Brazil Statistics

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A personal message from Dr Mark Hill (May 2020)  
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I have decided to take early retirement in September 2020. During the many years online I have received wonderful feedback from many readers, researchers and students interested in human embryology. I especially thank my research collaborators and contributors to the site. The good news is Embryology will remain online and I will continue my association with UNSW Australia. I look forward to updating and including the many exciting new discoveries in Embryology!

Introduction

Brazil
Zika virions (red circles)
Zika virions (red circles)

This page links to the current online resources available to explore Brazilian population and birth data.


Recent infections with Zika virus have been thought to be associated with an increase in the number of cases of microcephaly in Brazil.[1]


Statistics Links: Introduction | Reports | World Population | World Fertility | World Infant Mortality | Maternal Mortality | Australia | Brazil | Canada | China | Germany | India | Indonesia | Europe | Myanmar | Netherlands | Spain | United Kingdom | Romania | Uganda | United States | BGD Tutorial - Applied Embryology and Teratology | National Perinatal Statistics Unit | AIHW | Category:Statistics
Australia’s mothers and babies: 2017 | 2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | National Perinatal Statistics Unit | AIHW | Australian Statistics | birth

| Category:Brazil

Some Recent Findings

  • A comprehensive analysis of malaria transmission in Brazil[2] "Malaria remains a serious public health problem in Brazil despite a significant drop in the number of cases in the past decade. We conduct a comprehensive analysis of malaria transmission in Brazil to highlight the epidemiologically most relevant components that could help tackle the disease. We consider factors impacting on the malaria burden and transmission dynamics including the geographical occurrence of both autochthonous and imported infections, the distribution and abundance of malaria vectors and records of natural mosquito infections with Plasmodium. Our analysis identifies three discrete malaria transmission systems related to the Amazon rainforest, Atlantic rainforest and Brazilian coast, respectively. The Amazonian system accounts for 99% of all malaria cases in the country. It is largely due to autochthonous P. vivax and P. falciparum transmission by mosquitoes of the Nyssorhynchus subgenus, primarily Anopheles darlingi. Whilst P. vivax transmission is widespread, P. falciparum transmission is restricted to hotspot areas mostly in the States of Amazonas and Acre. This system is the major source of P. vivax exportation to the extra-Amazonian regions that are also affected by importation of P. falciparum from Africa. The Atlantic system comprises autochthonous P. vivax transmission typically by the bromeliad-associated mosquitoes An. cruzii and An. bellator of the Kerteszia subgenus. An. cruzii also transmits simian malaria parasites to humans. The third, widespread but geographically fragmented, system is found along the Brazilian coast and comprises P. vivax transmission mainly by An. aquasalis. We conclude that these geographically and biologically distinct malaria transmission systems require specific strategies for effective disease control."
  • Maternal and developmental toxicity of the hallucinogenic plant-based beverage ayahuasca (AYA) in rats[3] "Rats were treated orally with ayahuasca (AYA) on gestation days (GD) 6-20 at doses corresponding to one-(1X) to eight-fold (8X) the average dose taken by a human adult in a religious ritual, and the pregnancy outcome evaluated on GD21. ...This study suggested that AYA is developmentally toxic and that its daily use by pregnant women may pose risks for the conceptus."
More recent papers  
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This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.

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  • The displayed list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
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References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

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Search term: Brazil Embryology Statistics

Older papers  
These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.

See also the Discussion Page for other references listed by year and References on this current page.

  • The uses of ultrasonography in relation to foetal malformations in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.[4] "The world-wide diffusion of prenatal ultrasound has encountered local historical, cultural and political particularities. The purpose of this article is to study the varied uses of this technology in cases of detection of a foetal anomaly, in Rio de Janeiro, in a context of generalized access to ultrasound, restrictive legislation on abortion and major social inequalities. An ethnographic approach was chosen combining from 2009 to 2011, observations of prenatal consultations and interviews with specialist physicians and pregnant women, in both public and private sector institutions. Analysis of the data allowed us to identify three ideal-typical moments in the trajectory of the pregnant women when a foetal malformation was detected."

