Gastrointestinal Tract Development

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Introduction

The early gastrointestinal tract.
Human head (Week 4, Stage 11) showing buccopharyngeal membrane breakdown.

The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) arises initially during the process of gastrulation from the endoderm of the trilaminar embryo (week 3) and extends from the buccopharyngeal membrane to the cloacal membrane. The tract and associated organs later have contributions from all the germ cell layers.


During the 4th week three distinct regions (fore-, mid- and hind-gut) extend the length of the embryo and will contribute different components of the GIT. The large mid-gut is generated by lateral embryonic folding which "pinches off" a pocket of the yolk sac, the 2 compartments continue to communicate through the vitelline duct.


The oral cavity (mouth) is formed following breakdown of the buccopharyngeal membrane (oropharyngeal or oral membrane) and contributed to mainly by the pharynx lying within the pharyngeal arches (More? Head Development). Loss of buccopharyngeal membrane opens the tract to amniotic fluid through the remainder of development, and during the fetal period is actively swallowed.


From the oral cavity the next portion of the foregut is initially the pharynx, a single gastrointestinal (oesophagus) and respiratory (trachea) common tube, that lies behind the heart. Note that the respiratory tract will form from a ventral bud arising at this level (More? Respiratory).

This current page provides an introductory overview, use the links below for descriptions of specific components and regions as well as developmental abnormalities.


GIT Links: Introduction | Medicine Lecture | Science Lecture | Endoderm | Stomach | Liver | Gall Bladder | Pancreas | Intestine | Tongue | Taste | Enteric Nervous System | Stage 13 | Stage 22 | Abnormalities | Movies | Postnatal | Milk | Tooth | Tongue | BGD Lecture | BGD Practical | Category:Gastrointestinal Tract
GIT Histology Links: Upper GIT | Salivary Gland | Smooth Muscle Histology | Liver | Gall Bladder | Pancreas | Colon | Histology Stains | Histology | GIT Development
Historic Embryology
1878 Alimentary Canal | 1882 The Organs of the Inner Germ-Layer The Alimentary Tube with its Appended Organs | 1902 The Organs of Digestion | 1906 Liver | 1907 Development of the Digestive System | 1907 Atlas | 1907 23 Somite Embryo | 1912 Digestive Tract | 1917 Entodermal Canal | 1918 Anatomy | 1921 Alimentary Tube | 2014 GIT Notes | Historic Disclaimer
Human Embryo: 1908 13-14 Somite Embryo | 1926 22 Somite Embryo | 1907 23 Somite Embryo | 1937 25 Somite Embryo | 1914 27 Somite Embryo | 1914 Week 7 Embryo
Animal Development: 1913 Chicken | 1951 Frog

Note that in historic texts the term entoderm is used to describe endoderm and other terminology may also differ from current descriptions.

Some Recent Findings

Early endoderm development
  • Three-dimensional reconstructions of intrahepatic bile duct tubulogenesis in human liver[1] In the developing human liver, three-dimensional reconstructions using multiple marker proteins confirmed that the human intrahepatic biliary tree forms through several developmental stages involving an initial transition of primitive hepatocytes into cholangiocytes shaping the ductal plate followed by a process of maturation and remodeling where the intrahepatic biliary tree develops through an asymmetrical form of cholangiocyte tubulogenesis. Liver Development
  • Endocrine Pancreas[2] "The transcription factor Pax6 functions in the specification and maintenance of the differentiated cell lineages in the endocrine pancreas. It has two DNA binding domains, the paired domain and the homeodomain, in addition to a C-terminal transactivation domain. The phenotype of Pax6-/- knockout mice suggests non-redundant functions of the transcription factor in the development of glucagon-expressing alpha-cells as this cell type is absent in the mutants."
More recent papers
Mark Hill.jpg
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches


