Neural Crest - Peripheral Nervous System

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Introduction

Human embryo neural crest cells (stage 11)

The neural crest are bilaterally paired strips of cells arising in the ectoderm at the margins of the neural tube. These cells migrate to many different locations and differentiate into many cell types within the embryo. This means that many different systems (neural, skin, teeth, head, face, heart, adrenal glands, gastrointestinal tract) will also have a contribution fron the neural crest cells.


In the body region, neural crest cells also contribute the peripheral nervous system (both neurons and glia) consisting of sensory ganglia (dorsal root ganglia), sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia and neural plexuses within specific tissues/organs.


In the head region, neural crest cells migrate into the pharyngeal arches (as shown in movie below) forming ectomesenchyme contributing tissues which in the body region are typically derived from mesoderm (cartilage, bone, and connective tissue).General neural development is also covered in Neural Notes.


Neural Crest Links: Introduction | Lecture - Early Neural | Lecture - Neural Crest Development | Schwann | Adrenal Gland | Melanocyte | Peripheral Nervous System | Enteric Nervous System | Cornea | Cranial Nerves | Cardiac | Nicole Le Douarin | Neural Crest Movies | Abnormalities | Category:Neural Crest

Some Recent Findings

  • Neuronal differentiation in the developing human spinal ganglia[1] "The spatiotemporal developmental pattern of the neural crest cells differentiation towards the first appearance of the neuronal subtypes was investigated in developing human spinal ganglia between the 5th -10th developmental week using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence methods. First NF200 (neurofilament-200, likely-myelinated mechanoreceptors) and isolectin-B4 positive neurons (likely-unmyelinated nociceptors) appeared already in the 5/6th developmental week and their number subsequently increased during progression of development. Proportion of NF200 positive cells was higher in the ventral parts of the spinal ganglia than in the dorsal parts, particularly during the 5/6th and 9/10th developmental weeks (Mann-Whitney, p=0.040 and p=0.003). NF200 and IB4 co-localized during the whole investigated period. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, nociceptive responses), vanilloid-receptor-1 (VR1, polymodal nociceptors) and calretinin (calcium signalling) cell immunoreactivity first appeared in the 6th and 8th week, respectively, especially in the dorsal parts of the spinal ganglia. VR1 and CGRP co-localized with NF00 during the whole investigated period. Our results indicate the high potential of early differentiated neuronal cells, which slightly decreased with progression of spinal ganglia differentiation. On the contrary, the number of neuronal subtypes displayed increasing differentiation at later developmental stage."
  • The role of the transcription factor Rbpj in the development of dorsal root ganglia[2] "The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is composed of well-characterized populations of sensory neurons and glia derived from a common pool of neural crest stem cells (NCCs), and is a good system to study the mechanisms of neurogenesis and gliogenesis. Notch signaling is known to play important roles in DRG development, but the full scope of Notch functions in mammalian DRG development remains poorly understood."
  • Cranial neural crest migration: new rules for an old road.[3] "In this review, we discuss recent cellular and molecular discoveries of the CNCC migratory pattern. We focus on events from the time when CNCCs encounter the tissue adjacent to the neural tube and their travel through different microenvironments and into the branchial arches. We describe the patterning of discrete cell migratory streams that emerge from the hindbrain, rhombomere (r) segments r1-r7, and the signals that coordinate directed migration."
More recent papers  
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
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Search term: Peripheral Nervous System Development

Nima Ghitani, Arnab Barik, Marcin Szczot, James H Thompson, Chia Li, Claire E Le Pichon, Michael J Krashes, Alexander T Chesler Specialized Mechanosensory Nociceptors Mediating Rapid Responses to Hair Pull. Neuron: 2017, 95(4);944-954.e4 PubMed 28817806

Annabel J Sorby-Adams, Amanda M Marcoionni, Eden R Dempsey, Joshua A Woenig, Renée J Turner The Role of Neurogenic Inflammation in Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption and Development of Cerebral Oedema Following Acute Central Nervous System (CNS) Injury. Int J Mol Sci: 2017, 18(8); PubMed 28817088

