From Embryology
Student Information (expand to read)  
Individual Assessments
Mark Hill.jpg

Please leave this template on top of your student page as I will add your assessment items here.

Beginning your online work - Working Online in this course

  1. Make your own page.
    1. Log-in to the embryology website using your student ID and Zpass.
    2. Click your student number (shown in red at the top right of the screen following log-in)
    3. Create page using the tab at the top of the page, and save.
  2. Add the following to the top of your page exactly as shown - {{ANAT2341Student2016}}
  3. How would you identify your Type in a group and add to your page.
  4. What was the most interesting thing you learnt in the fertilisation lecture?

If you have done the above correctly your ZID should be blue and not red on this page link - ANAT2341 2016 Students.

Here is the example page I made in Lab 1 Student Page. With a few more explanatory notes.

Click here to email Dr Mark Hill

Editing Links: Editing Basics | Images | Tables | Referencing | Journal Searches | Copyright | Font Colours | Virtual Slide Permalink | My Preferences | One Page Wiki Card | Printing | Movies | Language Translation | Student Movies | Using OpenOffice | Internet Browsers | Moodle | Navigation/Contribution | Term Link | Short URLs | 2018 Test Student
Lab 1 Assessment - Researching a Topic
In the lab I showed you how to find the PubMed reference database and search it using a topic word. Lab 1 assessment will be for you to use this to find a research reference on "fertilization" and write a brief summary of the main finding of the paper.
  1. Add a new Sub-heading "Lab 1 Assessment" (without the quotes).
  2. Search the database for a reference on "fertilisation" published in the last 5 years.
    1. It must be a research article not a Review.
    2. The full paper must be available online, not just the abstract.
  3. Add a link to this reference using its PMID using this code <pubmed>XXXXX</pubmed> replacing the Xs with just the PMID number (no text).
  4. Under the reference write a short summary of the papers main findings.
    1. Only 1-2 paragraphs.
    2. Must not be a copy of the paper abstract.
  5. Save and you are done.

PubMed logo.gif

Lab 2 Assessment - Uploading an Image
  1. Upload a research image using the guide information below. The image uploaded for your individual assessment can relate to your project or from fertilisation to week 3 of development (upload only a single image).
  2. Add that image to your own individual page (see Images) including an image title and its reference link.
  3. No two students should upload the same image, check new images before you upload.
  4. No student can delete an image once uploaded, please contact me by email with the image address and I will delete (with no penalty, just glad to help out).

2016 Group Project Topic - Signaling in Development

OK you are now in a group

  1. Go to the blank group page and add a topic that interests you along with your student signature.
  2. No two groups can do the same topic, but at this stage the final topic has not yet been decided (next week).

Initially the topic can be as specific or as broad as you want.

Chicken embryo E-cad and P-cad gastrulation.png

Chicken embryo E-cad and P-cad gastrulation[1]


  1. <pubmed>27097030</pubmed>
Lab 4 Assessment - GIT Quiz

ANAT2341 Quiz Example | Category:Quiz | ANAT2341 Student 2015 Quiz Questions |

Design 4 quiz questions based upon gastrointestinal tract. Add the quiz to your own page under Lab 4 assessment and provide a sub-sub-heading on the topic of the quiz.

An example is shown below (open this page in view code or edit mode). Note that it is not just how you ask the question, but also how you explain the correct answer.

