From Embryology
Student Information (expand to read)  
Individual Assessments
Mark Hill.jpg

Please leave this template on top of your student page as I will add your assessment items here.

Beginning your online work - Working Online in this course

  1. Make your own page.
    1. Log-in to the embryology website using your student ID and Zpass.
    2. Click your student number (shown in red at the top right of the screen following log-in)
    3. Create page using the tab at the top of the page, and save.
  2. Add the following to the top of your page exactly as shown - {{ANAT2341Student2016}}
  3. How would you identify your Type in a group and add to your page.
  4. What was the most interesting thing you learnt in the fertilisation lecture?

If you have done the above correctly your ZID should be blue and not red on this page link - ANAT2341 2016 Students.

Here is the example page I made in Lab 1 Student Page. With a few more explanatory notes.

Click here to email Dr Mark Hill

Editing Links: Editing Basics | Images | Tables | Referencing | Journal Searches | Copyright | Font Colours | Virtual Slide Permalink | My Preferences | One Page Wiki Card | Printing | Movies | Language Translation | Student Movies | Using OpenOffice | Internet Browsers | Moodle | Navigation/Contribution | Term Link | Short URLs | 2018 Test Student
Lab 1 Assessment - Researching a Topic
In the lab I showed you how to find the PubMed reference database and search it using a topic word. Lab 1 assessment will be for you to use this to find a research reference on "fertilization" and write a brief summary of the main finding of the paper.
  1. Add a new Sub-heading "Lab 1 Assessment" (without the quotes).
  2. Search the database for a reference on "fertilisation" published in the last 5 years.
    1. It must be a research article not a Review.
    2. The full paper must be available online, not just the abstract.
  3. Add a link to this reference using its PMID using this code <pubmed>XXXXX</pubmed> replacing the Xs with just the PMID number (no text).
  4. Under the reference write a short summary of the papers main findings.
    1. Only 1-2 paragraphs.
    2. Must not be a copy of the paper abstract.
  5. Save and you are done.

PubMed logo.gif

Lab 2 Assessment - Uploading an Image
  1. Upload a research image using the guide information below. The image uploaded for your individual assessment can relate to your project or from fertilisation to week 3 of development (upload only a single image).
  2. Add that image to your own individual page (see Images) including an image title and its reference link.
  3. No two students should upload the same image, check new images before you upload.
  4. No student can delete an image once uploaded, please contact me by email with the image address and I will delete (with no penalty, just glad to help out).

2016 Group Project Topic - Signaling in Development

OK you are now in a group

  1. Go to the blank group page and add a topic that interests you along with your student signature.
  2. No two groups can do the same topic, but at this stage the final topic has not yet been decided (next week).

Initially the topic can be as specific or as broad as you want.

Chicken embryo E-cad and P-cad gastrulation.png

Chicken embryo E-cad and P-cad gastrulation[1]


  1. <pubmed>27097030</pubmed>
Lab 4 Assessment - GIT Quiz

ANAT2341 Quiz Example | Category:Quiz | ANAT2341 Student 2015 Quiz Questions |

Design 4 quiz questions based upon gastrointestinal tract. Add the quiz to your own page under Lab 4 assessment and provide a sub-sub-heading on the topic of the quiz.

An example is shown below (open this page in view code or edit mode). Note that it is not just how you ask the question, but also how you explain the correct answer.

Lab 5 Assessment - Course Review
Complete the course review questionnaire and add the fact you have completed to your student page.
Lab 6 Assessment - Cleft Lip and Palate
  1. Identify a known genetic mutation that is associated with cleft lip or palate.
  2. Identify a recent research article on this gene.
  3. How does this mutation affect developmental signalling in normal development.
Lab 7 Assessment - Muscular Dystrophy
  1. What is/are the dystrophin mutation(s)?
  2. What is the function of dystrophin?
  3. What other tissues/organs are affected by this disorder?
  4. What therapies exist for DMD?
  5. What animal models are available for muscular dystrophy?
Lab 8 Assessment - Quiz
A brief quiz was held in the practical class on urogenital development.
Lab 9 Assessment - Peer Assessment
  • This will form part of your individual assessment for the course.
  • Each student should now look at each of the other Group projects in the class.
  • Next prepare a critical assessment (should include both positive and negative issues) of each project using the project group assessment criteria.
  • This assessment should be pasted without signature on the top of the specific project's discussion page. (minimum length 3-5 paragraphs/project)
  • This critical assessment should also be pasted on your own student page.
  • Each student should therefore have 5 separate reports pasted on their own page for this assessment item.
  • Length, quality and accuracy of your reports will be part of the overall mark for this assessment.
    • there will be a greater loading on this than simple question assessments.
Lab 10 Assessment - Stem Cells
As part of the assessment for this course, you will give a 15 minutes journal club presentation in Lab 10. For this you will in your current student group discuss a recent (published after 2011) original research article (not a review!) on stem cell biology or technology.
Lab 10 - Stem Cell Presentations 2016
Group Mark Assessor General Comments

