 2019 Expand to Translate|
|Google Translate - select your language from the list shown below (this will open a new external page)|
العربية | català | 中文 | 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | اردو | ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. (More? About Translations)
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Embryonic Stem Cell
- 4 Cord Blood Stem Cell
- 5 Spermatogonial Stem Cell (SSC)
- 6 Adult Stem Cell
- 7 Inducible Stem Cells
- 8 Nuclear Transfer
- 9 Stem Cell Regulation
- 10 Stem Cell Markers
- 11 Opinion on Stem Cell Use
- 12 Stem Cell Fake Result
- 13 Cancer
- 14 References
- 15 Australia
- 16 USA
- 17 External Links
- 18 Glossary Links
The term "stem cell" is used so freely these days in many different forums that it is difficult sometimes understand without context what scientists, politicians, ethicists and commentators are discussing. In terms of human development, the embryonic stem cell with totipotential occurs at the blastocyst stage, mainly in the first and second week of development. After this period the inner cell mass, which forms the entire embryo, will differentiate into embryonic germ layers with restricted differentiation potential.
Stem cells as well as having the capacity to differentiate into any (totipotential) or multiple (pluripotential) cell types, have the unique capacity of self-renewal.
In vitro fertilization and growth of the blastocyst, allows isolation of these cells and their subsequent use in stem cell research. It is the collection, production and possible therapeutic applications of these stem cells which has recently attracted worldwide attention.
A key step in the development of stem cell research has been the identification of cell surface markers (proteins) which identify these cells and their state of undifferentiation.
A useful guide (online PDF document) to stem cells was produced in a report by the National Institute of Health (NIH, USA, April 2009) Stem Cells: A Primer (PDF 1.89 MB) and more recently NIH has established a Stem Cell information page.
- Stem Cells: NIH 2009 Primer | File:NIH Regenerative Medicine 2006.pdf | 2001 Primer | NIH Stem Cell Basics | 2009 NIH Report | Regenerative Medicine 2006 | 2001 NIH Report
|Stem Cell Links: Introduction | Timeline | Placental Cord Blood | Adult | Induced | Yamanaka Factors | Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer | Ethics | Category:Stem Cell|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.
<pubmed limit=5>Stem Cells</pubmed>
Embryonic Stem Cell
Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Recently the human GA 14 to 16 weeks fetal heart have been used as a source of mesenchymal stem cells that appear similar to human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (expressing CD73, CD90, CD105 and lacking expression of CD31, CD34, CD45, HLA-DR).
Human blastocyst derived stem cells
(A–D) - stepwise procedure of embryo biopsy using inverted microscope-attached micro manipulator.
(E–L) - appearance of initial outgrowth and hESC colony during the derivation procedure.
Cord Blood Stem Cell
Placental cord blood is a rich souce of haematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. Cord blood can collected at birth, with no impact on the mother or neonate, and stured in cord blood banks for later use. BBC (UK) A brief article on Cord Blood stem cells and their therapeutic potential.
Spermatogonial Stem Cell (SSC)
In the male testes are a population of spermatogonia cells that differentiate and meiotically divide to form spermatozoa cells (male germ cells).
- Production of knockout mice by random or targeted mutagenesis in spermatogonial stem cells.
- Spermatogonial stem cells: questions, models and perspectives.
- [Spermatogonial stem cells: characteristics and experimental possibilities.
- Genetic and epigenetic properties of mouse male germline stem cells during long-term culture.
- Expansion of murine spermatogonial stem cells through serial transplantation.
Adult Stem Cell
[[File:Epidermis-stem cell models.jpg|thumb|Epidermis - stem cell models Adult stem cells, with pluropotentiality, are found in several body systems: intestinal epithelium, epidermis, testis and bone marrow.
- Generation of pluripotent stem cells from adult human testis "Human primordial germ cells and mouse neonatal and adult germline stem cells are pluripotent and show similar properties to embryonic stem cells. Here we report the successful establishment of human adult germline stem cells derived from spermatogonial cells of adult human testis."