Eduardo Bondan, Carolina Cardoso, Maria de Fátima Martins Curcumin decreases astrocytic reaction after gliotoxic injury in the rat brainstem. Arq Neuropsiquiatr: 2017, 75(8);546-552 PubMed 28813085

Konstantin Rosich, Bishoy Hanna, Rami K Ibrahim, Daniel Joseph Hellenbrand, Amgad Hanna The Effects of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor After Spinal Cord Injury. J. Neurotrauma: 2017; PubMed 28795616

Marco Puthenparampil, Alberto Terrin, Lisa Federle, Matteo Gizzi, Paola Perini, Paolo Gallo Acute simultaneous development of brain tumour-like lesion and demyelinating polyneuropathy in a patient with chronic relapsing myelitis. Mult. Scler.: 2017;1352458517714610 PubMed 28795610


Search term: Dorsal Root Ganglia Development

Chang-Ning Liu, Edwin Berryman, David Zakur, Ahmed M Shoieb, Ingrid D Pardo, Magalie Boucher, Chris J Somps, Chedo M Bagi, Jon C Cook A novel endpoint for the assessment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in rodents: biomechanical properties of peripheral nerve. J Appl Toxicol: 2017; PubMed 28815646

Regina Hanstein, David C Spray The role of pannexin 1 in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). J. Clin. Oncol.: 2015, 33(29_suppl);6 PubMed 28148146

Mohamad-Reza Aghanoori, Darrell R Smith, Subir Roy Chowdhury, Mohammad Golam Sabbir, Nigel A Calcutt, Paul Fernyhough Insulin prevents aberrant mitochondrial phenotype in sensory neurons of type 1 diabetic rats. Exp. Neurol.: 2017; PubMed 28803751

Feifei Wang, Qianghua Wang, Chen Li, Panpan Yu, Yibo Qu, Libing Zhou The role of Celsr3 in the development of central somatosensory projections from dorsal root ganglia. Neuroscience: 2017; PubMed 28754314

Estrela Neto, Cecília J Alves, Luís Leitão, Daniela M Sousa, Inês S Alencastre, Francisco Conceição, Meriem Lamghari Axonal outgrowth, neuropeptides expression and receptors tyrosine kinase phosphorylation in 3D organotypic cultures of adult dorsal root ganglia. PLoS ONE: 2017, 12(7);e0181612 PubMed 28742111


Search term: Sympathetic Development

Julia J Müller, Matthias Schwab, Charles R Rosenfeld, Iwa Antonow-Schlorke, Peter W Nathanielsz, Florian Rakers, Harald Schubert, Otto W Witte, Sven Rupprecht Fetal Sheep Mesenteric Resistance Arteries: Functional and Structural Maturation. J. Vasc. Res.: 2017, 54(5);259-271 PubMed 28810262

Lisa Klingelhoefer, Heinz Reichmann The Gut and Nonmotor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease. Int. Rev. Neurobiol.: 2017, 134;787-809 PubMed 28805583

Christopher T Leffler, Stephen G Schwartz, Ricardo D Wainsztein, Adam Pflugrath, Eric Peterson Ophthalmology in North America: Early Stories (1491-1801). Ophthalmol Eye Dis: 2017, 9;1179172117721902 PubMed 28804247

Riccardo Liga, Alessia Gimelli, Paolo Marzullo, Giuseppe Ambrosio, Matteo Cameli, Elisabetta Cerbai, Stefano Coiro, Michele Emdin, Rossella Marcucci, Doralisa Morrone, Alberto Palazzuoli, Anna Sonia Petronio, Ketty Savino, Luigi Padeletti, Roberto Pedrinelli, Società Italiana di Cardiologia, Sezione Regionale Tosco-Umbra Myocardial (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging in hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. J Nucl Cardiol: 2017; PubMed 28798990

Zifeng Xu, Tao Xu, Puwen Zhao, Rui Ma, Mazhong Zhang, Jijian Zheng Differential Roles of the Right and Left Toe Perfusion Index in Predicting the Incidence of Postspinal Hypotension During Cesarean Delivery. Anesth. Analg.: 2017; PubMed 28795968

