Vision - Retina Development
|Embryology - 25 Sep 2017 Expand to Translate|
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The retina and its development has been the subject of research from the early histology studies of Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852 - 1934) and Camillo Golgi (1843 - 1926). It has a complex differentiation involving both a neural retina and a pigmented retina, in the embryo separated by a space and in the adult closely apposed to each other.
The retina is also a key focus of clinical research, as genetic or environmental damage and vision loss is generally a result of damage to the retinal cells or their processes. Retinitis pigments is a degenerative retinal disease. Retinoblastoma is retinal cancer that allowed researchers to identify retinoblastoma protein (Rb), the first identified tumour suppressor protein acting as a G1 cell cycle checkpoint.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Dorota Rogińska, Miłosz P Kawa, Ewa Pius-Sadowska, Renata Lejkowska, Karolina Łuczkowska, Barbara Wiszniewska, Kai Kaarniranta, Jussi J Paterno, Christian A Schmidt, Bogusław Machaliński, Anna Machalińska Depletion of the Third Complement Component Ameliorates Age-Dependent Oxidative Stress and Positively Modulates Autophagic Activity in Aged Retinas in a Mouse Model. Oxid Med Cell Longev: 2017, 2017;5306790 PubMed 28928904
Lihua Liu, Zhongfu Zuo, Sijing Lu, Aihua Liu, Xuezheng Liu Naringin attenuates diabetic retinopathy by inhibiting inflammation, oxidative stress and NF-κB activation in vivo and in vitro. Iran J Basic Med Sci: 2017, 20(7);813-821 PubMed 28852447
S Lule, A I Colpak, B Balci-Peynircioglu, Y Gursoy-Ozdemir, S Peker, U Kalyoncu, A Can, N Tekin, D Demiralp, T Dalkara Behçet Disease serum is immunoreactive to neurofilament medium which share common epitopes to bacterial HSP-65, a putative trigger. J. Autoimmun.: 2017; PubMed 28844827
Neveen E R El-Bakary, Mohamed M A Abumandour Visual adaptations of the eye of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Vet. Res. Commun.: 2017; PubMed 28842847
Klaudia Szabó, Anna Énzsöly, Bulcsú Dékány, Arnold Szabó, Rozina I Hajdú, Tamás Radovits, Csaba Mátyás, Attila Oláh, Lenke K Laurik, Gábor M Somfai, Béla Merkely, Ágoston Szél, Ákos Lukáts Histological Evaluation of Diabetic Neurodegeneration in the Retina of Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) Rats. Sci Rep: 2017, 7(1);8891 PubMed 28827737
Vertebrates have ten identifiable layers formed from neurons, their processes (nerve fibers), membranes, photoreceptors and pigmented cells. Light must pass through nearly all these layers to the photoreceptors.
- Inner limiting membrane - Müller cell footplates.
- Nerve fiber layer - retinal ganglion axons eventually the optic nerve.
- Ganglion cell layer - neuronal cell bodies of retinal ganglion cells, their axons form the nerve fiber layer and eventually the optic nerve.
- Inner plexiform layer - another layer of neuronal processes.
- Inner nuclear layer - neuronal cell bodies
- Outer plexiform layer - another layer of neuronal processes.
- Outer nuclear layer - neuronal cell bodies
- External limiting membrane - layer separating inner segment portions of photoreceptors from their cell nuclei.
- Photoreceptor layer - rods and cones that convert light into signals.
- Retinal pigment epithelium.
The images below link to virtual slides of the human developing eye at Carnegie stage 22. Click on the image to open or select specific regions from the regions of interest links.
Virtual Slide - Regions of Interest
Retinal Pigment Epithelium
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are generated directly from the optic neuroepithelium. The choroidal melanocytes, the other pigmented cells, are derived from neural crest cells that have migrated towards the eye.
Retinal pigment epithelium cells:
- cuboidal cells
- apical side form multiple villi
- these villi are in direct contact with the outer segments of the photoreceptor cells
- lateral sides are joined together by tight, adherens and gap junctions
- basal side contacts the underlying basal membrane (Bruch’s membrane)
A proposed model of ciliary body development begins with specification at the optic vesicle stage, when the neural retina and pigmented epithelium are also specified. The molecular signals could involve overlapping BMP and FGF signals. The lens has recently been shown in the chicken model to not be required for specification of the iris and ciliary body.