Search term: Gastrointestinal Tract Embryology

Daniel J Klionsky, Kotb Abdelmohsen, Akihisa Abe, Md Joynal Abedin, Hagai Abeliovich, Abraham Acevedo Arozena, Hiroaki Adachi, Christopher M Adams, Peter D Adams, Khosrow Adeli, Peter J Adhihetty, Sharon G Adler, Galila Agam, Rajesh Agarwal, Manish K Aghi, Maria Agnello, Patrizia Agostinis, Patricia V Aguilar, Julio Aguirre-Ghiso, Edoardo M Airoldi, Slimane Ait-Si-Ali, Takahiko Akematsu, Emmanuel T Akporiaye, Mohamed Al-Rubeai, Guillermo M Albaiceta, Chris Albanese, Diego Albani, Matthew L Albert, Jesus Aldudo, Hana Algül, Mehrdad Alirezaei, Iraide Alloza, Alexandru Almasan, Maylin Almonte-Beceril, Emad S Alnemri, Covadonga Alonso, Nihal Altan-Bonnet, Dario C Altieri, Silvia Alvarez, Lydia Alvarez-Erviti, Sandro Alves, Giuseppina Amadoro, Atsuo Amano, Consuelo Amantini, Santiago Ambrosio, Ivano Amelio, Amal O Amer, Mohamed Amessou, Angelika Amon, Zhenyi An, Frank A Anania, Stig U Andersen, Usha P Andley, Catherine K Andreadi, Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie, Alberto Anel, David K Ann, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Manuela Antonioli, Hiroshi Aoki, Nadezda Apostolova, Saveria Aquila, Katia Aquilano, Koichi Araki, Eli Arama, Agustin Aranda, Jun Araya, Alexandre Arcaro, Esperanza Arias, Hirokazu Arimoto, Aileen R Ariosa, Jane L Armstrong, Thierry Arnould, Ivica Arsov, Katsuhiko Asanuma, Valerie Askanas, Eric Asselin, Ryuichiro Atarashi, Sally S Atherton, Julie D Atkin, Laura D Attardi, Patrick Auberger, Georg Auburger, Laure Aurelian, Riccardo Autelli, Laura Avagliano, Maria Laura Avantaggiati, Limor Avrahami, Suresh Awale, Neelam Azad, Tiziana Bachetti, Jonathan M Backer, Dong-Hun Bae, Jae-Sung Bae, Ok-Nam Bae, Soo Han Bae, Eric H Baehrecke, Seung-Hoon Baek, Stephen Baghdiguian, Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna, Hua Bai, Jie Bai, Xue-Yuan Bai, Yannick Bailly, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy Balaji, Walter Balduini, Andrea Ballabio, Rena Balzan, Rajkumar Banerjee, Gábor Bánhegyi, Haijun Bao, Benoit Barbeau, Maria D Barrachina, Esther Barreiro, Bonnie Bartel, Alberto Bartolomé, Diane C Bassham, Maria Teresa Bassi, Robert C Bast, Alakananda Basu, Maria Teresa Batista, Henri Batoko, Maurizio Battino, Kyle Bauckman, Bradley L Baumgarner, K Ulrich Bayer, Rupert Beale, Jean-François Beaulieu, George R Beck, Christoph Becker, J David Beckham, Pierre-André Bédard, Patrick J Bednarski, Thomas J Begley, Christian Behl, Christian Behrends, Georg Mn Behrens, Kevin E Behrns, Eloy Bejarano, Amine Belaid, Francesca Belleudi, Giovanni Bénard, Guy Berchem, Daniele Bergamaschi, Matteo Bergami, Ben Berkhout, Laura Berliocchi, Amélie Bernard, Monique Bernard, Francesca Bernassola, Anne Bertolotti, Amanda S Bess, Sébastien Besteiro, Saverio Bettuzzi, Savita Bhalla, Shalmoli Bhattacharyya, Sujit K Bhutia, Caroline Biagosch, Michele Wolfe Bianchi, Martine Biard-Piechaczyk, Viktor Billes, Claudia Bincoletto, Baris Bingol, Sara W Bird, Marc Bitoun, Ivana Bjedov, Craig Blackstone, Lionel Blanc, Guillermo A Blanco, Heidi Kiil Blomhoff, Emilio Boada-Romero, Stefan Böckler, Marianne Boes, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, Lawrence H Boise, Alessandra Bolino, Andrea Boman, Paolo Bonaldo, Matteo Bordi, Jürgen Bosch, Luis M Botana, Joelle Botti, German Bou, Marina Bouché, Marion Bouchecareilh, Marie-Josée Boucher, Michael E Boulton, Sebastien G Bouret, Patricia Boya, Michaël Boyer-Guittaut, Peter V Bozhkov, Nathan Brady, Vania Mm Braga, Claudio Brancolini, Gerhard H Braus, José M Bravo-San Pedro, Lisa A Brennan, Emery H Bresnick, Patrick Brest, Dave Bridges, Marie-Agnès Bringer, Marisa Brini, Glauber C Brito, Bertha Brodin, Paul S Brookes, Eric J Brown, Karen Brown, Hal E Broxmeyer, Alain Bruhat, Patricia Chakur Brum, John H Brumell, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Robert J Bryson-Richardson, Shilpa Buch, Alastair M Buchan, Hikmet Budak, Dmitry V Bulavin, Scott J Bultman, Geert Bultynck, Vladimir Bumbasirevic, Yan Burelle, Robert E Burke, Margit Burmeister, Peter Bütikofer, Laura Caberlotto, Ken Cadwell, Monika Cahova, Dongsheng Cai, Jingjing Cai, Qian Cai, Sara Calatayud, Nadine Camougrand, Michelangelo Campanella, Grant R Campbell, Matthew Campbell, Silvia Campello, Robin Candau, Isabella Caniggia, Lavinia Cantoni, Lizhi Cao, Allan B Caplan, Michele Caraglia, Claudio Cardinali, Sandra Morais Cardoso, Jennifer S Carew, Laura A Carleton, Cathleen R Carlin, Silvia Carloni, Sven R Carlsson, Didac Carmona-Gutierrez, Leticia Am Carneiro, Oliana Carnevali, Serena Carra, Alice Carrier, Bernadette Carroll, Caty Casas, Josefina Casas, Giuliana Cassinelli, Perrine Castets, Susana Castro-Obregon, Gabriella Cavallini, Isabella Ceccherini, Francesco Cecconi, Arthur I Cederbaum, Valentín Ceña, Simone Cenci, Claudia