- Links: Stem Cells - Adult
Inducible Stem Cells
Inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPS) require a minimum of key defined transcription factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog and Lin28) are required to be introduced into a cell to "induce" that cell to revert to a stem cell phenotype.
- Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors.
- Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells by reprogramming mouse embryonic fibroblasts with a four transcription factor, doxycycline inducible lentiviral transduction system.
- Links: Stem Cells - Induced
This technique involves removing the nucleus from an early stage embryo and replacing with the nucleus from another cell. If the replacement nucleus is from a somatic cell, not a gamete, the technique is also described as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The most famous of which was the sheep "Dolly". More recently nuclei have been sourced from a number of different tissues, including those from long-term frozen animals. See also a review of this technique.
Stem Cell Regulation
Embryonic stem cell signaling regulation (mouse)
Stem Cell Markers
In order to carry out research on stem cells, it is important to be able to identify them. A number of different research groups in the late 90's generated several antibodies which specifically identified undifferentiated, differentiating or differentiated stem cells from a number of different sources and species. Note that the nomenclature in some cases is based upon the antibody used to identify the cell surface marker.
- Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigen-1 (SSEA-1) cell surface embryonic antigen which has a role in cell adhesion, migration and differentiation and is often differentially expressed during development. Can be identified by Davor Solter (monoclonal antibody MC-480) (SSEA-1).
- Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigen-4 (SSEA-4) cell surface embryonic antigen of human teratocarcinoma stem cells (EC), human embryonic germ cells (EG) and human embryonic stem cells (ES) which is down-regulated following differentiation of human EC cells. Antigen not expressed on undifferentiated murine EC, ES and EG cells but upregulated on differentiation of murine EC and ES cells. Can be identified by Davor Solter (monoclonal antibody MC-813-70) (SSEA-4)
- Tumor Rejection Antigen (TRA-1-60) Sialylated Keratan Sulfate Proteoglycan expressed on the surface of human teratocarcinoma stem cells (EC), human embryonic germ cells (EG) and human embryonic stem cells (ES).
- Tumor Rejection Antigen (TRA-1-81) antigen expressed on the surface of human teratocarcinoma stem cells (EC), human embryonic germ cells (EG) and human embryonic stem cells (ES). Both TRA antibodies identify a major polypeptide (Mr 240 kDa) and a minor polypeptide (Mr 415 kDa).
- Oct-4 (Pou5f1) gene has an essential role in control of developmental pluripotency (Oct4 knockout embryo blastocysts die at the time of implantation). Oct4 also has a role in maintaining viability of mammalian germline.
- Stem Cell Antigen 1 (Sca-1) member of the Ly-6 family of GPI-linked surface proteins (Mr 18 kDa) and a major phenotypic marker for mouse hematopoietic progenitor/stem cell subset.
- CD133, AC133, prominin 5 transmembrane glycoprotein (865 aa) expressed on stem cells with hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic differentiation potential.
- Alpha 6 integrin
Data based on information from Appendix E.II. NIH Report "Stem Cells: Scientific Progress and Future Research Directions", Chemicon International- Stem cell marker antibodies OMIM and other sources.
Human Embryonic Stem Cell Markers
A recent paper identified the expression pattern of a new human embryonic stem cell line (hESC).
- alkaline phosphatase
- human telomerase reverse transcriptase
- SSEA-3, SSEA-4
- TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81
- OCT-4, Nanog
- Rex-1, Sox-2, UTF-1, Connexins 43 and 45
- TERF-1 and TERF-2
- Glut-1, BCRP-1/ABCG-2, GDF3, LIN28, FGF4, Thy-1
- Cripto1/TDGF1, AC133
Opinion on Stem Cell Use
Results from a recent Australian survey into couples' views on the use of supernumerary embryos:
- 40% (123/311) returned completed questionnaires.
- 42% most common decision was donation to research (altruistic motives and desire not to waste embryos were determinants of embryo donation).
