Neural Crest - Peripheral Nervous System

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Human embryo neural crest cells (stage 11)

The neural crest are bilaterally paired strips of cells arising in the ectoderm at the margins of the neural tube. These cells migrate to many different locations and differentiate into many cell types within the embryo. This means that many different systems (neural, skin, teeth, head, face, heart, adrenal glands, gastrointestinal tract) will also have a contribution fron the neural crest cells.

In the body region, neural crest cells also contribute the peripheral nervous system (both neurons and glia) consisting of sensory ganglia (dorsal root ganglia), sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia and neural plexuses within specific tissues/organs.

In the head region, neural crest cells migrate into the pharyngeal arches (as shown in movie below) forming ectomesenchyme contributing tissues which in the body region are typically derived from mesoderm (cartilage, bone, and connective tissue).General neural development is also covered in Neural Notes.

Neural Crest Links: Introduction | Lecture - Early Neural | Lecture - Neural Crest Development | Schwann | Adrenal Gland | Melanocyte | Peripheral Nervous System | Enteric Nervous System | Cornea | Nicole Le Douarin | Neural Crest Movies | Abnormalities | Category:Neural Crest

Some Recent Findings

  • The role of the transcription factor Rbpj in the development of dorsal root ganglia[1] "The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is composed of well-characterized populations of sensory neurons and glia derived from a common pool of neural crest stem cells (NCCs), and is a good system to study the mechanisms of neurogenesis and gliogenesis. Notch signaling is known to play important roles in DRG development, but the full scope of Notch functions in mammalian DRG development remains poorly understood."
  • Cranial neural crest migration: new rules for an old road.[2] "In this review, we discuss recent cellular and molecular discoveries of the CNCC migratory pattern. We focus on events from the time when CNCCs encounter the tissue adjacent to the neural tube and their travel through different microenvironments and into the branchial arches. We describe the patterning of discrete cell migratory streams that emerge from the hindbrain, rhombomere (r) segments r1-r7, and the signals that coordinate directed migration."
More recent papers
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
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References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

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Search term: Peripheral Nervous System Development

L Bendtsen, S Ashina, A Moore, T J Steiner Muscles and their role in episodic tension-type headache: implications for treatment. Eur J Pain: 2015; PMID: 26147739 Tiziana Bachetti, Eleonora Di Zanni, Roberto Ravazzolo, Isabella Ceccherini miR-204 mediates post-transcriptional down-regulation of PHOX2B gene expression in neuroblastoma cells. Biochim. Biophys. Acta: 2015; PMID: 26145533 Giulia Stuppia, Federica Rizzo, Giulietta Riboldi, Roberto Del Bo, Monica Nizzardo, Chiara Simone, Giacomo P Comi, Nereo Bresolin, Stefania Corti MFN2-related neuropathies: Clinical features, molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic perspectives. J. Neurol. Sci.: 2015; PMID: 26143526 André A Vieira, Igor R Brandão, Wagner O Valença, Carlos A de Simone, Bruno C Cavalcanti, Claudia Pessoa, Teiliane R Carneiro, Antonio L Braga, Eufrânio N da Silva Hybrid compounds with two redox centres: Modular synthesis of chalcogen-containing lapachones and studies on their antitumor activity. Eur J Med Chem: 2015, 101;254-265 PMID: 26142490 Miriam E van Strien, Helga E de Vries, Navina L Chrobok, John G J M Bol, John J P Breve, Susanne M P van der Pol, Gijs Kooij, Jaap D van Buul, Marcela Karpuj, Lawrence Steinman, Micha M Wilhelmus, Claudia Sestito, Benjamin Drukarch, Anne-Marie Van Dam Macrophage-derived tissue Transglutaminase contributes to experimental multiple sclerosis pathogenesis and clinical outcome. Brain Behav. Immun.: 2015; PMID: 26133787

Neural Crest Migration

Movie Source: Original Neural Crest movies kindly provided by Paul Kulesa.[3]

Related Movies: Migration 01 | Migration 02 | Migration 03 | Migration 04 | Migration 05 | Migration 06 | Migration 07

Development Overview

The following cranial and trunk data is based upon 185 serially sectioned staged (Carnegie) human embryos.[4]

Cranial Neural Crest

  • stage 9 - an indication of mesencephalic neural crest
  • stage 10 - trigeminal, facial, and postotic components
  • stage 11 - crest-free zones are soon observable in rhombomere 1, 3, and 5
  • stage 12 - rhombomeres 6 and 7 neural crest migrate to pharyngeal arch 3 and then rostrad to the truncus arteriosus
  • stage 13 - nasal crest and the terminalis-vomeronasal complex are last of the cranial crest to appear

stages 9-14 - otic vesicle primordium descends

Trunk Neural Crest

Spinal ganglia increase in number over time and are in phase with the somites, though not their centre. There are 3 migratory pathways: ventrolateral between dermatomyotome and sclerotome, ventromedial between neural tube and sclerotomes, and lateral between surface ectoderm and dermatomyotome.

  • stage 13 - about 19 present
  • stage 14 - about 33 present
  • stage 15-23 - 30–35 ganglia


  1. Ze-Lan Hu, Ming Shi, Ying Huang, Min-Hua Zheng, Zhe Pei, Jia-Yin Chen, Hua Han, Yu-Qiang Ding The role of the transcription factor Rbpj in the development of dorsal root ganglia. Neural Dev: 2011, 6;14 PMID: 21510873
  2. Paul M Kulesa, Caleb M Bailey, Jennifer C Kasemeier-Kulesa, Rebecca McLennan Cranial neural crest migration: new rules for an old road. Dev. Biol.: 2010, 344(2);543-54 PMID: 20399765
  3. P M Kulesa, S E Fraser In ovo time-lapse analysis of chick hindbrain neural crest cell migration shows cell interactions during migration to the branchial arches. Development: 2000, 127(6);1161-72 PMID: 10683170
  4. Ronan O'Rahilly, Fabiola Müller The development of the neural crest in the human. J. Anat.: 2007, 211(3);335-51 PMID: 17848161 | PMC2375817 | J Anat.


Shlomo Krispin, Erez Nitzan, Chaya Kalcheim The dorsal neural tube: a dynamic setting for cell fate decisions. Dev Neurobiol: 2010, 70(12);796-812 PMID: 20683859

Uwe Ernsberger Role of neurotrophin signalling in the differentiation of neurons from dorsal root ganglia and sympathetic ganglia. Cell Tissue Res.: 2009, 336(3);349-84 PMID: 19387688

Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat Embryology of the neural crest: its inductive role in the neurocutaneous syndromes. J. Child Neurol.: 2005, 20(8);637-43 PMID: 16225807

Hsiao-Huei Chen, Simon Hippenmeyer, Silvia Arber, Eric Frank Development of the monosynaptic stretch reflex circuit. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol.: 2003, 13(1);96-102 PMID: 12593987

A Schober, K Unsicker Growth and neurotrophic factors regulating development and maintenance of sympathetic preganglionic neurons. Int. Rev. Cytol.: 2001, 205;37-76 PMID: 11336393


Search PubMed

Search Pubmed: Peripheral Neural Development | Dorsal Root Ganglia Development | Sympathetic Neural Development | Parasympathetic Neural Development | Neural Crest Development

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2015) Embryology Neural Crest - Peripheral Nervous System. Retrieved July 7, 2015, from

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© Dr Mark Hill 2015, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G