Cerella, Davide Cervia, Silvia Cetrullo, Hassan Chaachouay, Han-Jung Chae, Andrei S Chagin, Chee-Yin Chai, Gopal Chakrabarti, Georgios Chamilos, Edmond Yw Chan, Matthew Tv Chan, Dhyan Chandra, Pallavi Chandra, Chih-Peng Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Ta Yuan Chang, John C Chatham, Saurabh Chatterjee, Santosh Chauhan, Yongsheng Che, Michael E Cheetham, Rajkumar Cheluvappa, Chun-Jung Chen, Gang Chen, Guang-Chao Chen, Guoqiang Chen, Hongzhuan Chen, Jeff W Chen, Jian-Kang Chen, Min Chen, Mingzhou Chen, Peiwen Chen, Qi Chen, Quan Chen, Shang-Der Chen, Si Chen, Steve S-L Chen, Wei Chen, Wei-Jung Chen, Wen Qiang Chen, Wenli Chen, Xiangmei Chen, Yau-Hung Chen, Ye-Guang Chen, Yin Chen, Yingyu Chen, Yongshun Chen, Yu-Jen Chen, Yue-Qin Chen, Yujie Chen, Zhen Chen, Zhong Chen, Alan Cheng, Christopher Hk Cheng, Hua Cheng, Heesun Cheong, Sara Cherry, Jason Chesney, Chun Hei Antonio Cheung, Eric Chevet, Hsiang Cheng Chi, Sung-Gil Chi, Fulvio Chiacchiera, Hui-Ling Chiang, Roberto Chiarelli, Mario Chiariello, Marcello Chieppa, Lih-Shen Chin, Mario Chiong, Gigi Nc Chiu, Dong-Hyung Cho, Ssang-Goo Cho, William C Cho, Yong-Yeon Cho, Young-Seok Cho, Augustine Mk Choi, Eui-Ju Choi, Eun-Kyoung Choi, Jayoung Choi, Mary E Choi, Seung-Il Choi, Tsui-Fen Chou, Salem Chouaib, Divaker Choubey, Vinay Choubey, Kuan-Chih Chow, Kamal Chowdhury, Charleen T Chu, Tsung-Hsien Chuang, Taehoon Chun, Hyewon Chung, Taijoon Chung, Yuen-Li Chung, Yong-Joon Chwae, Valentina Cianfanelli, Roberto Ciarcia, Iwona A Ciechomska, Maria Rosa Ciriolo, Mara Cirone, Sofie Claerhout, Michael J Clague, Joan Clària, Peter Gh Clarke, Robert Clarke, Emilio Clementi, Cédric Cleyrat, Miriam Cnop, Eliana M Coccia, Tiziana Cocco, Patrice Codogno, Jörn Coers, Ezra Ew Cohen, David Colecchia, Luisa Coletto, Núria S Coll, Emma Colucci-Guyon, Sergio Comincini, Maria Condello, Katherine L Cook, Graham H Coombs, Cynthia D Cooper, J Mark Cooper, Isabelle Coppens, Maria Tiziana Corasaniti, Marco Corazzari, Ramon Corbalan, Elisabeth Corcelle-Termeau, Mario D Cordero, Cristina Corral-Ramos, Olga Corti, Andrea Cossarizza, Paola Costelli, Safia Costes, Susan L Cotman, Ana Coto-Montes, Sandra Cottet, Eduardo Couve, Lori R Covey, L Ashley Cowart, Jeffery S Cox, Fraser P Coxon, Carolyn B Coyne, Mark S Cragg, Rolf J Craven, Tiziana Crepaldi, Jose L Crespo, Alfredo Criollo, Valeria Crippa, Maria Teresa Cruz, Ana Maria Cuervo, Jose M Cuezva, Taixing Cui, Pedro R Cutillas, Mark J Czaja, Maria F Czyzyk-Krzeska, Ruben K Dagda, Uta Dahmen, Chunsun Dai, Wenjie Dai, Yun Dai, Kevin N Dalby, Luisa Dalla Valle, Guillaume Dalmasso, Marcello D'Amelio, Markus Damme, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Catherine Dargemont, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Srinivasan Dasarathy, Biplab Dasgupta, Srikanta Dash, Crispin R Dass, Hazel Marie Davey, Lester M Davids, David Dávila, Roger J Davis, Ted M Dawson, Valina L Dawson, Paula Daza, Jackie de Belleroche, Paul de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz de Figueiredo, José de la Fuente, Luisa De Martino, Antonella De Matteis, Guido Ry De Meyer, Angelo De Milito, Mauro De Santi, Wanderley de Souza, Vincenzo De Tata, Daniela De Zio, Jayanta Debnath, Reinhard Dechant, Jean-Paul Decuypere, Shane Deegan, Benjamin Dehay, Barbara Del Bello, Dominic P Del Re, Régis Delage-Mourroux, Lea Md Delbridge, Louise Deldicque, Elizabeth Delorme-Axford, Yizhen Deng, Joern Dengjel, Melanie Denizot, Paul Dent, Channing J Der, Vojo Deretic, Benoît Derrien, Eric Deutsch, Timothy P Devarenne, Rodney J Devenish, Sabrina Di Bartolomeo, Nicola Di Daniele, Fabio Di Domenico, Alessia Di Nardo, Simone Di Paola, Antonio Di Pietro, Livia Di Renzo, Aaron DiAntonio, Guillermo Díaz-Araya, Ines Díaz-Laviada, Maria T Diaz-Meco, Javier Diaz-Nido, Chad A Dickey, Robert C Dickson, Marc Diederich, Paul Digard, Ivan Dikic, Savithrama P Dinesh-Kumar, Chan Ding, Wen-Xing Ding, Zufeng Ding, Luciana Dini, Jörg Hw Distler, Abhinav Diwan, Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny, Kostyantyn Dmytruk, Renwick Cj Dobson, Volker Doetsch, Karol Dokladny, Svetlana Dokudovskaya, Massimo Donadelli, X Charlie Dong, Xiaonan Dong, Zheng Dong, Terrence M Donohue, Kelly S Doran, Gabriella D'Orazi, Gerald W Dorn, Victor Dosenko, Sami Dridi, Liat Drucker, Jie Du, Li-Lin Du, Lihuan Du, André du Toit, Priyamvada Dua, Lei Duan, Pu Duann, Vikash Kumar Dubey, Michael R Duchen, Michel A Duchosal, Helene Duez, Isabelle Dugail, Verónica I Dumit, Mara C Duncan, Elaine A Dunlop, William A Dunn, Nicolas Dupont, Luc Dupuis, Raúl V Durán, Thomas M Durcan, Stéphane Duvezin-Caubet, Umamaheswar Duvvuri, Vinay Eapen, Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Arnaud Echard, Leopold Eckhart, Charles L Edelstein, Aimee L Edinger, Ludwig Eichinger, Tobias Eisenberg, Avital Eisenberg-Lerner, N