Determinants of disposal were not wanting a full sibling to existing children and opposition of embryo research.
- 45% found deciding distressing.
- 69% approved of embryo donation to stem-cell research.
Stem Cell Fake Result
Hwang Woo-suk (Korean pioneer of stem cell research) Resigns A Seoul National University investigation of the original data in Science paper Jun (2005;308: 1777-83) "Eleven human embryonic stem cells (hESC) lines were established by nuclear transfer (SCNT; NT) of skin cells from patients with disease or injury into donated oocytes." announced 29 Dec 2005 that he had faked the results.
The journal Science retracted the original paper, the original reference with link to the erratum.
There is a hypothesis that several cancers may arise from somatic stem or progenitor cells that exist in different tissues. These cancer stem cells are called "side population" (SP) cells and have been identified in: leukemia, breast cancer and several human cancer cell lines (central nervous system, gastrointestinal tumors, retinoblastoma). There is still a "chicken and egg" problem to be resolved, in that the cancer cells may have dedifferentiated to a stem cell-like population.
A recent paper has also identified SP cells in ovarian cancer which have properties similar to stem cells.
- Li J, Greco V, Guasch G, Fuchs E & Mombaerts P. (2007). Mice cloned from skin cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 104, 2738-43. PMID: 17299040 DOI.
- Vegas AJ, Veiseh O, Gürtler M, Millman JR, Pagliuca FW, Bader AR, Doloff JC, Li J, Chen M, Olejnik K, Tam HH, Jhunjhunwala S, Langan E, Aresta-Dasilva S, Gandham S, McGarrigle JJ, Bochenek MA, Hollister-Lock J, Oberholzer J, Greiner DL, Weir GC, Melton DA, Langer R & Anderson DG. (2016). Long-term glycemic control using polymer-encapsulated human stem cell-derived beta cells in immune-competent mice. Nat. Med. , 22, 306-11. PMID: 26808346 DOI.
- Yamashiro C, Sasaki K, Yabuta Y, Kojima Y, Nakamura T, Okamoto I, Yokobayashi S, Murase Y, Ishikura Y, Shirane K, Sasaki H, Yamamoto T & Saitou M. (2018). Generation of human oogonia from induced pluripotent stem cells in vitro. Science , , . PMID: 30237246 DOI.
- Dalman A, Totonchi M & Valojerdi MR. (2018). Establishment and characterization of human theca stem cells and their differentiation into theca progenitor cells. J. Cell. Biochem. , , . PMID: 30132968 DOI.
- Corsinotti A, Wong FC, Tatar T, Szczerbinska I, Halbritter F, Colby D, Gogolok S, Pantier R, Liggat K, Mirfazeli ES, Hall-Ponsele E, Mullin NP, Wilson V & Chambers I. (2017). Distinct SoxB1 networks are required for naïve and primed pluripotency. Elife , 6, . PMID: 29256862 DOI.
- Nguyen PD, Hollway GE, Sonntag C, Miles LB, Hall TE, Berger S, Fernandez KJ, Gurevich DB, Cole NJ, Alaei S, Ramialison M, Sutherland RL, Polo JM, Lieschke GJ & Currie PD. (2014). Haematopoietic stem cell induction by somite-derived endothelial cells controlled by meox1. Nature , 512, 314-8. PMID: 25119043 DOI.
- Poh YC, Chen J, Hong Y, Yi H, Zhang S, Chen J, Wu DC, Wang L, Jia Q, Singh R, Yao W, Tan Y, Tajik A, Tanaka TS & Wang N. (2014). Generation of organized germ layers from a single mouse embryonic stem cell. Nat Commun , 5, 4000. PMID: 24873804 DOI.
- Ware CB, Nelson AM, Mecham B, Hesson J, Zhou W, Jonlin EC, Jimenez-Caliani AJ, Deng X, Cavanaugh C, Cook S, Tesar PJ, Okada J, Margaretha L, Sperber H, Choi M, Blau CA, Treuting PM, Hawkins RD, Cirulli V & Ruohola-Baker H. (2014). Derivation of naive human embryonic stem cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 111, 4484-9. PMID: 24623855 DOI.