Lab 5 Assessment - Course Review
Complete the course review questionnaire and add the fact you have completed to your student page.
Lab 6 Assessment - Cleft Lip and Palate
  1. Identify a known genetic mutation that is associated with cleft lip or palate.
  2. Identify a recent research article on this gene.
  3. How does this mutation affect developmental signalling in normal development.
Lab 7 Assessment - Muscular Dystrophy
  1. What is/are the dystrophin mutation(s)?
  2. What is the function of dystrophin?
  3. What other tissues/organs are affected by this disorder?
  4. What therapies exist for DMD?
  5. What animal models are available for muscular dystrophy?
Lab 8 Assessment - Quiz
A brief quiz was held in the practical class on urogenital development.
Lab 9 Assessment - Peer Assessment
  • This will form part of your individual assessment for the course.
  • Each student should now look at each of the other Group projects in the class.
  • Next prepare a critical assessment (should include both positive and negative issues) of each project using the project group assessment criteria.
  • This assessment should be pasted without signature on the top of the specific project's discussion page. (minimum length 3-5 paragraphs/project)
  • This critical assessment should also be pasted on your own student page.
  • Each student should therefore have 5 separate reports pasted on their own page for this assessment item.
  • Length, quality and accuracy of your reports will be part of the overall mark for this assessment.
    • there will be a greater loading on this than simple question assessments.
Lab 10 Assessment - Stem Cells
As part of the assessment for this course, you will give a 15 minutes journal club presentation in Lab 10. For this you will in your current student group discuss a recent (published after 2011) original research article (not a review!) on stem cell biology or technology.
Lab 10 - Stem Cell Presentations 2016
Group Mark Assessor General Comments

Group 1: 15/20

Group 2: 19/20

Group 3: 20/20

Group 4: 19/20

Group 5: 16/20

Group 6: 16/20

The students put great effort in their presentation and we heard a nice variety of studies in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine today. The interaction after the presentation was great.

As general feedback I would like to advise students to:

  • Never discuss M&M as a separate section in journal clubs. I gave this advice prior to the lab, but still most groups did talk through the M&M section.
  • Do not use your slides as cheat sheets, avoid text on slides, know what messages you need to get across, use images to illustrate these
  • Engage with your slides. Talk through them. Point at panels. Gauge your audience’s understanding by making eye contact with them
  • Avoid using abbreviations. Most people do not readily understand these and will lose track
Lab 11 Assessment - Heart Development
Read the following recent review article on heart repair and from the reference list identify a cited research article and write a brief summary of the paper's main findings. Then describe how the original research result was used in the review article.


ANAT2341Lectures - Textbook chapters  
Lecture (Timetable) Textbook - The Developing Human Textbook - Larsen's Human Embryology
Embryology Introduction Introduction to the Developing Human
Fertilization First Week of Human Development Gametogenesis, Fertilization, and First Week
Week 1 and 2 Second Week of Human Development Second Week: Becoming Bilaminar and Fully Implanting
Week 3 Third Week of Human Development Third Week: Becoming Trilaminar and Establishing Body Axes
Mesoderm Fourth to Eighth Weeks of Human Development Fourth Week: Forming the Embryo
Ectoderm Nervous System Development of the Central Nervous System
Early Vascular Cardiovascular System Development of the Vasculature
Placenta Placenta and Fetal Membranes Development of the Vasculature
Endoderm - GIT Alimentary System Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract
Respiratory Respiratory System Development of the Respiratory System and Body Cavities
Head Pharyngeal Apparatus, Face, and Neck Development of the Pharyngeal Apparatus and Face
Neural Crest Nervous System Development of the Peripheral Nervous System
Musculoskeletal Muscular System Development of the Musculoskeletal System
Limb Development of Limbs Development of the Limbs
Renal Urogenital System Development of the Urinary System
Genital Urogenital System Development of the Urinary System
Stem Cells
Integumentary Integumentary System Development of the Skin and Its Derivatives
Endocrine Covered through various chapters (see also alternate text), read head and neck, neural crest and renal chapters.
Endocrinology Textbook - Chapter Titles  
Nussey S. and Whitehead S. Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach (2001) Oxford: BIOS Scientific Publishers; ISBN-10: 1-85996-252-1.