Tony Eissa, Wafik S El-Deiry, Victoria El-Khoury, Zvulun Elazar, Hagit Eldar-Finkelman, Chris Jh Elliott, Enzo Emanuele, Urban Emmenegger, Nikolai Engedal, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht, Simone Engelender, Jorrit M Enserink, Ralf Erdmann, Jekaterina Erenpreisa, Rajaraman Eri, Jason L Eriksen, Andreja Erman, Ricardo Escalante, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen, Lucile Espert, Lorena Esteban-Martínez, Thomas J Evans, Mario Fabri, Gemma Fabrias, Cinzia Fabrizi, Antonio Facchiano, Nils J Færgeman, Alberto Faggioni, W Douglas Fairlie, Chunhai Fan, Daping Fan, Jie Fan, Shengyun Fang, Manolis Fanto, Alessandro Fanzani, Thomas Farkas, Mathias Faure, Francois B Favier, Howard Fearnhead, Massimo Federici, Erkang Fei, Tania C Felizardo, Hua Feng, Yibin Feng, Yuchen Feng, Thomas A Ferguson, Álvaro F Fernández, Maite G Fernandez-Barrena, Jose C Fernandez-Checa, Arsenio Fernández-López, Martin E Fernandez-Zapico, Olivier Feron, Elisabetta Ferraro, Carmen Veríssima Ferreira-Halder, Laszlo Fesus, Ralph Feuer, Fabienne C Fiesel, Eduardo C Filippi-Chiela, Giuseppe Filomeni, Gian Maria Fimia, John H Fingert, Steven Finkbeiner, Toren Finkel, Filomena Fiorito, Paul B Fisher, Marc Flajolet, Flavio Flamigni, Oliver Florey, Salvatore Florio, R Andres Floto, Marco Folini, Carlo Follo, Edward A Fon, Francesco Fornai, Franco Fortunato, Alessandro Fraldi, Rodrigo Franco, Arnaud Francois, Aurélie François, Lisa B Frankel, Iain Dc Fraser, Norbert Frey, Damien G Freyssenet, Christian Frezza, Scott L Friedman, Daniel E Frigo, Dongxu Fu, José M Fuentes, Juan Fueyo, Yoshio Fujitani, Yuuki Fujiwara, Mikihiro Fujiya, Mitsunori Fukuda, Simone Fulda, Carmela Fusco, Bozena Gabryel, Matthias Gaestel, Philippe Gailly, Malgorzata Gajewska, Sehamuddin Galadari, Gad Galili, Inmaculada Galindo, Maria F Galindo, Giovanna Galliciotti, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Luca Galluzzi, Vincent Galy, Noor Gammoh, Sam Gandy, Anand K Ganesan, Swamynathan Ganesan, Ian G Ganley, Monique Gannagé, Fen-Biao Gao, Feng Gao, Jian-Xin Gao, Lorena García Nannig, Eleonora García Véscovi, Marina Garcia-Macía, Carmen Garcia-Ruiz, Abhishek D Garg, Pramod Kumar Garg, Ricardo Gargini, Nils Christian Gassen, Damián Gatica, Evelina Gatti, Julie Gavard, Evripidis Gavathiotis, Liang Ge, Pengfei Ge, Shengfang Ge, Po-Wu Gean, Vania Gelmetti, Armando A Genazzani, Jiefei Geng, Pascal Genschik, Lisa Gerner, Jason E Gestwicki, David A Gewirtz, Saeid Ghavami, Eric Ghigo, Debabrata Ghosh, Anna Maria Giammarioli, Francesca Giampieri, Claudia Giampietri, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Derrick J Gibbings, Lara Gibellini, Spencer B Gibson, Vanessa Ginet, Antonio Giordano, Flaviano Giorgini, Elisa Giovannetti, Stephen E Girardin, Suzana Gispert, Sandy Giuliano, Candece L Gladson, Alvaro Glavic, Martin Gleave, Nelly Godefroy, Robert M Gogal, Kuppan Gokulan, Gustavo H Goldman, Delia Goletti, Michael S Goligorsky, Aldrin V Gomes, Ligia C Gomes, Hernando Gomez, Candelaria Gomez-Manzano, Rubén Gómez-Sánchez, Dawit Ap Gonçalves, Ebru Goncu, Qingqiu Gong, Céline Gongora, Carlos B Gonzalez, Pedro Gonzalez-Alegre, Pilar Gonzalez-Cabo, Rosa Ana González-Polo, Ing Swie Goping, Carlos Gorbea, Nikolai V Gorbunov, Daphne R Goring, Adrienne M Gorman, Sharon M Gorski, Sandro Goruppi, Shino Goto-Yamada, Cecilia Gotor, Roberta A Gottlieb, Illana Gozes, Devrim Gozuacik, Yacine Graba, Martin Graef, Giovanna E Granato, Gary Dean Grant, Steven Grant, Giovanni Luca Gravina, Douglas R Green, Alexander Greenhough, Michael T Greenwood, Benedetto Grimaldi, Frédéric Gros, Charles Grose, Jean-Francois Groulx, Florian Gruber, Paolo Grumati, Tilman Grune, Jun-Lin Guan, Kun-Liang Guan, Barbara Guerra, Carlos Guillen, Kailash Gulshan, Jan Gunst, Chuanyong Guo, Lei Guo, Ming Guo, Wenjie Guo, Xu-Guang Guo, Andrea A Gust, Åsa B Gustafsson, Elaine Gutierrez, Maximiliano G Gutierrez, Ho-Shin Gwak, Albert Haas, James E Haber, Shinji Hadano, Monica Hagedorn, David R Hahn, Andrew J Halayko, Anne Hamacher-Brady, Kozo Hamada, Ahmed Hamai, Andrea Hamann, Maho Hamasaki, Isabelle Hamer, Qutayba Hamid, Ester M Hammond, Feng Han, Weidong Han, James T Handa, John A Hanover, Malene Hansen, Masaru Harada, Ljubica Harhaji-Trajkovic, J Wade Harper, Abdel Halim Harrath, Adrian L Harris, James Harris, Udo Hasler, Peter Hasselblatt, Kazuhisa Hasui, Robert G Hawley, Teresa S Hawley, Congcong He, Cynthia Y He, Fengtian He, Gu He, Rong-Rong He, Xian-Hui He, You-Wen He, Yu-Ying He, Joan K Heath, Marie-Josée Hébert, Robert A Heinzen, Gudmundur Vignir Helgason, Michael Hensel, Elizabeth P Henske, Chengtao Her, Paul K Herman, Agustín Hernández, Carlos Hernandez, Sonia Hernández-Tiedra, Claudio Hetz, P Robin Hiesinger, Katsumi Higaki, Sabine Hilfiker, Bradford G Hill, Joseph A Hill, William D