- Tachibana M, Amato P, Sparman M, Gutierrez NM, Tippner-Hedges R, Ma H, Kang E, Fulati A, Lee HS, Sritanaudomchai H, Masterson K, Larson J, Eaton D, Sadler-Fredd K, Battaglia D, Lee D, Wu D, Jensen J, Patton P, Gokhale S, Stouffer RL, Wolf D & Mitalipov S. (2013). Human embryonic stem cells derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Cell , 153, 1228-38. PMID: 23683578 DOI.
- Nagaoka M, Si-Tayeb K, Akaike T & Duncan SA. (2010). Culture of human pluripotent stem cells using completely defined conditions on a recombinant E-cadherin substratum. BMC Dev. Biol. , 10, 60. PMID: 20525219 DOI.
- Kim K, Doi A, Wen B, Ng K, Zhao R, Cahan P, Kim J, Aryee MJ, Ji H, Ehrlich LI, Yabuuchi A, Takeuchi A, Cunniff KC, Hongguang H, McKinney-Freeman S, Naveiras O, Yoon TJ, Irizarry RA, Jung N, Seita J, Hanna J, Murakami P, Jaenisch R, Weissleder R, Orkin SH, Weissman IL, Feinberg AP & Daley GQ. (2010). Epigenetic memory in induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature , 467, 285-90. PMID: 20644535 DOI.
- Garikipati VNS, Singh SP, Mohanram Y, Gupta AK, Kapoor D & Nityanand S. (2018). Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from human fetus heart. PLoS ONE , 13, e0192244. PMID: 29420637 DOI.
- Giritharan G, Ilic D, Gormley M & Krtolica A. (2011). Human embryonic stem cells derived from embryos at different stages of development share similar transcription profiles. PLoS ONE , 6, e26570. PMID: 22039509 DOI.
- Kanatsu-Shinohara M, Ikawa M, Takehashi M, Ogonuki N, Miki H, Inoue K, Kazuki Y, Lee J, Toyokuni S, Oshimura M, Ogura A & Shinohara T. (2006). Production of knockout mice by random or targeted mutagenesis in spermatogonial stem cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 103, 8018-23. PMID: 16679411 DOI.
- Ehmcke J, Wistuba J & Schlatt S. (2006). Spermatogonial stem cells: questions, models and perspectives. Hum. Reprod. Update , 12, 275-82. PMID: 16446319 DOI.
- Aponte PM, van Bragt MP, de Rooij DG & van Pelt AM. (2005). Spermatogonial stem cells: characteristics and experimental possibilities. APMIS , 113, 727-42. PMID: 16480445 DOI.
- Kanatsu-Shinohara M, Ogonuki N, Iwano T, Lee J, Kazuki Y, Inoue K, Miki H, Takehashi M, Toyokuni S, Shinkai Y, Oshimura M, Ishino F, Ogura A & Shinohara T. (2005). Genetic and epigenetic properties of mouse male germline stem cells during long-term culture. Development , 132, 4155-63. PMID: 16107472 DOI.
- Ogawa T, Ohmura M, Yumura Y, Sawada H & Kubota Y. (2003). Expansion of murine spermatogonial stem cells through serial transplantation. Biol. Reprod. , 68, 316-22. PMID: 12493728
- Fuchs E. (2008). Skin stem cells: rising to the surface. J. Cell Biol. , 180, 273-84. PMID: 18209104 DOI.
- Conrad S, Renninger M, Hennenlotter J, Wiesner T, Just L, Bonin M, Aicher W, Bühring HJ, Mattheus U, Mack A, Wagner HJ, Minger S, Matzkies M, Reppel M, Hescheler J, Sievert KD, Stenzl A & Skutella T. (2008). Generation of pluripotent stem cells from adult human testis. Nature , 456, 344-9. PMID: 18849962 DOI.