Nutrition

  • 8% of infants with low birthweight, 2005-2009
  • 96% of households consuming iodized salt, 2003-2009

General Statistics

Population 203,429,773 (July 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 5

Age structure

0-14 years: 26.2% (male 27,219,651/female 26,180,040) 15-64 years: 67% (male 67,524,642/female 68,809,357) 65 years and over: 6.7% (male 5,796,433/female 7,899,650) (2011 est.)

Median age

total: 29.3 years male: 28.5 years female: 30.1 years (2011 est.

Population growth rate

1.134% (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 104

Birth rate

17.79 births/1,000 population (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 109

Death rate

6.36 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 152

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 21.17 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 93 male: 24.63 deaths/1,000 live births female: 17.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 72.53 years country comparison to the world: 124 male: 68.97 years female: 76.27 years (2011 est.)

Total fertility rate

2.18 children born/woman (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 109


Data: The World Factbook Brazil

Ayahuasca

Banisteriopsis caapi vine.jpg Ayahuasca (AYA, iowaska, yagé) is a psychoactive substance made by South American natives from of Banisteriopsis caapi vine and other ingredients. A recent study in rats[3] at a range of ayahuasca concentrations, corresponding from 1x to 8x the human dosage, demonstrated a number of fetotoxic effects:
  • 2X dose survivors had neuronal loss in hippocampal regions CA1.
  • 4X and 8X doses died during the treatment period (44 and 52%), and those that survived showed kidney injury.
  • 8X dose survivors showed delayed intrauterine growth, increased occurrence of fetal anomalies, neuronal loss in hippocampal regions and in the raphe nuclei.
Links: Abnormal Development - Herbal Drugs


Coronary Heart Disease

Paediatric and congenital heart disease in South America: an overview.[5]

  • Ventricular septal defects - Surgical mortality with repair in infancy, mainly in the muscular septum, probably slightly higher in South America than in North America and Europe.
  • Secundum atrial septal defects - trans-catheter closure is the preferred method of treating most patients.
  • Pulmonary valve stenosis and atresia with intact ventricular septum - balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty for PVS.
  • Aortic stenosis - balloon valvuloplasty.
  • Coarctation of the aorta - children balloon angioplasty, adolescents and adults a trend towards the use of bare and covered stents.
  • Tetralogy of Fallot - patients with severe hypoxaemia have a modified Blalock–Taussig shunt.


References

  1. Torjesen I. (2016). Zika virus outbreaks prompt warnings to pregnant women. BMJ , 352, i500. PMID: 26813766
  2. Carlos BC, Rona LDP, Christophides GK & Souza-Neto JA. (2019). A comprehensive analysis of malaria transmission in Brazil. Pathog Glob Health , 113, 1-13. PMID: 30829565 DOI.
  3. 3.0 3.1 da Motta LG, de Morais JA, Tavares ACAM, Vianna LMS, Mortari MR, Amorim RFB, Carvalho RR, Paumgartten FJR, Pic-Taylor A & Caldas ED. (2018). Maternal and developmental toxicity of the hallucinogenic plant-based beverage ayahuasca in rats. Reprod. Toxicol. , , . PMID: 29522798 DOI.
  4. Mirlesse V & Ville I. (2013). The uses of ultrasonography in relation to foetal malformations in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Soc Sci Med , 87, 168-75. PMID: 23631792 DOI.
  5. Pedra CA, Haddad J, Pedra SF, Peirone A, Pilla CB & Marin-Neto JA. (2009). Paediatric and congenital heart disease in South America: an overview. Heart , 95, 1385-92. PMID: 19174420 DOI.

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, July 3) Embryology Brazil Statistics. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Brazil_Statistics

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© Dr Mark Hill 2020, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G