Hill, Keisuke Hino, Daniel Hofius, Paul Hofman, Günter U Höglinger, Jörg Höhfeld, Marina K Holz, Yonggeun Hong, David A Hood, Jeroen Jm Hoozemans, Thorsten Hoppe, Chin Hsu, Chin-Yuan Hsu, Li-Chung Hsu, Dong Hu, Guochang Hu, Hong-Ming Hu, Hongbo Hu, Ming Chang Hu, Yu-Chen Hu, Zhuo-Wei Hu, Fang Hua, Ya Hua, Canhua Huang, Huey-Lan Huang, Kuo-How Huang, Kuo-Yang Huang, Shile Huang, Shiqian Huang, Wei-Pang Huang, Yi-Ran Huang, Yong Huang, Yunfei Huang, Tobias B Huber, Patricia Huebbe, Won-Ki Huh, Juha J Hulmi, Gang Min Hur, James H Hurley, Zvenyslava Husak, Sabah Na Hussain, Salik Hussain, Jung Jin Hwang, Seungmin Hwang, Thomas Is Hwang, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Yuzuru Imai, Carol Imbriano, Megumi Inomata, Takeshi Into, Valentina Iovane, Juan L Iovanna, Renato V Iozzo, Nancy Y Ip, Javier E Irazoqui, Pablo Iribarren, Yoshitaka Isaka, Aleksandra J Isakovic, Harry Ischiropoulos, Jeffrey S Isenberg, Mohammad Ishaq, Hiroyuki Ishida, Isao Ishii, Jane E Ishmael, Ciro Isidoro, Ken-Ichi Isobe, Erika Isono, Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas, Koji Itahana, Eisuke Itakura, Andrei I Ivanov, Anand Krishnan V Iyer, José M Izquierdo, Yotaro Izumi, Valentina Izzo, Marja Jäättelä, Nadia Jaber, Daniel John Jackson, William T Jackson, Tony George Jacob, Thomas S Jacques, Chinnaswamy Jagannath, Ashish Jain, Nihar Ranjan Jana, Byoung Kuk Jang, Alkesh Jani, Bassam Janji, Paulo Roberto Jannig, Patric J Jansson, Steve Jean, Marina Jendrach, Ju-Hong Jeon, Niels Jessen, Eui-Bae Jeung, Kailiang Jia, Lijun Jia, Hong Jiang, Hongchi Jiang, Liwen Jiang, Teng Jiang, Xiaoyan Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Ying Jiang, Yongjun Jiang, Alberto Jiménez, Cheng Jin, Hongchuan Jin, Lei Jin, Meiyan Jin, Shengkan Jin, Umesh Kumar Jinwal, Eun-Kyeong Jo, Terje Johansen, Daniel E Johnson, Gail Vw Johnson, James D Johnson, Eric Jonasch, Chris Jones, Leo Ab Joosten, Joaquin Jordan, Anna-Maria Joseph, Bertrand Joseph, Annie M Joubert, Dianwen Ju, Jingfang Ju, Hsueh-Fen Juan, Katrin Juenemann, Gábor Juhász, Hye Seung Jung, Jae U Jung, Yong-Keun Jung, Heinz Jungbluth, Matthew J Justice, Barry Jutten, Nadeem O Kaakoush, Kai Kaarniranta, Allen Kaasik, Tomohiro Kabuta, Bertrand Kaeffer, Katarina Kågedal, Alon Kahana, Shingo Kajimura, Or Kakhlon, Manjula Kalia, Dhan V Kalvakolanu, Yoshiaki Kamada, Konstantinos Kambas, Vitaliy O Kaminskyy, Harm H Kampinga, Mustapha Kandouz, Chanhee Kang, Rui Kang, Tae-Cheon Kang, Tomotake Kanki, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Haruo Kanno, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Marc Kantorow, Maria Kaparakis-Liaskos, Orsolya Kapuy, Vassiliki Karantza, Md Razaul Karim, Parimal Karmakar, Arthur Kaser, Susmita Kaushik, Thomas Kawula, A Murat Kaynar, Po-Yuan Ke, Zun-Ji Ke, John H Kehrl, Kate E Keller, Jongsook Kim Kemper, Anne K Kenworthy, Oliver Kepp, Andreas Kern, Santosh Kesari, David Kessel, Robin Ketteler, Isis do Carmo Kettelhut, Bilon Khambu, Muzamil Majid Khan, Vinoth Km Khandelwal, Sangeeta Khare, Juliann G Kiang, Amy A Kiger, Akio Kihara, 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Yang, Wei Yuan Yang, Xuesong Yang, Yi Yang, Ying Yang, Zhifen Yang, Zhihong Yang, Meng-Chao Yao, Pamela J Yao, Xiaofeng Yao, Zhenyu Yao, Zhiyuan Yao, Linda S Yasui, Mingxiang Ye, Barry Yedvobnick, Behzad Yeganeh, Elizabeth S Yeh, Patricia L Yeyati, Fan Yi, Long Yi, Xiao-Ming Yin, Calvin K Yip, Yeong-Min Yoo, Young Hyun Yoo, Seung-Yong Yoon, Ken-Ichi Yoshida, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Ken H Young, Huixin Yu, Jane J Yu, Jin-Tai Yu, Jun Yu, Li Yu, W Haung Yu, Xiao-Fang Yu, Zhengping Yu, Junying Yuan, Zhi-Min Yuan, Beatrice Yjt Yue, Jianbo Yue, Zhenyu Yue, David N Zacks, Eldad Zacksenhaus, Nadia Zaffaroni, Tania Zaglia, Zahra Zakeri, Vincent Zecchini, Jinsheng Zeng, Min Zeng, Qi Zeng, Antonis S Zervos, Donna D Zhang, Fan Zhang, Guo Zhang, Guo-Chang Zhang, Hao Zhang, Hong Zhang, Hong Zhang, Hongbing Zhang, Jian Zhang, Jian Zhang, Jiangwei Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Jing-Pu Zhang, Li Zhang, Lin Zhang, Lin Zhang, Long Zhang, Ming-Yong Zhang, Xiangnan Zhang, Xu Dong Zhang, Yan Zhang, Yang Zhang, Yanjin Zhang, Yingmei Zhang, Yunjiao Zhang, Mei Zhao, Wei-Li Zhao, Xiaonan Zhao, Yan G Zhao, Ying Zhao, Yongchao Zhao, Yu-Xia Zhao, Zhendong Zhao, Zhizhuang J Zhao, Dexian Zheng, Xi-Long Zheng, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Boris Zhivotovsky, Qing Zhong, Guang-Zhou Zhou, Guofei Zhou, Huiping Zhou, Shu-Feng Zhou, Xu-Jie Zhou, Hongxin Zhu, Hua Zhu, Wei-Guo Zhu, Wenhua Zhu, Xiao-Feng Zhu, Yuhua Zhu, Shi-Mei Zhuang, Xiaohong Zhuang, Elio Ziparo, Christos E Zois, Teresa Zoladek, Wei-Xing Zong, Antonio Zorzano, Susu M Zughaier Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition). Autophagy: 2016, 12(1);1-222 PubMed 26799652