Group 1: 15/20

Group 2: 19/20

Group 3: 20/20

Group 4: 19/20

Group 5: 16/20

Group 6: 16/20

The students put great effort in their presentation and we heard a nice variety of studies in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine today. The interaction after the presentation was great.

As general feedback I would like to advise students to:

  • Never discuss M&M as a separate section in journal clubs. I gave this advice prior to the lab, but still most groups did talk through the M&M section.
  • Do not use your slides as cheat sheets, avoid text on slides, know what messages you need to get across, use images to illustrate these
  • Engage with your slides. Talk through them. Point at panels. Gauge your audience’s understanding by making eye contact with them
  • Avoid using abbreviations. Most people do not readily understand these and will lose track
Lab 11 Assessment - Heart Development
Read the following recent review article on heart repair and from the reference list identify a cited research article and write a brief summary of the paper's main findings. Then describe how the original research result was used in the review article.


ANAT2341Lectures - Textbook chapters  
Lecture (Timetable) Textbook - The Developing Human Textbook - Larsen's Human Embryology
Embryology Introduction Introduction to the Developing Human
Fertilization First Week of Human Development Gametogenesis, Fertilization, and First Week
Week 1 and 2 Second Week of Human Development Second Week: Becoming Bilaminar and Fully Implanting
Week 3 Third Week of Human Development Third Week: Becoming Trilaminar and Establishing Body Axes
Mesoderm Fourth to Eighth Weeks of Human Development Fourth Week: Forming the Embryo
Ectoderm Nervous System Development of the Central Nervous System
Early Vascular Cardiovascular System Development of the Vasculature
Placenta Placenta and Fetal Membranes Development of the Vasculature
Endoderm - GIT Alimentary System Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract
Respiratory Respiratory System Development of the Respiratory System and Body Cavities
Head Pharyngeal Apparatus, Face, and Neck Development of the Pharyngeal Apparatus and Face
Neural Crest Nervous System Development of the Peripheral Nervous System
Musculoskeletal Muscular System Development of the Musculoskeletal System
Limb Development of Limbs Development of the Limbs
Renal Urogenital System Development of the Urinary System
Genital Urogenital System Development of the Urinary System
Stem Cells
Integumentary Integumentary System Development of the Skin and Its Derivatives
Endocrine Covered through various chapters (see also alternate text), read head and neck, neural crest and renal chapters.
Endocrinology Textbook - Chapter Titles  
Nussey S. and Whitehead S. Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach (2001) Oxford: BIOS Scientific Publishers; ISBN-10: 1-85996-252-1.

Full Table of Contents

Heart Cardiovascular System Development of the Heart
Sensory Development of Eyes and Ears Development of the Eyes
Fetal Fetal Period Fetal Development and the Fetus as Patient
Birth and Revision
Additional Textbook Content - The following concepts also form part of the theory material covered throughout the course.
  1. Principles and Mechanisms of Morphogenesis and Dysmorphogenesis
  2. Common Signaling Pathways Used During Development
  3. Human Birth Defect
ANAT2341 Course Timetable  
Week (Mon) Lecture 1 (Mon 1-2pm) Lecture 2 (Tue 3-4pm) Practical (Fri 1-3pm)
Week 2 (1 Aug) Introduction Fertilization Lab 1
Week 3 (8 Aug) Week 1 and 2 Week 3 Lab 2
Week 4 (15 Aug) Mesoderm Ectoderm Lab 3
Week 5 (22 Aug) Early Vascular Placenta Lab 4
Week 6 (29 Aug) Gastrointestinal Respiratory Lab 5
Week 7 (5 Sep) Head Neural Crest Lab 6
Week 8 (12 Sep) Musculoskeletal Limb Development Lab 7
Week 9 (19 Sep) Renal Genital Lab 8
Mid-semester break
Week 10 (3 Oct) Public Holiday Stem Cells Lab 9
Week 11 (10 Oct) Integumentary Endocrine Lab 10
Week 12 (17 Oct) Heart Sensory Lab 11
Week 13 (24 Oct) Fetal Birth and Revision Lab 12

