Abnormal Development - Gonorrhea
|Embryology - 25 May 2017 Expand to Translate|
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|Educational Use Only - Embryology is an educational resource for learning concepts in embryological development, no clinical information is provided and content should not be used for any other purpose.|
The variety of bacterial infections that can occur during pregnancy is as variable as the potential developmental effects, from virtually insignificant to major developmental, abortive or fatal in outcome. Some bacteria are common and are part of the normal genital tract flora (Lactobacillus sp), while other bacterial infections are less common or even rare and initially infect/transmit by air or fluids through the different epithelia (genital tract, lungs, gastrointestinal tract). The genitally transmitted common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the bacterial infections described as syphilis and gonorrhoea. (STDs)
Infection in women can cause pelvic inflammatory disease and salpingitis, scarring of the uterine tubes, that in turn can lead to fertility issues or ectopic pregnancy. Pregnant women with severe gonorrhea can transmit the disease to their developing fetus or during delivery.
|Bacterial Links: Syphilis | Gonorrhea | Tuberculosis | Listeria | TORCH Infections | Environmental | Category:Bacteria|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Abdul Qader Tahir Ismail Does placental MDSC-mediated modulation of arginine levels help protect the foetus from auxotrophic pathogens? J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.: 2017;1-3 PubMed 28462680
Christine L Heumann, Laura A S Quilter, McKenna C Eastment, Renee Heffron, Stephen E Hawes Adverse Birth Outcomes and Maternal Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infection: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Washington State. Sex Transm Dis: 2017, 44(5);266-271 PubMed 28407641
Dhayendre Moodley, Benn Sartorius, Savithree Madurai, Vani Chetty, Suzanne Maman Pregnancy Outcomes in Association with STDs including genital HSV-2 shedding in a South African Cohort Study. Sex Transm Infect: 2017; PubMed 28396556
Stuart A Hill, Thao L Masters, Jenny Wachter Gonorrhea - an evolving disease of the new millennium. Microb Cell: 2016, 3(9);371-389 PubMed 28357376
JeeYoon Park, Lindsay Zimmerman, Kelly Stempinski, Rebecca Bridge, Alicia Roston, Ashlesha Patel Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in an urban public hospital pregnancy termination clinic. Int J STD AIDS: 2017;956462417689984 PubMed 28114879
- Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Neisseriales; Neisseriaceae; Neisseria; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Neisseria gonorrhoeae NCCP11945
Bacterial staining procedure named after Hans Christian Gram (1853 - 1938).
Generally divides bacteria into either:
- Gram-positive bacteria purple crystal violet stain is trapped by layer of peptidoglycan (forms outer layer of the cell).
- Gram-negative bacteria outer membrane prevents stain from reaching peptidoglycan layer in the periplasm, outer membrane then permeabilized and pink safranin counterstain is trapped by peptidoglycan layer.
Infection Effects Movie
|This movie from an experimental Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection of Hela cells in vitro shows the cells dying by apoptosis in response to the bacterial infection.
Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death that occurs normally in many developmental and adult tissues, but can also occur in response to pathogenic infections.
Hela cells were cultured in glass-bottom dishes and placed under an Olympus spinning disc microscope and phase contrast pictures of the cells were taken every 10 min upon infection.
- Dorothy L Moore, Noni E MacDonald, Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee Preventing ophthalmia neonatorum. Paediatr Child Health: 2015, 20(2);93-6 PubMed 25838784
- S Nowicki, R Selvarangan, G Anderson Experimental transmission of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from pregnant rat to fetus. Infect. Immun.: 1999, 67(9);4974-6 PubMed 10456962
- Tonia C Carter, Richard S Olney, Allen A Mitchell, Paul A Romitti, Erin M Bell, Charlotte M Druschel, National Birth Defects Prevention Study Maternal self-reported genital tract infections during pregnancy and the risk of selected birth defects. Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol.: 2011, 91(2);108-16 PubMed 21319278
- Oliver Kepp, Kathleen Gottschalk, Yuri Churin, Krishnaraj Rajalingam, Volker Brinkmann, Nikolaus Machuy, Guido Kroemer, Thomas Rudel Bim and Bmf synergize to induce apoptosis in Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection. PLoS Pathog.: 2009, 5(3);e1000348 PubMed 19300516 PLoS Pathog.
P Mancuso Dermatologic manifestations of infectious diseases in pregnancy. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs: 2000, 14(1);17-38; quiz 123-4 PubMed 11249292
R L Goldenberg, J C Hauth, W W Andrews Intrauterine infection and preterm delivery. N. Engl. J. Med.: 2000, 342(20);1500-7 PubMed 10816189
L A Ament, E Whalen Sexually transmitted diseases in pregnancy: diagnosis, impact, and intervention. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs: 1996, 25(8);657-66 PubMed 8912216
S M Ross Sexually transmitted diseases in pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynaecol: 1982, 9(3);565-92 PubMed 6293753
Harrell W Chesson, Thomas L Gift, Amy L S Pulver The economic value of reductions in gonorrhea and syphilis incidence in the United States, 1990-2003. Prev Med: 2006, 43(5);411-5 PubMed 16901533
Kyle T Bernstein, Supriya D Mehta, Anne M Rompalo, Emily J Erbelding Cost-effectiveness of screening strategies for Gonorrhea among females in private sector care. Obstet Gynecol: 2006, 107(4);813-21 PubMed 16582117
G Erdem, M R Schleiss Gonococcal bacteremia in a neonate. Clin Pediatr (Phila): 2000, 39(1);43-4 PubMed 10660818
S Nowicki, R Selvarangan, G Anderson Experimental transmission of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from pregnant rat to fetus. Infect. Immun.: 1999, 67(9);4974-6 PubMed 10456962
Search NCBI Bookshelf: Medical Microbiology - Gonorrhea Search
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
- PubMed Health - Gonorrhea
- CDC (USA)
- CDC (USA) Fact Sheet - Gonorrhea
- Public Health Training Network Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (viewable Webcasts requires Media Player) | Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Recommendations
- Office on Women's Health (USA)
- Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (UK) Infection and Pregnancy - study group recommendations (Jun 2001)
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Abnormal Development - Gonorrhea. Retrieved May 25, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Gonorrhea
- © Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G