Sensory - Smell Development
|Embryology - 18 Nov 2017 Expand to Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Olfactory Epithelium
- 4 Olfactory Receptors
- 5 Embryonic
- 6 Olfactory Pathway
- 7 Vomeronasal Accessory Olfactory System
- 8 Grueneberg Ganglion
- 9 Histology
- 10 Animal Models
- 11 Abnormalities
- 12 Additional Images
- 13 References
- 14 External Links
- 15 Terms
- 16 Additional Images
- 17 Glossary Links
These notes introduce the development of the sense of smell or olfaction and the associated structures including the nasal placode, olfactory epithelium, olfactory bulb, and vomeronasal organ. Recent research has shown a relationship between what the receptive epithelium is exposed too and how the central neural pathway develops, similar to that shown earlier for the visual system.
A French research group has recently been investigating the development of smell in the fetus and in neonates. The nasal epithelium has also been a research "hot topic" as it is one of the few easily accessible sites of adult neural stem cells.
Note the different spellings "odour" (UK) or "odor" (USA). Anosmia is the term used to describe having no sense of smell. Anosmia/hyposmia is related to the absence or hypoplasia of the olfactory bulbs and tracts.
|Smell Links: Introduction | Placodes | Rhinencephalon | Head Development | Student project | Taste | Sensory Systems | Category:Smell|
|Senses Links: Introduction | Placodes | Hearing and Balance | Vision | Smell | Taste | Touch | Stage 22 | Category:Senses|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Alexandra Adam-Darque, Frédéric Grouiller, Lana Vasung, Russia Ha-Vinh Leuchter, Philippe Pollien, François Lazeyras, Petra S Hüppi fMRI-based Neuronal Response to New Odorants in the Newborn Brain. Cereb. Cortex: 2017;1-7 PubMed 29106509
Margaret A Hefner, Emily Fassi Genetic counseling in CHARGE syndrome: Diagnostic evaluation through follow up. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet: 2017; PubMed 29088501
Nathalie Goubet, Karine Durand, Benoist Schaal, Daniel D McCall Seeing odors in color: Cross-modal associations in children and adults from two cultural environments. J Exp Child Psychol: 2017, 166;380-399 PubMed 29028585
Prayuth Tunsuriyawong, Krit Pongpirul, Tagann Chaisam, Petpring Prajuabpansri Olfactory bulb agenesis with normal sexual hormones. BMJ Case Rep: 2017, 2017; PubMed 29025782
A van der Werf, M Rovithi, J A E Langius, M A E de van der Schueren, H M W Verheul Insight in taste alterations during treatment with protein kinase inhibitors. Eur. J. Cancer: 2017, 86;125-134 PubMed 28987769
Adult - pseudostratified columnar epithelium overlying a lamina propria
Five basic cell types:
- horizonatal basal cells - not present embryonically.
- globose basal cells - transit amplifying progenitors of the olfactory epithelium.
- sustentacular cells - aligned on the surface with thin cytoplasmic projections terminating at the basal lamina.
- olfactory receptor neurons - located in an intermediate zone between basal and apical layers, form the bulk of the epithelium.
- olfactory gland cells (Bowman's gland/duct complex) - extend from the glands in the lamina propria to the ducts within the epithelium. Function to carry secretions to the apical epithelial surface.
Olfactory ensheathing cells
- neural crest in origin.
- accompany and ensheath the small olfactory axons of the nonmyelinated olfactory nerves.
- compartmentalize the small olfactory axons into fascicles.
- allow regenerating olfactory nerves to cross the peripheral/central nerve threshold.
Odours bind to and activate olfactory receptors located on the dendrites of sensory neurons in the nose and how the mitral cells of the olfactory bulb (OB) process olfactory information. What has yet to be thoroughly described is how the piriform cortex receives and transforms information arriving from the OB via the lateral olfactory tract (LOT). Although the cell types present in the piriform cortex are known (Shepherd, 2004), previous work has failed to differentiate between disparate electrophysiological profiles and synaptic contacts made between principal cells.
Week 5 to 8 - Stage 15, 17, 20
Development of the Human Olfactory System (Carnegie Stage 15, 17 and 20)
Abbreviations: (cal) calretinin immunostaining, (CS) Carnegie stage, (HE) hematoxylin-eosin staining, (MZ) marginal zone, (OB) olfactory bulb, (OP) olfactory placode, (Tel) telencephalon.
Week 8 - Stage 22
| Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) - odours bind and activate olfactory receptors located on dendrites of sensory neurons in the nose.
Olfactory bulb (OB) - Mitral cells process olfactory information (encoded in a chemotopic map).