ANAT2341 2016: Moodle page | ECHO360 | Textbooks | Students 2016 | Projects 2016

Lab Attendance

Z3516832 (talk) 14:34, 5 August 2016 (AEST)


Z3516832 (talk) 14:24, 26 August 2016 (AEST)

Z3516832 (talk) 13:46, 2 September 2016 (AEST)

Z3516832 (talk)

New Subheading


Student Page



PMID 27486480

embryology marsupial embryology

Lab 1 Assessment

To do 5 August, due 12 August 2016

Review of a publication on human fertilisation


Write a short summary of the papers main findings

During development, all vertebrate embryos pass through the somite stage, which is defined as any developmental stage between the formation of the first and last pairs of somites in embryos (Gilbert, 2003; Mu€ller and O’Rahilly, 2003). The somite stages can vary and is not very accurate, but correspond to CS9-CS13 and occur approximately during the third and fourth weeks after fertilization of the ovum.

This study uses 37 human embryos (already fertilized) that were obtained when pregnancy was terminated during the first trimester due to socioecomomic reasons and form part of the Kyoto Collection in Japan. These embryos are classified following the Carnegie Stage (CS) 11-CS13 which is approximately 28-33 days after fertilization. These embryos were selected due to their good conditions, they were undamaged, and then were measured and examined using the criteria provided by O’Rahilly and Mueller (1987).

The embryos were then subjected to histological serial sectioning. The historical sections were scanned digitally and the morphology and the following primordia were histologically observed: the epithelium and mesenchyme of thyroid, the epithelium around the respiratory primordium region, omental bursa, ventral pancreas, and liver parenchyma. The morphology that was observed in the 2D histological slides was reconstructed in 3D. With the 3D reconstructions, the authors were able to create a precise timeline of the differentiation events that occur during this developmental time and provided key insights into these developmental processes. Using 3D reconstructions the authors were also able to observe the precise mechanisms involved during the digestive tract development during the particular somite stages. For example with the digestive tract and derived primordial, the authors were able to observe the morphology and position of the tract within the body and construct a precise time line during which development occurs. This differs from previous morphometrical studies (e.g. O’Rahilly and Mu€ller, 1984b; Otani et al., 2008) which showed that the size and proportion of the digestive tract and organ primordial varied considerably among embryos at the same stage.

Mark Hill 18 August 2016 - You have added the citation correctly and written a good brief summary of the article findings. The problem is the paper does not relate to fertilisation, that was the topic for this exercise.

Lab 1 assessment will be for you to use this to find a research reference on "fertilization" and write a brief summary of the main finding of the paper.

Assessment 2/5

Lab 2 Assessment


Examples of congenital defects in Apob and Lp mutant mice.gif

Dietary folic acid supplementation in mouse NTD models[1]

Mark Hill 29 August 2016 - All information Reference, Copyright and Student Image template correctly included with the file and referenced on your page here. I have also added a References sub-heading so your citation list appears.

This is the citation link you should use here on your page:

<ref name="PMID25154628"><pubmed>25154628</pubmed></ref>

Assessment 5/5

Lab 3 Assessment

Mark Hill 31 August 2016 - Lab 3 Assessment Quiz - Mesoderm and Ectoderm development.

Question 3 - brain vesicles

Question 4 - brain flexures

Assessment 3/5


  1. <pubmed>25154628</pubmed>

Lab 4 Assessment

Gastrulation Development quiz


During Gastrulation, or gut formation, at the rostral and caudal end of the embryo which membrane breaks down first and when does it occur?:

  buccopharangeal membrane at 6 weeks
  cloacal membrane at 5 weeks
  buccopharangeal membrane at 4 weeks
  coacal membrane at 4 weeks


During Gastrulation which organ forms first after the heart tube, and at what week of embryo development does this occur?:

  Pancreas at 5 weeks
  Foregut of stomach at 6 weeks
  Liver at 4 weeks
  Kidneys at 5 weeks