Jesús Ángel Fernández Fernández, Luis Parodi Hueck [Congenital recto-vaginal fistula associated with a normal anus (type H fistula) and rectal atresia in a patient. Report of a case and a brief revision of the literature]. [Asociación de fistula rectovaginal congénita con ano normal (Fístulas Tipo H) y atresia rectal en una paciente. Reporte de un caso y breve revisi6n de la literatura.] Invest Clin: 2015, 56(3);301-7 PubMed 26710545

Srikanth K P, B R Thapa, Sadhna B Lal, Prema Menon, Kushaljit Sodhi, Kim Vaiphei, K L N Rao Non communicating gastric antral duplication cyst presenting with hematemesis due to large antral ulcer. Trop Gastroenterol: 2015, 36(2);134-6 PubMed 26710489

Yuantao Hou, Xiaohong Sun, Xiaoqing Li, Zhifeng Wang, Liming Zhu, Huijun Shu, Guijun Fei, Meiyun Ke, Xiucai Fang [Esophageal motility abnormalities and their impact on esophageal acid exposure in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi: 2015, 54(10);865-9 PubMed 26675026

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Textbooks

  • Human Embryology Larson Chapter 9 p229-260
  • The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (6th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter 12 p271-302
  • Before We Are Born (5th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter 13 p255-287
  • Essentials of Human Embryology Larson Chapter 9 p123-146
  • Human Embryology Fitzgerald and Fitzgerald Chapter 19,20 p119-123

More? References | Online Textbooks | Historic Textbooks

UNSW Students
Mark Hill icon.jpg You have access the following online Embryology textbooks through the UNSW Library.
The Developing Human, 8th edn.jpg Moore, K.L. & Persuad, T.V.N. (2008). The Developing Human: clinically oriented embryology (8th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.
Larsen's human embryology 4th edn.jpg Schoenwolf, G.C., Bleyl, S.B., Brauer, P.R. and Francis-West, P.H. (2009). Larsen’s Human Embryology (4th ed.). New York; Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Objectives

  • Understanding of germ layer contributions to the early gastrointestinal tract (GIT)
  • Understanding of the folding of the GIT
  • Understanding of three main GIT embryonic divisions
  • Understanding of associated organ development (liver, pancreas, spleen)
  • Brief understanding of mechanical changes (rotations) during GIT development
  • Brief understanding of gastrointestinal abnormalities

Germ Layer Contributions

  • Endoderm - epithelium and associated glands
  • Mesoderm (splanchnic) - mesentry, connective tissues, smooth muscle, blood vessels
  • Ectoderm (neural crest) - enteric nervous system (neural tube) - extrinsic innervation

Both endoderm and mesoderm will contribute to associated organs.

Gastrointestinal Tract Movies

GIT Cartoons
Mesoderm 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Week 3 Mesoderm
Page | Play
Endoderm 002 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Endoderm
Page | Play
Gastrointestinal tract growth 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Tract Growth
Page | Play
Stomach rotation 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Stomach Rotation
Page | Play
Lesser sac 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Lesser sac
Page | Play
Greater omentum 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Greater Omentum
Page | Play

3 GIT divisions

GIT blood supply.jpg
During the 4th week the 3 distinct portions (fore-, mid- and hind-gut) extend the length of the embryo and will contribute different components of the GIT. These 3 divisions are also later defined by the vascular (artery) supply to each of theses divisions.

The large mid-gut is generated by lateral embryonic folding which "pinches off" a pocket of the yolk sac, the 2 compartments continue to communicate through the vitelline duct.

The oral cavity (mouth) is formed following breakdown of the buccopharyngeal membrane (oropharyngeal, oral membrane) and contributed to mainly by the pharynx lying within the pharyngeal arches. The opening of the GIT means that it contains amniotic fluid, which is also swallowed later in development.

Foregut

Stage 11 foregut
From the oral cavity the next portion of the foregut is initially a single gastrointestinal (oesophagus) and respiratory (trachea) common tube, the pharynx which lies behind the heart. Note that the respiratory tract will form from a ventral bud arising at this level.
  • Oral cavity
  • Pharynx (esophagus, trachea)
  • Respiratory tract
  • Stomach

Midgut

midgut herniation

From beneath the stomach the initial portion of the small intestine, the duodenum, and the associated pancreas now lie.

Much of the midgut is herniated at the umbilicus external to the abdomen through development. A key step in development is the rotation of this midgut that must occur to place the GIT in the correct abdominal position with its associated mesentry. The GIT itself differentiates to form significantly different structures along its length: oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, iliem (small intestine), colon (large intestine).

The mesentries of the GIT are generated from the common dorsal mesentry, with the ventral mesentry contributing to the lesser omentum and falciform ligament.

Hindgut

The distral transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum and cloaca. The cloaca is the common urogenital sinus which will later become partitioned into an anterior urinary and posterior GIT rectal component.


Links: Intestine Development

Development Overview

GIT shown in green anchored by dosal and ventral mesogastrium. The space ouside this will be the peritoneal cavity.

Red ring-neural tube with neural crestBlue ring- notocordOrange- somites

Differentiation of associated organs at the level of the forming stomach occurs both dorsally (spleen) and ventrally (liver).

 

Large blue ring- dorsal aortaDark green ring- Liver

Continued growth of the GIT and the organs leads to organ movements and bending of tract.

Carnegie stage 13 Embryo Overview

Below is an overview of the sections starting at the level of pharynx compressed dorsoventrally, following the GIT through to the rectum. The most obvious feature is that of a continuous tube initially, attached by dorsoventral mesentry. Outside this tube and mesentry (at the levels below the lung buds) is the intraembryonic coelom that will form the peritoneal cavity. The hepatic diverticulum (liver bud) lies under the septum transversum is the earliest associated GIT organ that has differentiated, and now occupies a substantial region of the abdomen. Clicking on sections below will open the original images.

Stage14-git.jpg
Bifurcation of the pharynx into anterior respiratory and posterior oesophagous. The stomach forming beneath the lung buds and adjacent to the developing liver. Below the stomach the GIT has a large dorsal mesogastrium and finer ventral mesogastrium. Associated with the tract is the large portal blood vessel derived from the vitelline circulation. At the bottom curvature of the embryo the mesentry association with the GIT shows extensive vitelline vessels running out through the umbilicus. The hindgut can then be seen, ending at the common urogenital sinus, the cloaca.

Innervation

Myenteric plexus lying between the outer two layers of smooth muscle

Neural History

  • 1857 Meissner was the first to describe a nerve plexus in the submucosa of the bowel wall.
  • 1864 Auerbach described the myenteric plexus between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers.
  • 1981 LeDouarin describes neural crest contribution to both plexuses.

