Abnormal Development - Measles Virus
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Measles (rubeola, German Measles, Three-Day Measles) is a paramyxovirus appearing mainly as a respiratory viral infection, clinically different from rubella. A single-stranded RNA virus which is highly contagious. Before measles vaccination (USA 1963) more than 90% of children had an infection before puberty and in developing countries it is still a common and often fatal childhood disease. Childhood immunisation and immunity persists in only about 80% of adults.
Pregnancy effects of measles results in a higher risk of premature labor, spontaneous abortion, low-birth-weight, and possibly rare cases of birth defects with no definable pattern of malformation.
Some Recent Findings
Lineage: Viruses; ssRNA viruses; ssRNA negative-strand viruses; Mononegavirales; Paramyxoviridae; Paramyxovirinae; Morbillivirus; Measles virus
- ssRNA; linear; Length: 15,894 nt Measles virus, complete genome
- virus replication involves a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRp), using as a template a nucleocapsid (NC) made of a single strand of RNA in tight complex with the nucleoprotein (N).
- negative-strand genome contains six transcription units encoding the N, phospho (P), matrix (M), fusion (F), hemagglutinin (H), and large (L) or polymerase protein.
- each N protein binds to 6 nucleotides.
- the N polymer entirely covers the 15,894-nucleotide genome.
- 23 known measles genotypes.
Model of cell virus RNA accumulation
The following 5 -step model has been described for cell virus accumulation following hours post-infection (hpi)
- 0 to ~5 hpi - incoming viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRp) initiated primary transcription from every gene with no detectable lag phase.
- ~5 to ~12 hpi - mRNA accumulates exponentially.
- ~12 to ~24 hpi - mRNAs, genomes, and antigenomes accumulate exponentially because of the increase of both newly available template and vRdRp.
- ~24 to ~30 hpi - genomes and antigenomes continue to accumulate exponentially at the same rate, whereas the accumulation of the transcripts slows down.
- 30+ hpi - genome and antigenome accumulation slows down, and the cell content in viral transcripts tends to decrease.
Japan - first introduced to Japan in 1966 and adopted in the national regular immunization program from 1978.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2013). Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control and elimination - global progress, 2000-2012. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. , 62, 983-6. PMID: 24304830
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Enders M, Biber M & Exler S. (2007). [Measles, mumps and rubella virus infection in pregnancy. Possible adverse effects on pregnant women, pregnancy outcome and the fetus]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz , 50, 1393-8. PMID: 17999132 DOI.
Chiba ME, Saito M, Suzuki N, Honda Y & Yaegashi N. (2003). Measles infection in pregnancy. J. Infect. , 47, 40-4. PMID: 12850161
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- Eurosurveillance is a European peer-reviewed scientific journal devoted to the epidemiology, surveillance, prevention and control of communicable diseases, with a focus on such topics that are of relevance to Europe.
- CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) | About Rubella
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, May 30) Embryology Abnormal Development - Measles Virus. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Measles_Virus
- © Dr Mark Hill 2020, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G