Full Table of Contents

Heart Cardiovascular System Development of the Heart
Sensory Development of Eyes and Ears Development of the Eyes
Fetal Fetal Period Fetal Development and the Fetus as Patient
Birth and Revision
Additional Textbook Content - The following concepts also form part of the theory material covered throughout the course.
  1. Principles and Mechanisms of Morphogenesis and Dysmorphogenesis
  2. Common Signaling Pathways Used During Development
  3. Human Birth Defect
ANAT2341 Course Timetable  
Week (Mon) Lecture 1 (Mon 1-2pm) Lecture 2 (Tue 3-4pm) Practical (Fri 1-3pm)
Week 2 (1 Aug) Introduction Fertilization Lab 1
Week 3 (8 Aug) Week 1 and 2 Week 3 Lab 2
Week 4 (15 Aug) Mesoderm Ectoderm Lab 3
Week 5 (22 Aug) Early Vascular Placenta Lab 4
Week 6 (29 Aug) Gastrointestinal Respiratory Lab 5
Week 7 (5 Sep) Head Neural Crest Lab 6
Week 8 (12 Sep) Musculoskeletal Limb Development Lab 7
Week 9 (19 Sep) Renal Genital Lab 8
Mid-semester break
Week 10 (3 Oct) Public Holiday Stem Cells Lab 9
Week 11 (10 Oct) Integumentary Endocrine Lab 10
Week 12 (17 Oct) Heart Sensory Lab 11
Week 13 (24 Oct) Fetal Birth and Revision Lab 12

ANAT2341 2016: Moodle page | ECHO360 | Textbooks | Students 2016 | Projects 2016

lab attendance

Z3417363 (talk) 14:34, 5 August 2016 (AEST)

Z3417363 (talk) 1:13, 2 September 2016 (AEST)

Z3417363 (talk) 1:13, 16 September 2016 (AEST)

Z3417363 (talk) 1:27, 23 September 2016 (AEST)

New sub heading

external link

internal link

anat2341 lab 1



PMID 27486480

Lab 1 Assessment


Summary the cell biology of fertilisation:

Fertilisation is a complex yet essential part of life and the continuation of it. There are significant amounts of research into the components of fertilisation as we try to understand its mechanisms and establish ways of creating successful fertilization. With the introduction of gene manipulation and in vitro technology there has been a great increase in the opportunity to learn more about the molecular mechanisms that regulate the fertilization; an area that is still relatively obscure. This article explores the mechanisms of fertilisation that have been seen to be an essential part of the process, while also shedding lights on events that are not as essential.

Factors regulating fertilization: During this study, gene manipulation and fertilisation of mice was observed and many factors thought to be essential in the classical models seemed not to be as significant whereas some factors revealed themselves to be essential. For example spermatozoa from some of the mice lacked ADAM3 and this suggested that this plays a key role in the fertilisation process of the mice. Factors regulating sperm migration: Calmegin is one of the essential genes required for spermatozoa to migrate into the oviduct. The study conducted an experiment where both wild type and calmegin disrupted spermatozoa was used observe migration habits. It was observed that only the wild sperm migrated to the oviduct while the calmegin disrupted spermatozoa (which are equally motile) remained in the uterus. This result shows the essential mechanism of calmegin in relation to successful fertilisation. Factors regulating the zona-binding ability of spermatozoa: Many studies have postulated that carbohydrates play an imperative role in sperm-zona binding. However through this study many residues which did not contain key carbohydrates still resulted in successful fertilisation indicating that it may not play an important role as hypothesised. This research article aims to present factors that lead to “essential” fertility. It aims to dispel misplaced enthusiasm for research into components of fertilisation that are not as important and may lead to misleading results. It is therefore important to focus gene manipulation and in vitro studies on valid candidate molecules to better understand this complex process of fertilisation

Mark Hill 18 August 2016 - You have added the citation correctly and written an extensive summary of the article. Unfortunately I have had to take marks off the final assessment as you have not followed the assessment criteria "It must be a research article not a Review.", this is a review paper. Reviews are not research articles, though good in providing a timely summary of a topic{s) they do not contain new research data. Please read the assessment criteria carefully.

The cell biology of mammalian fertilisation. Okabe M. Development. 2013 Nov;140(22):4471-9. doi: 10.1242/dev.090613. Review PMID 24194470

Assessment 3/5

Lab 2

Lab assessment 2

Sperm binding test using unfertilised and fertilised human oocytes

Sperm binding test using unfertilised and fertilised human oocytes[1]

Mark Hill 29 August 2016 - All information Reference, Copyright and Student Image template correctly included with the file and referenced on your page here. Assessment 5/5

Lab attendance 3

Mark Hill 31 August 2016 - Lab 3 Assessment Quiz - Mesoderm and Ectoderm development.