Myenteric Plexus

  • Peristalsis
  • Coordinated waves of descending inhibition followed by waves of descending excitation

+ Extrinsic parasympathetic cholinergic nerves (vagal and sacral) excite peristalsis and stimulate

- Sympathetic noradrenergic nerves inhibit the transit of gut contents


Submucosal Plexus

  • epithelial movements
  • secretion and absorption

Associated Organs

Liver, pancreas and spleen (stage 22 embryo).

The early tract develops as a simple tube, then a number of endodermal outgrowths from this tube at different levels and contribute to a range of additional organs and tissues. The gastrointestinal associated organs liver, gall bladder and pancreas. Development of these organs is described on separate pages.

There are also a number of additional non-gastrointestinal structures including the respiratory tract and development within the mesentery such as the spleen.


Links: Liver | Gall Bladder | PancreasLiver Histology | Pancreas Histology | Gall Bladder Histology

Gastrointestinal Tract Abnormalities

Only a brief description is given on this current page, for more details see Gastrointestinal Tract - Abnormalities.

Lumen Abnormalities

There are several types of abnormalities that impact upon the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract lumen.

  • Atresia - interuption of the lumen (esophageal atresia, duodenal atresia, extrahepatic biliary atresia, anorectal atresia)
  • Stenosis - narrowing of the lumen (duodenal stenosis, pyloric stenosis).
  • Duplication - incomplete recanalization resulting in parallel lumens, this is really a specialized form of stenosis.

Meckel's Diverticulum

This GIT abnormality is a very common and results from improper closure and absorption of the omphalomesenteric duct (vitelline duct) in development. This transient developmental duct connects the yolk to the primitive GIT.

Intestinal Malrotation

Intestinal malrotation.jpg


Links: Intestinal Malrotation

Intestinal Aganglionosis

(intestinal aganglionosis, Hirschsprung's disease, aganglionic colon, megacolon, congenital aganglionic megacolon, congenital megacolon) A condition caused by the lack of enteric nervous system (neural ganglia) in the intestinal tract responsible for gastric motility (peristalsis).

Gastroschisis

Gastroschisis (omphalocele, paraomphalocele, laparoschisis, abdominoschisis, abdominal hernia) is a congenital abdominal wall defect which results in herniation of fetal abdominal viscera (intestines and/or organs) into the amniotic cavity. Incidence of gastroschisis has been reported at 1.66/10,000, occuring more frequently in young mothers (less than 20 years old).

By definition, it is a body wall musculoskeletal defect, not a gastrointestinal tract defect, which in turn impacts upon GIT development.

Links: Gastroschisis | Gastrointestinal Tract - Abnormalities

Molecular

The endoderm of the developing gastrointestinal tract is a source for patterning signals for both within the tract and also for the surrounding organs and tissues.


  • Sox2 - expressed in the anterior part of the primitive gut[3]
  • Cdx2 - expressed in the posterior part of the primitive gut[3]
  • GDNF - regulate migration of enteric neural crest cells[4]
  • endothelin - regulate migration of enteric neural crest cells[4]

References

  1. Peter S Vestentoft, Peter Jelnes, Branden M Hopkinson, Ben Vainer, Kjeld Møllgård, Bjørn Quistorff, Hanne C Bisgaard Three-dimensional reconstructions of intrahepatic bile duct tubulogenesis in human liver. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2011, 11;56 PubMed 21943389
  2. Petra Dames, Ramona Puff, Michaela Weise, Klaus G Parhofer, Burkhard Göke, Magdalena Götz, Jochen Graw, Jack Favor, Andreas Lechner Relative roles of the different Pax6 domains for pancreatic alpha cell development. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2010, 10;39 PubMed 20377917
  3. 3.0 3.1 Lalini Raghoebir, Elvira R M Bakker, Jason C Mills, Sigrid Swagemakers, Marjon Buscop-van Kempen, Anne Boerema-de Munck, Siska Driegen, Dies Meijer, Frank Grosveld, Dick Tibboel, Ron Smits, Robbert J Rottier SOX2 redirects the developmental fate of the intestinal epithelium toward a premature gastric phenotype. J Mol Cell Biol: 2012, 4(6);377-85 PubMed 22679103
  4. 4.0 4.1 Akihiro Goto, Kenta Sumiyama, Yuji Kamioka, Eiji Nakasyo, Keisuke Ito, Mitsuhiro Iwasaki, Hideki Enomoto, Michiyuki Matsuda GDNF and endothelin 3 regulate migration of enteric neural crest-derived cells via protein kinase A and Rac1. J. Neurosci.: 2013, 33(11);4901-12 PubMed 23486961

Online Textbooks

Historic Textbooks

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.
(More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)


Reviews

Alan J Burns, Rachael R Roberts, Joel C Bornstein, Heather M Young Development of the enteric nervous system and its role in intestinal motility during fetal and early postnatal stages. Semin. Pediatr. Surg.: 2009, 18(4);196-205 PubMed 19782301

Sally F Burn, Robert E Hill Left-right asymmetry in gut development: what happens next? Bioessays: 2009, 31(10);1026-37 PubMed 19708022

Valérie A McLin, Susan J Henning, Milan Jamrich The role of the visceral mesoderm in the development of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastroenterology: 2009, 136(7);2074-91 PubMed 19303014

H M Young On the outside looking in: longitudinal muscle development in the gut. Neurogastroenterol. Motil.: 2008, 20(5);431-3 PubMed 18416699

Deborah C Rubin Intestinal morphogenesis. Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol.: 2007, 23(2);111-4 PubMed 17268237

Josef Neu Gastrointestinal development and meeting the nutritional needs of premature infants. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.: 2007, 85(2);629S-634S PubMed 17284768

Richard B Anderson, Donald F Newgreen, Heather M Young Neural crest and the development of the enteric nervous system. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.: 2006, 589;181-96 PubMed 17076282

Robert H Costa, Vladimir V Kalinichenko, Ai-Xuan L Holterman, Xinhe Wang Transcription factors in liver development, differentiation, and regeneration. Hepatology: 2003, 38(6);1331-47 PubMed 14647040

P de Santa Barbara, G R van den Brink, D J Roberts Development and differentiation of the intestinal epithelium. Cell. Mol. Life Sci.: 2003, 60(7);1322-32 PubMed 12943221

L R Johnson Functional development of the stomach. Annu. Rev. Physiol.: 1985, 47;199-215 PubMed 3922287


Articles

Bettina Wilm, Annemieke Ipenberg, Nicholas D Hastie, John B E Burch, David M Bader The serosal mesothelium is a major source of smooth muscle cells of the gut vasculature. Development: 2005, 132(23);5317-28 PubMed 16284122


Search PubMed

Search Mar 2007 "gastrointestinal tract development" 29,361 reference articles of which 3,494 were reviews.

