Vision - Retina Development
|Embryology - 17 Feb 2018 Expand to Translate|
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The retina and its development has been the subject of research from the early histology studies of Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852 - 1934) and Camillo Golgi (1843 - 1926). It has a complex differentiation involving both a neural retina and a pigmented retina, in the embryo separated by a space and in the adult closely apposed to each other.
The retina is also a key focus of clinical research, as genetic or environmental damage and vision loss is generally a result of damage to the retinal cells or their processes. Retinitis pigments is a degenerative retinal disease. Retinoblastoma is retinal cancer that allowed researchers to identify retinoblastoma protein (Rb), the first identified tumour suppressor protein acting as a G1 cell cycle checkpoint.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Simon Boggild, Simon Molgaard, Simon Glerup, Jens Randel Nyengaard Highly segregated localization of the functionally related vps10p receptors sortilin and SorCS2 during neurodevelopment. J. Comp. Neurol.: 2018; PubMed 29405286
Yutong Chen, Xiaoli Ma, Rui Hua Multi-modality imaging findings of huge intrachoroidal cavitation and myopic peripapillary sinkhole. BMC Ophthalmol: 2018, 18(1);24 PubMed 29394916
Lingling Zhu, Limei Xie Prenatal diagnosis of Joubert syndrome: A case report and literature review. Medicine (Baltimore): 2017, 96(51);e8626 PubMed 29390414
N Polat, M A Ozer, H Parlakpinar, N Vardi, Z Aksungur, O Ozhan, A Yildiz, Y Turkoz Effects of molsidomine on retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbits. Biotech Histochem: 2018;1-10 PubMed 29323543
Chokkahalli Krishnappa Nagesha, Pratyusha Ganne Occult Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy in a Glaucomatous Disc. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol: 2017, 24(3);165-166 PubMed 29279660
Vertebrates have ten identifiable layers formed from neurons, their processes (nerve fibers), membranes, photoreceptors and pigmented cells. Light must pass through nearly all these layers to the photoreceptors.
- Inner limiting membrane - Müller cell footplates.
- Nerve fiber layer - retinal ganglion axons eventually the optic nerve.
- Ganglion cell layer - neuronal cell bodies of retinal ganglion cells, their axons form the nerve fiber layer and eventually the optic nerve.
- Inner plexiform layer - another layer of neuronal processes.
- Inner nuclear layer - neuronal cell bodies
- Outer plexiform layer - another layer of neuronal processes.
- Outer nuclear layer - neuronal cell bodies
- External limiting membrane - layer separating inner segment portions of photoreceptors from their cell nuclei.
- Photoreceptor layer - rods and cones that convert light into signals.
- Retinal pigment epithelium.
The images below link to virtual slides of the human developing eye at Carnegie stage 22. Click on the image to open or select specific regions from the regions of interest links.
Virtual Slide - Regions of Interest
Retinal Pigment Epithelium
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are generated directly from the optic neuroepithelium. The choroidal melanocytes, the other pigmented cells, are derived from neural crest cells that have migrated towards the eye.
Retinal pigment epithelium cells:
- cuboidal cells
- apical side form multiple villi
- these villi are in direct contact with the outer segments of the photoreceptor cells
- lateral sides are joined together by tight, adherens and gap junctions
- basal side contacts the underlying basal membrane (Bruch’s membrane)
A proposed model of ciliary body development begins with specification at the optic vesicle stage, when the neural retina and pigmented epithelium are also specified. The molecular signals could involve overlapping BMP and FGF signals. The lens has recently been shown in the chicken model to not be required for specification of the iris and ciliary body.
- Chen J, Ma L, Wang S, Wang X, Sun Y, Gao L, Li J & Zhou G. (2017). Analysis of expression of transcription factors in early human retina. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. , 60, 94-102. PMID: 28377129 DOI.
- Hendrickson A. (2016). Development of Retinal Layers in Prenatal Human Retina. Am. J. Ophthalmol. , 161, 29-35.e1. PMID: 26410132 DOI.
- Kwan KM, Otsuna H, Kidokoro H, Carney KR, Saijoh Y & Chien CB. (2012). A complex choreography of cell movements shapes the vertebrate eye. Development , 139, 359-72. PMID: 22186726 DOI.
- Zhang Q & Eisenstat DD. (2012). Roles of homeobox genes in retinal ganglion cell differentiation and axonal guidance. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. , 723, 685-91. PMID: 22183394 DOI.
- Dias da Silva MR, Tiffin N, Mima T, Mikawa T & Hyer J. (2007). FGF-mediated induction of ciliary body tissue in the chick eye. Dev. Biol. , 304, 272-85. PMID: 17275804 DOI.
- Kolb H, Fernandez E, Nelson R, editors. Webvision: The Organization of the Retina and Visual System [Internet]. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center; 1995-. Retinal Neurogenesis: Early stages in the Development of Neurons and Pathways. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK52777/
- The International Journal of Developmental Biology (2004) Eye Development
Galli-Resta L, Leone P, Bottari D, Ensini M, Rigosi E & Novelli E. (2008). The genesis of retinal architecture: an emerging role for mechanical interactions?. Prog Retin Eye Res , 27, 260-83. PMID: 18374618 DOI.
Bookshelf retina development
Yao J, Zhou J, Liu Q, Lu D, Wang L, Qiao X & Jia W. (2010). Atoh8, a bHLH transcription factor, is required for the development of retina and skeletal muscle in zebrafish. PLoS ONE , 5, e10945. PMID: 20532172 DOI.
Yue F, Johkura K, Shirasawa S, Yokoyama T, Inoue Y, Tomotsune D & Sasaki K. (2010). Differentiation of primate ES cells into retinal cells induced by ES cell-derived pigmented cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. , 394, 877-83. PMID: 20206598 DOI.
Levin N, Dumoulin SO, Winawer J, Dougherty RF & Wandell BA. (2010). Cortical maps and white matter tracts following long period of visual deprivation and retinal image restoration. Neuron , 65, 21-31. PMID: 20152110 DOI.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, February 17) Embryology Vision - Retina Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Vision_-_Retina_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G