- Takahashi K, Tanabe K, Ohnuki M, Narita M, Ichisaka T, Tomoda K & Yamanaka S. (2007). Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors. Cell , 131, 861-72. PMID: 18035408 DOI.
- Hamilton B, Feng Q, Ye M & Welstead GG. (2009). Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells by reprogramming mouse embryonic fibroblasts with a four transcription factor, doxycycline inducible lentiviral transduction system. J Vis Exp , , . PMID: 19915522 DOI.
- Wakayama S, Ohta H, Hikichi T, Mizutani E, Iwaki T, Kanagawa O & Wakayama T. (2008). Production of healthy cloned mice from bodies frozen at -20 degrees C for 16 years. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 105, 17318-22. PMID: 18981419 DOI.
- Thuan NV, Kishigami S & Wakayama T. (2010). How to improve the success rate of mouse cloning technology. J. Reprod. Dev. , 56, 20-30. PMID: 20203432
- Bourillot PY & Savatier P. (2010). Krüppel-like transcription factors and control of pluripotency. BMC Biol. , 8, 125. PMID: 20875146 DOI.
- Khan DR, Dubé D, Gall L, Peynot N, Ruffini S, Laffont L, Le Bourhis D, Degrelle S, Jouneau A & Duranthon V. (2012). Expression of pluripotency master regulators during two key developmental transitions: EGA and early lineage specification in the bovine embryo. PLoS ONE , 7, e34110. PMID: 22479535 DOI.
- Wu R, Xu C, Jin F, Tan Z, Gu B, Chen L, Yao X & Zhang M. (2010). Derivation, characterization and differentiation of a new human embryonic stem cell line from a Chinese hatched blastocyst assisted by a non-contact laser system. Hum. Cell , 23, 89-102. PMID: 20973834 DOI.
- Hammarberg K & Tinney L. (2006). Deciding the fate of supernumerary frozen embryos: a survey of couples' decisions and the factors influencing their choice. Fertil. Steril. , 86, 86-91. PMID: 16716313 DOI.
- Hwang WS, Roh SI, Lee BC, Kang SK, Kwon DK, Kim S, Kim SJ, Park SW, Kwon HS, Lee CK, Lee JB, Kim JM, Ahn C, Paek SH, Chang SS, Koo JJ, Yoon HS, Hwang JH, Hwang YY, Park YS, Oh SK, Kim HS, Park JH, Moon SY & Schatten G. (2005). Patient-specific embryonic stem cells derived from human SCNT blastocysts. Science , 308, 1777-83. PMID: 15905366 DOI.
- Moore KA & Lemischka IR. (2006). Stem cells and their niches. Science , 311, 1880-5. PMID: 16574858 DOI.
- Cell Stem Cell is the official affiliated journal of the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR).
- Stem Cells welcomes original articles and concise reviews describing basic laboratory investigations of stem cells and the translation of their clinical aspects of characterization and manipulation from the bench to patient care. The journal covers all aspects of stem cells: embryonic stem cells; tissue-specific stem cells; cancer stem cells; the stem cell niche; stem cell genomics and proteomics; and translational and clinical researc
Mathews DJ, Donovan PJ, Harris J, Lovell-Badge R, Savulescu J & Faden R. (2009). Pluripotent stem cell-derived gametes: truth and (potential) consequences. Cell Stem Cell , 5, 11-4. PMID: 19570509 DOI.
Pekkanen-Mattila M, Pelto-Huikko M, Kujala V, Suuronen R, Skottman H, Aalto-Setälä K & Kerkelä E. (2010). Spatial and temporal expression pattern of germ layer markers during human embryonic stem cell differentiation in embryoid bodies. Histochem. Cell Biol. , 133, 595-606. PMID: 20369364 DOI.
Hiroyama T, Miharada K, Aoki N, Fujioka T, Sudo K, Danjo I, Nagasawa T & Nakamura Y. (2006). Long-lasting in vitro hematopoiesis derived from primate embryonic stem cells. Exp. Hematol. , 34, 760-9. PMID: 16728281 DOI.
