Book - An experimental analysis of the origin of blood and vascular endothelium (1915)

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Stockard CR. An experimental analysis of the origin of blood and vascular endothelium. (1915) Memoirs of the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology No. 7.

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This historic 1915 paper by Stockard describes early blood vessel development.

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An Experimental Analysis of the Origin of Blood and Vascular Endothelium

Charles Rupert Stockard (1879-1939)

I. The Origin Of Blood And Vascular Endothelium In Embryos Without A Circulation Of The Blood And In The Normal Embryo Forty-Nine Figures

II. A Study Of Wandering Mesenchymal Cells On The Living Yolk-Sac And Their Developmental Products: Chromatophores, Vascular Endothelium And Blood Cells Thirty-Five Figures

Charles R. Stockard

Department Of Anatomy

Cornell University Medical School

New York City


Reprinted from The American Journal of Anatomy, Volume 18, Nos. 2 and 3, September and November, 1915

Part 1. Contents

I. Introduction

II. Methods of experiment and material

III. The study of living embryos with and without the circulation of the blood

1. Normal development up to the establishment of a circulation

2. History of experimental embryos to the time when circulation should begin

3. Early formation of blood cells in living embryos

a. Intra-embryonic blood cells

b. Yolk-sac blood islands

4. The five-day embryos

5. The eight- and ten-day embryos

6. Condition of the heart in old embryos without a circulation

7. Development of the yolk-sac blood islands in life

IV. The origin and histogenesis of vascular endothelium and blood corpuscles as determined by study of microscopic sections

1. The structure of the heart in embryos without a circulation

2. The intermediate cell mass; its origin, position and significance as an intra-embryonic blood anlage

3. Blood islands of the yolk-sac, their origin and development

4. Fate of ihe blood corpuscles in embryos without a circulation

5. Has vascular endothelium haematopeotic power?

6. The origin of lymphocytes and leucocytes or so-called white blood corpuscles

7. Environmental conditions necessary for blood cell multiplication and differentiation

8. Question of haematopoetic organs?

V. A consideration of the experimental study on the origin of blood in Teleosts in relation to the more recent studies on the origin and development of vessels and blood cells

1. Introduction

2. The specific problems of blood and vessel formation in the bony fish

3. Vascular endothelium, and vascular growth and development

4. Haematopoesis, the monophyletic and polyphyletic views, etc

VI. Summary and conclusions

Literature cited

Part 2. Contents

I. Introduction

II. Material and methods of study

III. The early wandering cells

IV. Development and differentiation of the wandering cells

1. Chromatophores

a. The black type chromatophore

b. The brown type chromatophore

c. Behavior of the chromatophores in specimens with no cir culation of the blood

d. Relationship of chromatophores to blood and endothelial cells

2. History of the endothelial cells

3. Blood corpuscles on the yolk-sac of teleost embryos

V. Discussion and conclusions

VI. Summary

Literature cited