When the primitive stomach is forming in Week 4 how many turns does it need to take in order to form the correct adult anatomical position?:

  Two turns 90 degrees each
  One turn at 90 degrees and one turn at 45 degrees
  Only one turn at 90 degrees
  Only one turn at 180 degrees


How many cavities does the mammalian "placental" cloaca have and in what groups of vertebrates is the cloaca only a single cavity?:

  Placental mammalian can have two or three seperate orifices for evacuation. Birds, reptiles, amphibians and some other mammals have only one.
  All animals only have one opening called a cloaca for the urinary, digestive and reproductive tracts.
  All animals have two openings, one for the urinary/digestive tract and the other for the reproductive tract.
  All mammals and reptiles have two openings one for the urinary/digestive tract and the other for the reproductive tract.

Lab 6 Assessment

Individual Assessment

Identify a known genetic mutation that is associated with cleft lip or palate.

MSX1 also known as the muscle segment homeobox (MSX1) gene plays a crucial role in epithelial-mesenchymal tissue interactions in craniofacial development

Identify a recent research article on this gene.

PMID 27259221 This recent research article by Paradowska-Stolarz [1] gives a small introduction on cleft palate deformities. The author states that cleft deformities are the most common facial malformations and observed in 10% of facial deformities. The cleft lip and/or palate is served in 1:700 live births. But we the reader do not know if this is a world wide phenomenon or occurs only in Poland. Males are two to three times more likely to have Clefts in the lip, alveolar bone and palate while in females isolated cleft of the palate is more frequent. Facial clefts are formed within 5 to 12 weeks during fetal development. It is still not known what is the full ethology of the cleft lip and/or palate however there is a large genetic factor that contributes to this deformity and there are a number of genes that are known to be involved in the palate formation. The author also states that there also may be a environmental trigger that also causes these facial malformations. The author states [2] that 20% of cleft palate malformations are caused by the following genes: genes encoding signalling molecules (Bmp2, Bmp4, Bmp7, Shh, Wnt5a, Smad 2-4), growth factors (Egf, Egfr, Fgf1, Fgf2, Fgf8, Tgfα, Tgfβ1-3) and their receptors (Fgfr1, Fgfr2), transcription factors (Pax9, Tbx22, Msx1, Tbx1, Ap2α, Blx1-6, Lhx6, Gli 2-3, Hoxa2, Irf6, Pitx1, Pitx2, Prx1), cellular adhesion molecules (Pvrl1, cadherin E, connexin 43), and extra- cellular matrix ( bronexin, Col 1A2, Col2A1, Col11A1 Mmp2, Mmp3, Mmp9, Mmp13, Timp1-3) [46,49]. As well as these MSX1 and TGFβ3 genes are found to be the genes more strongly related to cleft palate anomalies.

Does this mutation affect developmental signalling in normal development?


  1. <pubmed>27259221</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>27259221</pubmed>

Lab 7 Assessment

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

PMID 27594988

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive inherited muscular dystrophy that is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes dystrophin on the x chromosome. Dystrophin is a protein which is needed to keep muscle fiber integrity. This dystrophy is caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, a protein required for muscle fiber integrity. The DMD gene is expressed mainly in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Many approaches have been tested from traditional gene addition to newer approaches which are based on cell manipulations at either gene transcription level, mRNA processing or at translation levels. Currently there are no efficient treatments to treat DMD. The most advanced treatments include therapeutic treatments. DMD affects approximately 1 in 3500 live male births throughout the world. Due to the way that it is inherited, DMD affects mostly boys, but occasionally girls are affected.

Medical Treatment of DMD Steroid treatment (also called glucocorticoids or corticosteroids) has been proven to slow the loss of muscle function and therefore temporarily prolong a boy’s mobility. On average boys taking steroids are able to walk for three years longer and the onset of breathing and heart problems and curvature of the spine may also be delayed. Since steroid treatment was introduced more than 20 years ago the life expectancy of individuals with DMD has increased considerably, but it is not known if this is due to the steroids or the introduction of other measures to manage the condition such as ventilation.

Mouse models for DMD

The mouse model is mdx mouse. A dystrophin deficient mutant was first described in 1984 as a naturally occuring deficient mutant and was described in a colony of C57BL/10 mice (C57BL/10ScSnJ) and has since been referred to as the “mdx-mouse”.