Abnormal Development - Measles Virus
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Measles (rubeola, German Measles, Three-Day Measles) is a paramyxovirus appearing mainly as a respiratory viral infection, clinically different from rubella. A single-stranded RNA virus which is highly contagious. Before measles vaccination (USA 1963) more than 90% of children had an infection before puberty and in developing countries it is still a common and often fatal childhood disease. Childhood immunisation and immunity persists in only about 80% of adults.
Pregnancy effects of measles results in a higher risk of premature labor, spontaneous abortion, low-birth-weight, and possibly rare cases of birth defects with no definable pattern of malformation.
20 March 2014 - Measles Elimination Achieved in Australia
The World Health Organization (WHO) announced that measles elimination had been achieved by Australia, Macao (China), Mongolia and the Republic of Korea.
Some Recent Findings
Lineage: Viruses; ssRNA viruses; ssRNA negative-strand viruses; Mononegavirales; Paramyxoviridae; Paramyxovirinae; Morbillivirus; Measles virus
- ssRNA; linear; Length: 15,894 nt Measles virus, complete genome
- virus replication involves a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRp), using as a template a nucleocapsid (NC) made of a single strand of RNA in tight complex with the nucleoprotein (N).
- negative-strand genome contains six transcription units encoding the N, phospho (P), matrix (M), fusion (F), hemagglutinin (H), and large (L) or polymerase protein.
- each N protein binds to 6 nucleotides.
- the N polymer entirely covers the 15,894-nucleotide genome.
- 23 known measles genotypes.
Model of cell virus RNA accumulation
The following 5 -step model has been described for cell virus accumulation following hours post-infection (hpi)
- 0 to ~5 hpi - incoming viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRp) initiated primary transcription from every gene with no detectable lag phase.
- ~5 to ~12 hpi - mRNA accumulates exponentially.
- ~12 to ~24 hpi - mRNAs, genomes, and antigenomes accumulate exponentially because of the increase of both newly available template and vRdRp.
- ~24 to ~30 hpi - genomes and antigenomes continue to accumulate exponentially at the same rate, whereas the accumulation of the transcripts slows down.
- 30+ hpi - genome and antigenome accumulation slows down, and the cell content in viral transcripts tends to decrease.
Japan - first introduced to Japan in 1966 and adopted in the national regular immunization program from 1978.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2013). Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control and elimination - global progress, 2000-2012. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. , 62, 983-6. PMID: 24304830
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Enders M, Biber M & Exler S. (2007). [Measles, mumps and rubella virus infection in pregnancy. Possible adverse effects on pregnant women, pregnancy outcome and the fetus]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz , 50, 1393-8. PMID: 17999132 DOI.
Chiba ME, Saito M, Suzuki N, Honda Y & Yaegashi N. (2003). Measles infection in pregnancy. J. Infect. , 47, 40-4. PMID: 12850161
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- CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) | About Rubella
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, October 27) Embryology Abnormal Development - Measles Virus. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Measles_Virus
- © Dr Mark Hill 2020, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G