Search April 2010 "Gastrointestinal Tract Development" - All (35980) Review (4707) Free Full Text (8086)

Search Pubmed: Gastrointestinal Tract Development

Additional Images

Terms

Gastrointestinal Tract Development

  • allantois - An extraembryonic membrane, endoderm in origin extension from the early hindgut, then cloaca into the connecting stalk of placental animals, connected to the superior end of developing bladder. In reptiles and birds, acts as a reservoir for wastes and mediates gas exchange. In mammals is associated/incorporated with connecting stalk/placental cord fetal-maternal interface.
  • amnion - An extraembryonic membrane]ectoderm and extraembryonic mesoderm in origin and forms the innermost fetal membrane, produces amniotic fluid. This fluid-filled sac initially lies above the trilaminar embryonic disc and with embryoic disc folding this sac is drawn ventrally to enclose (cover) the entire embryo, then fetus. The presence of this membane led to the description of reptiles, bird, and mammals as amniotes.
  • amniotic fluid - The fluid that fills amniotic cavity totally encloses and cushions the embryo. Amniotic fluid enters both the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract following rupture of the buccopharyngeal membrane. The late fetus swallows amniotic fluid.
  • buccal - (Latin, bucca = cheek) A term used to relate to the mouth (oral cavity).
  • buccopharyngeal membrane - (oral membrane) (Latin, bucca = cheek) A membrane which forms the external upper membrane limit (cranial end) of the early gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This membrane develops during gastrulation by ectoderm and endoderm without a middle (intervening) layer of mesoderm. The membrane lies at the floor of the ventral depression (stomodeum) where the oral cavity will open and will breakdown to form the initial "oral opening" of the gastrointestinal tract. The equivilent membrane at the lower end of the gastrointestinal tract is the cloacal membrane.
  • cloacal membrane - Forms the external lower membrane limit (caudal end) of the early gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This membrane is formed during gastrulation by ectoderm and endoderm without a middle (intervening) layer of mesoderm. The membrane breaks down to form the initial "anal opening" of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • coelom - Term used to describe a space. There are extraembryonic and intraembryonic coeloms that form during vertebrate development. The single intraembryonic coelom will form the 3 major body cavities: pleural, pericardial and peritoneal.
  • foregut - The first of the three part/division (foregut - midgut - hindgut) of the early forming gastrointestinal tract. The foregut runs from the buccopharyngeal membrane to the midgut and forms all the tract (esophagus and stomach) from the oral cavity to beneath the stomach. In addition, a ventral bifurcation of the foregut will also form the respiratory tract epithelium.
  • gastrula - (Greek, gastrula = little stomach) A stage of an animal embryo in which the three germ layers ([E#endoderm|endoderm]/mesoderm/ectoderm) have just formed.
  • gastrulation - The process of differentiation forming a gastrula. Term means literally means "to form a gut" but is more in development, as this process converts the bilaminar embryo (epiblast/hypoblast) into the trilaminar embryo (E#endoderm endoderm/mesoderm/ectoderm) establishing the 3 germ layers that will form all the future tissues of the entire embryo. This process also establishes the the initial body axes.
  • hindgut - The last of the three part/division foregut - midgut - hindgut) of the early forming gastrointestinal tract. The hindgut forms all the tract from the distral transverse colon to the cloacal membrane and extends into the connecting stalk (placental cord) as the allantois. In addition, a ventral of the hindgut will also form the urinary tract (bladder, urethra) epithelium.
  • intraembryonic coelom - The "horseshoe-shaped" space (cavity) that forms initially in the third week of development in the lateral plate mesoderm that will eventually form the 3 main body cavities: pericardial, pleural, peritoneal. The intraembryonic coelom communicates transiently with the extraembryonic coelom.
  • neuralation - The general term used to describe the early formation of the nervous system. It is often used to describe the early events of differentiation of the central ectoderm region to form the neural plate, then neural groove, then neural tube. The nervous system includes the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) from the neural tube and the peripheral nervous system (peripheral sensory and sympathetic ganglia) from neural crest. In humans, early neuralation begins in week 3 and continues through week 4.
  • neural crest - region of cells at the edge of the neural plate that migrates throughout the embryo and contributes to many different tissues. In the gastrointestinal tract it contributes mainly the enteric nervous system within the wall of the gut responsible for peristalsis and secretion.
  • pharynx - uppermost end of gastrointestinal and respiratory tract, in the embryo beginning at the buccopharyngeal membrane and forms a major arched cavity within the phrayngeal arches.
  • somitogenesis The process of segmentation of the paraxial mesoderm within the trilaminar embryo body to form pairs of somites, or balls of mesoderm. A somite is added either side of the notochord (axial mesoderm) to form a somite pair. The segmentation does not occur in the head region, and begins cranially (head end) and extends caudally (tailward) adding a somite pair at regular time intervals. The process is sequential and therefore used to stage the age of many different species embryos based upon the number visible somite pairs. In humans, the first somite pair appears at day 20 and adds caudally at 1 somite pair/4 hours (mouse 1 pair/90 min) until on average 44 pairs eventually form.
  • splanchnic mesoderm - Gastrointestinal tract (endoderm) associated mesoderm formed by the separation of the lateral plate mesoderm into two separate components by a cavity, the intraembryonic coelom. Splanchnic mesoderm is the embryonic origin of the gastrointestinal tract connective tissue, smooth muscle, blood vessels and contribute to organ development (pancreas, spleen, liver). The intraembryonic coelom will form the three major body cavities including the space surrounding the gut, the peritoneal cavity. The other half of the lateral plate mesoderm (somatic mesoderm) is associated with the ectoderm of the body wall.
  • stomodeum - (stomadeum, stomatodeum) A ventral surface depression on the early embryo head surrounding the buccopharyngeal membrane, which lies at the floor of this depression. This surface depression lies between the maxillary and mandibular components of the first pharyngeal arch.



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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2016) Embryology Gastrointestinal Tract Development. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Gastrointestinal_Tract_Development

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