- Jing Chen, Lixiang Ma, Songtao Wang, Xiaobing Wang, Yan Sun, Lu Gao, Jin Li, Guomin Zhou Analysis of expression of transcription factors in early human retina. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci.: 2017; PubMed 28377129
- Anita Hendrickson Development of Retinal Layers in Prenatal Human Retina. Am. J. Ophthalmol.: 2015; PubMed 26410132
- Kristen M Kwan, Hideo Otsuna, Hinako Kidokoro, Keith R Carney, Yukio Saijoh, Chi-Bin Chien A complex choreography of cell movements shapes the vertebrate eye. Development: 2012, 139(2);359-72 PubMed 22186726 | PMC3243097 | Development
- Qi Zhang, David D Eisenstat Roles of homeobox genes in retinal ganglion cell differentiation and axonal guidance. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.: 2012, 723;685-91 PubMed 22183394
- Magnus R Dias da Silva, Nicola Tiffin, Tatsuo Mima, Takashi Mikawa, Jeanette Hyer FGF-mediated induction of ciliary body tissue in the chick eye. Dev. Biol.: 2007, 304(1);272-85 PubMed 17275804
- The International Journal of Developmental Biology (2004) Eye Development
Massimiliano Andreazzoli Molecular regulation of vertebrate retina cell fate. Birth Defects Res. C Embryo Today: 2009, 87(3);284-95 PubMed 19750521
Ales Cvekl, Wei-Lin Wang Retinoic acid signaling in mammalian eye development. Exp. Eye Res.: 2009, 89(3);280-91 PubMed 19427305
Lucia Galli-Resta, Paola Leone, David Bottari, Monica Ensini, Elisa Rigosi, Elena Novelli The genesis of retinal architecture: an emerging role for mechanical interactions? Prog Retin Eye Res: 2008, 27(3);260-83 PubMed 18374618
D Taylor Developmental abnormalities of the optic nerve and chiasm. Eye (Lond): 2007, 21(10);1271-84 PubMed 17914430
Barbara L Finlay The developing and evolving retina: using time to organize form. Brain Res.: 2008, 1192;5-16 PubMed 17692298
Michel Cayouette, Lucia Poggi, William A Harris Lineage in the vertebrate retina. Trends Neurosci.: 2006, 29(10);563-70 PubMed 16920202
Bookshelf retina development
Jihua Yao, Jingyao Zhou, Qiaoling Liu, Daru Lu, Lu Wang, Xiaojing Qiao, William Jia Atoh8, a bHLH transcription factor, is required for the development of retina and skeletal muscle in zebrafish. PLoS ONE: 2010, 5(6);e10945 PubMed 20532172
Henrik Boije, Henrik Ring, Meritxell López-Gallardo, Carmen Prada, Finn Hallböök Pax2 is expressed in a subpopulation of Müller cells in the central chick retina. Dev. Dyn.: 2010, 239(6);1858-66 PubMed 20503381
Sean A Georgi, Thomas A Reh Dicer is required for the transition from early to late progenitor state in the developing mouse retina. J. Neurosci.: 2010, 30(11);4048-61 PubMed 20237275
Fengming Yue, Kohei Johkura, Sakiko Shirasawa, Tadayuki Yokoyama, Yuji Inoue, Daihachiro Tomotsune, Katsunori Sasaki Differentiation of primate ES cells into retinal cells induced by ES cell-derived pigmented cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.: 2010, 394(4);877-83 PubMed 20206598
Netta Levin, Serge O Dumoulin, Jonathan Winawer, Robert F Dougherty, Brian A Wandell Cortical maps and white matter tracts following long period of visual deprivation and retinal image restoration. Neuron: 2010, 65(1);21-31 PubMed 20152110
Fredrik Ghosh, Karin Arnér Cell type differentiation dynamics in the developing porcine retina. Dev. Neurosci.: 2010, 32(1);47-58 PubMed 20150723
Patrick W Keeley, Benjamin E Reese Role of afferents in the differentiation of bipolar cells in the mouse retina. J. Neurosci.: 2010, 30(5);1677-85 PubMed 20130177
Ana V Sánchez-Sánchez, Esther Camp, Aránzazu Leal-Tassias, José L Mullor Wnt signaling has different temporal roles during retinal development. Dev. Dyn.: 2010, 239(1);297-310 PubMed 20014102
Laszlo Hackler, Jun Wan, Anand Swaroop, Jiang Qian, Donald J Zack MicroRNA profile of the developing mouse retina. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.: 2010, 51(4);1823-31 PubMed 19933188
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Vision - Retina Development. Retrieved September 25, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Vision_-_Retina_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G