Question 3 - brain vesicles

Question 4 - brain flexures

Question 5 - maternal diet

Assessment 2/5

Assessment 4


1 Which of the following cavities is formed from the coelomic cavity

all of the above

2 What can be best described as the process of recanalization.

the lengthening of the GIT tube
the shortening of the GIT tube
the GIT tube becoming solid then hollow and then solid again
the GIT tube becoming hollow then solid and then hollow again

3 What is the major artery that supplies the midgut.

Celiac artery
superior mesenteric artery
inferior mesenteric artery
All of the above

4 Intestinal Malrotation is caused by which of the following

improper closure and absorption of the vitelline duct
Incomplete recanalization resulting in parallel lumens
a series of bands crossing the duodenum which cause duodenal obstruction
the lack of enteric nervous system (neural ganglia) in the intestinal tract responsible for gastric motility

Mark Hill 13 October 2016 - These seem reasonable quiz questions. Question 1 should better refer to the "intra-embryonic coelom". Question 2 really assesses what recanalization term means and options do not appropriately test. Question 3, is pretty easy. Question 4, vitelline duct may also contribute to malroation.

Assessment 4.5/5
Mark Hill 11 October 2016 - Lab 6 - Cleft lip/Palate assessment missing.

Lab 7 Duchenne muscular dystrophy

What is/are the dystrophin mutation(s)?

Dystrophin is encoded by the DMD gene which is a large muscle protein. Recessive mutations in the dystrophin gene on the x chromosome causes Duchenne muscular dystrophy which results in progressive deterioration of muscle tissue and weakness. The dystrophin gene is the largest known human gene and contains 79 exons, DMD occurs when there is a mutation deletion spanning on or multiple exons. These mutations disrupt's the protein's reading frame causing premature stop codons where the transcripts are now susceptible to nonsense decay.


What is the function of dystrophin?

Dsytrophin is a an X-linked protein assembled by the dystrophin glycoprotein complex. Dystrophin plays an important role in striated muscle cells by linking the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton and also mediating structural stability of the plasma membrane, ion homoeostasis and transmembrane signalling.


What other tissues/organs are affected by this disorder?

Dystrophin also plays a significant role in the central and peripheral nervous system and in tissues with a secretory function that from barriers between two functional compartments. These include the blood-brain barrier, choroid plexus and the kidney. There mutations in dystrophin can have large impacts on these tissues/organs aswell.


What therapies exist for DMD? The only established pharmacological treatment for DMD is corticosteroids to suppress muscle inflammation, however this treatment is limited by its insufficient therapeutic efficacy and considerable side effects.


What animal models are available for muscular dystrophy?

The mdx mouse, a naturally occurring animal model for DMD, has been available for over a decade , others include hamsters and murines.


Mark Hill 13 October 2016 - Very good answers. There is also a dog model for DMD and "murine" includes mouse. Assessment 5/5

Lab 8 Assessment

Completed the quiz during the lab.

Mark Hill 27 October 2016 - You seem to have difficulties with Urogenital Development concepts, I suggest you look back through both the lectures and the lab associated with these concepts. Assessment 2.5/8

Lab 9 Assessment

These are reasonable assessments, with some well cited examples of your assessments. You need to develop a more professional language when providing feedback. 7/10

Group 2 Peer Assessment:

Positive Assessment:

So far this page looks great and very organised. I am really impressed by the set out of the information and the way the headings are arranged. It made it really easy for me to navigate around for particular information and not have to look for around aimlessly when I was looking for something in particular. Furthermore I think that the actual categories/sub headings used so far are very concise and effective. For example, I appreciate the brief introduction along with an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in notch signalling before introducing its roles in embryonic development. This way I was able to have a understanding of what is really involved before understanding how it is important in embryonic development.

The references are also very neatly and correctly done and many times when I did not fully understand a concept I clicked on the citations which took me to the relevant articles and my understanding was clarified. I also really enjoyed the commentary on the specific research papers, for example cardiomyocyte specification and differentiation where you guys actually compared information from separate studies to make the information more whole and relevant.