Lateral olfactory tract (LOT) - pathway to cortex.
Primary olfactory cortex (= Piriform cortex) - receives and transforms information.
Mouse olfactory nerve pathway development
Vomeronasal Accessory Olfactory System
| Human Embryo (week 8, Carnegie stage 22)
Transverse section through the embryo head nasal region showing the developing Vomeronasal Organ (VNO) or Jacobson's organ. This contains sensory neurons that detect chemical stimuli (pheromones)
Accessory olfactory system
| Adult Mouse VMO anatomical position and showing also solitary chemosensory cells
The vomeronasal accessory olfactory system (vomeronasal organ, VNO) is involved in detecting and transfering pheromone information through the vomeronasal nerve (nervus vomeronasalis) to the neuroendocrine hypothalamus. This signaling pathway can be used for mating and as olfactory cues for nocturnal animals. There are two families of receptors located in the vomeronasal organ the V1Rs and the V2Rs, are thought to detect pheromonal signals. 
Human embryos also have a vomeronasal organ, though later many structures such as the vomeronasal nerve, accessory olfactory bulb and chemoreceptor cells within the organ are lost. Therefore it is not clear whether there is any postnatal neuroendocrine role for this structure.
The Grueneberg (Grüneberg) ganglion "Within the nasal epithelium of mammals, there are several compartments which are populated with neuronal cells. One of them - the so-called Grueneberg ganglion - is composed of ciliated neurons residing in the anterior region of the nose."
Identified mainly in rodents, first identified in 1973 by Hans Grüneberg.
The nasal mucosa features four separate olfactory areas:
- main olfactory epithelium (MOE)
- septal organ (SO)
- ganglion of Grüneberg (GG)
- vomeronasal sensory epithelium (VNsE) forms a part of the vomeronasal organ (VNO)
- Links: Mouse Development
Term used to describe having no sense of smell. Anosmia/hyposmia is related to the absence or hypoplasia of the olfactory bulbs and tracts.
- A developmental disease affecting both the hormonal reproductive axis and the sense of smell.
- Affected individuals have mutations in either of two different genes KAL1 and FGFR1 (20%) and prokineticin receptor-2 (PROKR2) or prokineticin-2 (PROK2) genes (10%).
- Choanal atresia is the most common form of congenital nasal obstruction, usually diagnosed at birth.
- failure of the posterior nasal cavity (choanae) to communicate with the nasopharynx.
- unilateral or bilateral bony membranous septum located between the nose and the pharynx.
- occurs in approximately 1 in 5000 to 7000 live births.
- Thought to be secondary to an abnormality during the rupture of the buccopharyngeal membrane in the embryological period.
Keith, A. (1902) Human Embryology and Morphology. London: Edward Arnold.
- Lavi Secundo, Kobi Snitz, Noam Sobel The perceptual logic of smell. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol.: 2014, 25;107-15 PubMed 24440370
- Hiroyuki Katoh, Shinsuke Shibata, Kimiko Fukuda, Momoka Sato, Etsuko Satoh, Narihito Nagoshi, Takeo Minematsu, Yumi Matsuzaki, Chihiro Akazawa, Yoshiaki Toyama, Masaya Nakamura, Hideyuki Okano The dual origin of the peripheral olfactory system: placode and neural crest. Mol Brain: 2011, 4;34 PubMed 21943152
- Jan Weiss, Martina Pyrski, Eric Jacobi, Bernd Bufe, Vivienne Willnecker, Bernhard Schick, Philippe Zizzari, Samuel J Gossage, Charles A Greer, Trese Leinders-Zufall, C Geoffrey Woods, John N Wood, Frank Zufall Loss-of-function mutations in sodium channel Nav1.7 cause anosmia. Nature: 2011, 472(7342);186-90 PubMed 21441906
- Shannon DeMaria, John Ngai The cell biology of smell. J. Cell Biol.: 2010, 191(3);443-52 PubMed 21041441 | J Cell Biol.
- Shizue Ohsawa, Shun Hamada, Keisuke Kuida, Hiroki Yoshida, Tatsushi Igaki, Masayuki Miura Maturation of the olfactory sensory neurons by Apaf-1/caspase-9-mediated caspase activity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2010, 107(30);13366-71 PubMed 20624980
- M Cristina Antal, Brigitte Samama, M Said Ghandour, Nelly Boehm Human Neural Cells Transiently Express Reelin during Olfactory Placode Development. PLoS ONE: 2015, 10(8);e0135710 PubMed 26270645
- Alexandra M Miller, Lydia R Maurer, Dong-Jing Zou, Stuart Firestein, Charles A Greer Axon fasciculation in the developing olfactory nerve. Neural Dev: 2010, 5;20 PubMed 20723208 | Neural Dev.
