Molecular Development - Signaling

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Introduction

Model of Sonic hedgehog signaling in the drosophila wing
Limb induction-initiation signaling

In current years we have turned from wanting to merely describe the events of embryogenesis, to a desire to understand the mechanisms of development. These notes are intended to introduce a number of different mechanisms at the cellular level and factors that form structures within the embryo. These cellular dynamic and physical interactions form basic tissue structures of epithelia, connective tissues and features such as tubes.


Template page - notice removed when completed.


Membrane Receptors Signaling between cells, cells and matrix, tissues, and systemically, is key to the developmental and differentiation process. While there are a large number of known methods of signaling these all fall into a few broad classes. Signaling also depends upon having an initial source for the signal and cells which can interpret the signal. To see how these mechanisms are employed you should look at embryo axes formation or the specific pages within each set of notes that refer to early development or system development (these pages are listed on Molecular Development homepage).

Cell cycle1.jpg

Some signals act internally (More? cell cycle) or over a short distance (between ajoining cells or to the cell itself), others act in a distance dependent manner (changing concentration of the signal will alter the response), others act by cascading (signaling from one cell to the next, to the next), and finally some signals act at a distance (between one tissue and a distant cell population).


Signaling in many cases precedes any observable change in cell shape and motility. Please note as an introduction the notes below have been extensively simplified. More details can be gained by clicking on the specific links below.


Molecular Links: Introduction | Genetics | Epigenetics | Mitosis | Meiosis | X Inactivation | Signaling | Factors | Mouse Knockout | microRNA | Mechanisms | Developmental Enhancers | Protein | Genetic Abnormal | Category:Molecular


Factor Links: hCG | BMP | Sonic hedgehog | HOX | FGF | Nanog | Nodal | Notch | FOX | PAX | Retinoic acid | SIX | Slit2/Robo1 | Sox | TBX | TGF-beta | VEGF | WNT | Hippo | NGF | Category:Molecular


Mechanism Links: Epithelial Invagination | Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition | Mesenchymal Epithelial Transition | Epithelial Mesenchymal Interaction | Cell Migration | Morphodynamics | Tube Formation | Apoptosis | Axes Formation | Molecular

Molecular Factors

  • BMP - Bone Morphogenetic Protein
  • hCG - human Chorionic Gonadotropin
  • FGF - Fibroblast Growth Factor
  • FOX - Forkhead bOX
  • HIPPO
  • HOX - Homeobox
  • PAX - "paired" (prd) with a box (homeodomain) domain.
  • NANOG - Tír na nÓg ("Land of the Young")
  • NOTCH
  • RA - Retinoic Acid
  • SHH - Sonic HedgeHog
  • SIX
  • Slit2/Robo1
  • SOX
  • TBX
  • TGF-beta - Transforming Growth Factor - beta
  • VEGF - Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
  • WNT - Wingless and iNT


Factor Links: hCG | BMP | Sonic hedgehog | HOX | FGF | Nanog | Nodal | Notch | FOX | PAX | Retinoic acid | SIX | Slit2/Robo1 | Sox | TBX | TGF-beta | VEGF | WNT | Hippo | NGF | Category:Molecular

Mechanisms

  • cell cycle- position in cell cycle, proliferative rate, post-mitotic
  • time- position in cell cycle, cell death (apoptosis)
  • adhesive interactions- cell/cell, cell/extracellular matrix
  • transcription factors- Hox, bHLH, zinc finger,
  • protein growth factors- VEGF, FGF, NGF, GDNF, TGFb
  • steroidal growth factors- RA, TH,
  • extracellular matrix proteins- Wnt7a, laminin, fibronectin
  • ion signaling- calcium


References


Reviews



Articles

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Glossary Links

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Molecular Development - Signaling. Retrieved November 17, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Molecular_Development_-_Signaling

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© Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G