In the abnormalities section, I think it was really awesome you guys included so many statistics and symptoms and not just a description of the abnormality.

Critical Assessment:

Although everything looks really amazing a couple of improvements that I personally think could be made would make this page really useful to students.

The introduction, although very informative can be simplified a bit more to address criteria 4 and make it a bit easier to understand. This can be done through including an interesting or very simplified diagram to engage the student from the beginning. I would also generally include more diagrams and drawings that are personally drawn as the pictures used although effective, can be difficult to understand when you are learning for the first time. It would also be nice if more words are included in the glossary because there was a quite few words I did not know the meaning of. Lastly I think it would be a great addition to your page to include another subheading which outlines how the abnormalities are treated as this is something that I was intrigued to discover.

Overall I think your page is going great guys keep it going !

Group 3 Peer Assessment:

Positive Assessment

Wow this is a very professional looking page and one that I was immediately drawn to. The introduction is very clear and simple and I was able to understand the basic of FGFR straight away which made it so much easier for me to try to understand the rest of the information. I absolutely love the use of the tables to introduce the sub-types of FGFR as this is so much easier to read than blobs of information. The dot points are concise and to the point and introduce each sub-type along with its abnormality.

The signal transduction in any signalling pathway is probably the most confusing and hard to understand part. However this part of your project is my favourite and I was surprised as to how quickly I managed to understand the molecular mechanisms of FGFR. The hand drawn diagram is amazing and really clearly displays all the key elements in play for FGFR. What I really like about your page is that it is really user and student friendly. It really invites learning and encourages it. The use of a quiz is a great example of this and really does allow the student to reflect on their knowledge.

Critical Assessment:

The page is absolutely amazing but in my opinion there are a few ways that it could be made even more amazing.

Sometimes the information is a bit overwhelming, in that there is too much of it. For example in the sections Limb Bud formation and Bone development, for information that complicated it would probably be better to employ the use of dot points or tables just to make the information more digestible.

Although the hand drawing of the signal induction is extremely useful, I think it could be made even better by being accompanied with some specific step by step commentary which matches with the drawing. As a student this would make learning about FGFR a lot more engaging and easier.

The section on bone development although very informative could be more relevant to embryology and lastly a section outlining the treatments available for the abnormalities would be very interesting.

Overall great work guys !

Group 4 Peer Assessment:

Positive Assessment:

I am very impressed with the level and depth of information provided in this page so far. It is quite evident that you guys have gone to great effort and lengths to research and find relevant information regarding hedgehog signalling. The research conducted is also further solidified with the correct use of citations which link the information with their articles and allow the user to learn more if required. There is almost 34 references already provided which is a testament to the work that has been put in by the group. Well done!

I love the very detailed explanation of animal models used to investigate hedgehog signalling and there is an abundance of information provided for this where as I’ve noticed other groups tend to very lightly touch this topic.

Critical Assessment:

The page is looking very good so far but in my opinion there are a few ways in which it can be improved.

Although the information is in-depth and thorough it can be a little intense at times. I would recommend using more dot points or look into using tables to categorise information into a more user friendly structure. This can also be achieved by using more subheadings to further dissect the information and make it less imposing when reading as this content can be difficult to understand at first. I would also have a nice and clear introduction at the beginning of your page as it essential for the students entering your page to be able to familiarise themselves with Hedgehog signalling before diving into the more complicated information.

I would also make better use of the subheadings, so that they reflect more of the marking criteria in particular hedgehog signalling role in embryology. I didn’t see too much content outlining and explaining this and this is a major part of the project. It would also be a good idea to draw a picture rather than using one to explain the mechanism as simplified visual aids always help. Lastly, try including a glossary as there were many terms that I was very unfamiliar with, such as organogenesis.

Group 5 Peer Assessment:

Positive Assessment:

This is a very well, put together and organised page. Everything is very simple and straight-forward make it extremely student friendly and something I would definitely use to learn about T-Box genes. The introduction along with explanation of the actual meaning of T-box is both informative and also interesting and gives students a good chance to take a break from the heavy load of information and actually indulge in some interesting facts.