Neural Crest Migration


Movie Source: Original Neural Crest movies kindly provided by Paul Kulesa.[4]

Related Movies: Migration 01 | Migration 02 | Migration 03 | Migration 04 | Migration 05 | Migration 06 | Migration 07

Development Overview

The following cranial and trunk data is based upon 185 serially sectioned staged (Carnegie) human embryos.[5]

Cranial Neural Crest

  • stage 9 - an indication of mesencephalic neural crest
  • stage 10 - trigeminal, facial, and postotic components
  • stage 11 - crest-free zones are soon observable in rhombomere 1, 3, and 5
  • stage 12 - rhombomeres 6 and 7 neural crest migrate to pharyngeal arch 3 and then rostrad to the truncus arteriosus
  • stage 13 - nasal crest and the terminalis-vomeronasal complex are last of the cranial crest to appear

stages 9-14 - otic vesicle primordium descends

Trunk Neural Crest

Spinal ganglia increase in number over time and are in phase with the somites, though not their centre. There are 3 migratory pathways: ventrolateral between dermatomyotome and sclerotome, ventromedial between neural tube and sclerotomes, and lateral between surface ectoderm and dermatomyotome.

  • stage 13 - about 19 present
  • stage 14 - about 33 present
  • stage 15-23 - 30–35 ganglia

References

  1. Katarina Vukojevic, Natalija Filipovic, Ivana Tica Sedlar, Ivana Restovic, Ivana Bocina, Irena Pintaric, Mirna Saraga-Babic Neuronal differentiation in the developing human spinal ganglia. Anat Rec (Hoboken): 2016; PubMed 27225905
  2. Ze-Lan Hu, Ming Shi, Ying Huang, Min-Hua Zheng, Zhe Pei, Jia-Yin Chen, Hua Han, Yu-Qiang Ding The role of the transcription factor Rbpj in the development of dorsal root ganglia. Neural Dev: 2011, 6;14 PubMed 21510873
  3. Paul M Kulesa, Caleb M Bailey, Jennifer C Kasemeier-Kulesa, Rebecca McLennan Cranial neural crest migration: new rules for an old road. Dev. Biol.: 2010, 344(2);543-54 PubMed 20399765
  4. P M Kulesa, S E Fraser In ovo time-lapse analysis of chick hindbrain neural crest cell migration shows cell interactions during migration to the branchial arches. Development: 2000, 127(6);1161-72 PubMed 10683170
  5. Ronan O'Rahilly, Fabiola Müller The development of the neural crest in the human. J. Anat.: 2007, 211(3);335-51 PubMed 17848161 | PMC2375817 | J Anat.


Reviews

Shlomo Krispin, Erez Nitzan, Chaya Kalcheim The dorsal neural tube: a dynamic setting for cell fate decisions. Dev Neurobiol: 2010, 70(12);796-812 PubMed 20683859

Uwe Ernsberger Role of neurotrophin signalling in the differentiation of neurons from dorsal root ganglia and sympathetic ganglia. Cell Tissue Res.: 2009, 336(3);349-84 PubMed 19387688

Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat Embryology of the neural crest: its inductive role in the neurocutaneous syndromes. J. Child Neurol.: 2005, 20(8);637-43 PubMed 16225807

Hsiao-Huei Chen, Simon Hippenmeyer, Silvia Arber, Eric Frank Development of the monosynaptic stretch reflex circuit. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol.: 2003, 13(1);96-102 PubMed 12593987

A Schober, K Unsicker Growth and neurotrophic factors regulating development and maintenance of sympathetic preganglionic neurons. Int. Rev. Cytol.: 2001, 205;37-76 PubMed 11336393


Articles

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Search Pubmed: Peripheral Neural Development | Dorsal Root Ganglia Development | Sympathetic Neural Development | Parasympathetic Neural Development | Neural Crest Development

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Neural Crest - Peripheral Nervous System. Retrieved August 18, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_Crest_-_Peripheral_Nervous_System

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