- Tatsuya Ogura, Kurt Krosnowski, Lana Zhang, Mikhael Bekkerman, Weihong Lin Chemoreception regulates chemical access to mouse vomeronasal organ: role of solitary chemosensory cells. PLoS ONE: 2010, 5(7);e11924 PubMed 20689832 | PLoS One.
- Robert C Karn, Janet M Young, Christina M Laukaitis A candidate subspecies discrimination system involving a vomeronasal receptor gene with different alleles fixed in M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus. PLoS ONE: 2010, 5(9); PubMed 20844586 | PLoS One
- Martin Witt, Thomas Hummel Vomeronasal versus olfactory epithelium: is there a cellular basis for human vomeronasal perception? Int. Rev. Cytol.: 2006, 248;209-59 PubMed 16487792
- Lóránd Dénes, Zsuzsanna Pap, Annamária Szántó, István Gergely, Tudor Sorin Pop Human vomeronasal epithelium development: An immunohistochemical overview. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung: 2015, 62(2);167-181 PubMed 26132837
- Joerg Fleischer, Heinz Breer The Grueneberg ganglion: a novel sensory system in the nose. Histol. Histopathol.: 2010, 25(7);909-15 PubMed 20503179
- Khaled Al-Noury, Alsaid Lotfy Role of multislice computed tomography and local contrast in the diagnosis and characterization of choanal atresia. Int J Pediatr: 2011, 2011;280763 PubMed 21772853
Lóránd Dénes, Zsuzsanna Pap, Annamária Szántó, István Gergely, Tudor Sorin Pop Human vomeronasal epithelium development: An immunohistochemical overview. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung: 2015, 62(2);167-181 PubMed 26132837
J Bossy Development of olfactory and related structures in staged human embryos. Anat. Embryol.: 1980, 161(2);225-36 PubMed 7469043
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat Olfactory Development, Part 2: Neuroanatomic Maturation and Dysgeneses. J. Child Neurol.: 2017, 32(6);579-593 PubMed 28424008
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat, Xing-Chang Wei Olfactory Development, Part 1: Function, From Fetal Perception to Adult Wine-Tasting. J. Child Neurol.: 2017, 32(6);566-578 PubMed 28424010
Shannon DeMaria, John Ngai The cell biology of smell. J. Cell Biol.: 2010, 191(3);443-52 PubMed 21041441
Ti-Fei Yuan Smell with new neurons. Cell Tissue Res.: 2010, 340(2);211-4 PubMed 20387075
Nathan E Schoppa Making scents out of how olfactory neurons are ordered in space. Nat. Neurosci.: 2009, 12(2);103-4 PubMed 19172161
Steven D Munger, Trese Leinders-Zufall, Frank Zufall Subsystem organization of the mammalian sense of smell. Annu. Rev. Physiol.: 2009, 71;115-40 PubMed 18808328
Rachel I Wilson Neural and behavioral mechanisms of olfactory perception. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol.: 2008, 18(4);408-12 PubMed 18809492
Humphrey T. The development of the olfactory and the accessory olfactory formations in human embryos and fetuses. (1940) J. Comp. Neurol. 431-468.
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- glomerulus - the functional unit of the olfactory bulb.
- odorant - a compound that elicits the perception of smell.
- odorant receptor - (OR) a receptor expressed by an olfactory sensory neuron. Receptor belongs to the G protein–coupled receptors (GPCR) superfamily. There are multiple families of odorant receptors, which include the OR (the largest family), TAAR, V1R, V2R, and formyl peptide-like receptors.
- olfactory cortex - refers to the brain regions that receive direct input from the olfactory bulb are responsible for the perception of smell and for generating odor-evoked behaviours. The five brain regions are the: piriform cortex, anterior olfactory nucleus, olfactory tubercle, entorhinal cortex, and amygdala.
- olfactory glomeruli - spherically shaped regions of neuropil where information is passed from sensory neurons to postsynaptic neurons.
- vomeronasal organ (VNO, Jacobson's organ) A neural structure forming part of olfactory system that functions in the detection of pheromones. In humans, the vomeronasal nerve, accessory olfactory bulb and chemoreceptor cells within the organ are lost. Named after Ludwig Lewin Jacobson (1783 – 1843) a Danish surgeon who identified it in 1813.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Sensory - Smell Development. Retrieved November 18, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Sensory_-_Smell_Development
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