Following this, the table is one of the most useful things on the entire page and is extremely concise and structurally pleasing. It provides the key and relevant information and allowed me to make connections with T-box genes and their functions straight away. There is also the use of many pictures throughout the page which definitely aids in visual learning and the more the used the better.

The chronological structuring of the ¬page is also very impressive. As I was reading the page I felt like the information that I was gathering was carrying on and helping me understand what was talked about in the next sections.

Critical Assessment:

The chronological structuring although very impressive did fall a little out of place when the sub-headings “Ancient origins and evolution of the T-box gene family” appeared at the end of the page when it seems like this is something that should be included in the start. It would be thoroughly recommended to utilized hand drawings to explain some of the concepts, especially when introducing the signalling because this would really compliment your already easy to understand introductions and really enhance learning/understanding.

Lastly I think it would be a good addition to your project to include some information on the current research that is being conducted on t-box genes and also if there are treatments for the abnormalities. This page is looking amazing so far so keep up the good work!

Group 6:

Positive Feedback:

The introduction is very simple and clear making it a perfect way to familiarise with the TGF-beta signalling before diving into any more information. The process is also described very well as it is aided with two pictures which were excellent choices. Together the information and the pictures collate to create a stable understanding of how TGF-beta signals.

Critical Feedback:

You guys can definitely focus on explaining its role specifically in embryo development which is a key criteria for this project. This can be done in many was such as tables or pictures if there is too much information. It would also be a good idea to talk about the things that could go wrong with TGF-beta signalling pathway and the current research being done to rectify this as this is something that is very interesting and also relevant.

You guys should also start referencing early as it can become very problematic later on to keep track and doing very quick citations would go a long way later when editing the project. Lastly it would possibly help if everyone brainstormed some subheadings and categories that you further want to talk about e.g. animal models and that way you know what information you are looking for. This page has a very strong start and if that quality is carried through to the rest of the content it will be a very successful page.

Lab 10 - Stem Cell Presentations 2016
Group Mark Assessor General Comments

Group 1: 15/20

Group 2: 19/20

Group 3: 20/20

Group 4: 19/20

Group 5: 16/20

Group 6: 16/20

The students put great effort in their presentation and we heard a nice variety of studies in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine today. The interaction after the presentation was great.

As general feedback I would like to advise students to:

  • Never discuss M&M as a separate section in journal clubs. I gave this advice prior to the lab, but still most groups did talk through the M&M section.
  • Do not use your slides as cheat sheets, avoid text on slides, know what messages you need to get across, use images to illustrate these
  • Engage with your slides. Talk through them. Point at panels. Gauge your audience’s understanding by making eye contact with them
  • Avoid using abbreviations. Most people do not readily understand these and will lose track

Lab 11 Assessment


Summary of Article "Extensive scar formation and regression during heart regeneration after cryoinjury in zebrafish"

This research article presents and discusses the results obtained using zebrafish models to investigate the cellular response and regenerative capacity of the heart after cyroinjury. The process was performed by exposing the zebrafish to cyrocauterization which is a procedure that uses very cold temperatures to treat abnormalities. This induced damage in the ventricles and cell death was observed. The investigation then observed proliferative responses in the endocardium, pericardium and myocardium and within the first three weeks a massive scar formed which eventually degraded and was replaced by cardiac tissue. These results show that the zebrafish heart undergoes massive fibrosis after cardiac damage and continue to lose this scaring and regenerate the losses and heal. This article is used in the review article to highlight the usefulness of the zebra model and its importance as a tool to investigate the regeneration of heart tissue in humans. The review article says “zebrafish hearts are possibly the most developed model for adult heart regeneration” and this is backed up by the research article. The research article directly states the similarity between the zebrafish heart and mammalian heart whereby the response of the zebrafish to injury yielded nonhomogeneous ventricular contraction and thickened ventricular wall which was mentioned to be parallel to “mammalian ventricular remodelling after acute MI”. Therefore the review article used this research article as means to justify the continual use of zebrafish in investigating the regeneration of the mammalian heart.


  1. <pubmed>17147816</pubmed>