Yamazoe H, Kobori M, Murakami Y, Yano K, Satoh M, Mizuseki K, Sasai Y & Iwata H. (2006). One-step induction of neurons from mouse embryonic stem cells in serum-free media containing vitamin B12 and heparin. Cell Transplant , 15, 135-45. PMID: 16719047
Hammarberg K & Tinney L. (2006). Deciding the fate of supernumerary frozen embryos: a survey of couples' decisions and the factors influencing their choice. Fertil. Steril. , 86, 86-91. PMID: 16716313 DOI.
May 2006 "stem cell" 154,176 reference articles of which 16,449 were reviews.
The Australian Health Ethics Committee was approached by human research ethics committees (HRECs) seeking advice on how to review research protocols that involve stem cell research. The following guidance is interim. Formal guidelines will be developed by AHEC in the context of its review of the 1996 NHMRC Ethical guidelines on assisted reproductive technology.
- Stem Cells: NIH 2009 Primer | File:NIH Regenerative Medicine 2006.pdf | 2001 Primer | NIH Stem Cell Basics | 2009 NIH Report | Regenerative Medicine 2006 | 2001 NIH Report
National Institute of Health (NIH) Stem Cell Information NIH Stem Cell Basics | NIH Stem Cell Information | NIH Stem Cell Reports | Regenerative Medicine 2006 | Stem Cells: Scientific Progress and Future Research Directions (2001) | National Human Genome Research Institute - Cloning/Embryonic Stem Cells
Stem Cell News (2001)
During the earlier Bush administration there was much political controversy about Stem cells in the USA.
- FDA Letter to Senator Edward M. Kennedy Regarding Stem Cells, September 5, 2001
- Secretary Thompson's Oral Testimony before the Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee, September 5, 2001
- National Institutes of Health and WiCell Research Institute, Inc., Sign Stem Cell Research Agreement, September 5, 2001
- National Institutes of Health (NIH) Update on Existing Human Embryonic Stem Cells, August 27, 2001
- Statement by Tommy G. Thompson, Secretary of Health and Human Services, Regarding Stem Cell Lines, August 27, 2001
- Video Broadcast - Briefing by HHS Secretary Tommy G. Thompson on Federal Funding of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, August 10, 2001
- NIH Statement on the President's Stem Cell Address, August 9, 2001
- White House Fact Sheet on Embryonic Stem Cell Research, August 9, 2001
- Statement by HHS Secretary Tommy G. Thompson Regarding the President's Decision on Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, August 9, 2001
- Approval Process for the Documentation of Compliance with the NIH Guidelines on the Use of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in NIH Research Proposed for Support Under Grants and Cooperative Agreements, November 21, 2000
- Approval Process for the Documentation of Compliance with NIH Guidelines on the Use of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in NIH Intramural Research, January 16, 2001
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
- NIH (USA) Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry | [feed://hescregapp.od.nih.gov/hesc.xml RSS]
- StemBook - Table of Contents
- International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) is an independent, nonprofit organization formed in 2002 to foster the exchange of information on stem cell research.
- University of Michigan Stem Cells Explained
- Transcript of discussion on ABC Radio (Dr. J Kahn , Dr. JWagner) on Genetic Technology And Ethics
- A brief article on Cord Blood stem cells and their therapeutic potential from the BBC.
- Monash University (Australia) Monash Immunology and Stem Cell Laboratories (MISCL)
- Europe - ESTOOLS DATA@HAND "resource contains human gene expression array data from 97 GEO and ArrayExpress sample sets, which involve altogether 1674 Affymetrix, Illumina and Agilent arrays. The source of the biological samples is mainly pluripotent stem cells, their differentiated progeny, and their parent cells. All data has been preprocessed so as to enable computational analysis with analysis workflows and tools provided."
- Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link
Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, January 18) Embryology Stem Cells. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Stem_Cells
- © Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G