Vision - Cornea Development
|Embryology - 19 Mar 2018 Expand to Translate|
|Google Translate - select your language from the list shown below (this will open a new external page)|
العربية | català | 中文 | 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | اردو | ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. (More? About Translations)
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Carnegie Stages - Eye
- 4 Human Cornea
- 5 Cornea Epithelia
- 6 Descemet Membrane
- 7 Palisades of Vogt
- 8 Mouse Cornea
- 9 Frog Cornea
- 10 Molecular
- 11 Additional Images
- 12 References
- 13 Terms
- 14 External Links
- 15 Glossary Links
These notes introduce the development of the cornea of the eye. The adult cornea has three layers: an outer epithelium layer (ectoderm), a middle stromal layer of collagen-rich extracellular matrix between stromal keratocytes (neural crest) and an inner layer of endothelial cells (neural crest).
The cornea is a vision-specific specialised sensory epithelia that in humans differentiates mainly in the postnatal period. It arises initially from cranial ectoderm adjacent to the lens placode and forms a presumptive corneal epithelium. Later neural crest cells migrate between the lens and presumptive structure to form both the corneal endothelium and the stromal fibroblasts (keratocytes). Neural crest development in humans, reptiles and birds differs from that seen in rodents, cats, rabbits, and cattle.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Shigeru Kinoshita, Noriko Koizumi, Morio Ueno, Naoki Okumura, Kojiro Imai, Hiroshi Tanaka, Yuji Yamamoto, Takahiro Nakamura, Tsutomu Inatomi, John Bush, Munetoyo Toda, Michio Hagiya, Isao Yokota, Satoshi Teramukai, Chie Sotozono, Junji Hamuro Injection of Cultured Cells with a ROCK Inhibitor for Bullous Keratopathy. N. Engl. J. Med.: 2018, 378(11);995-1003 PubMed 29539291
Karolien Hollanders, Ingele Casteels, Sylvie Vandelanotte, Rudolf Reyniers, Katarina Segers, Thomas Nevens, Ilse Mombaerts Use of the Masquerade Flap in Ablepharon-Macrostomia Syndrome: A Case Report. Cornea: 2018; PubMed 29538102
Erlend Christoffer Sommer Landsend, Hilde Røgeberg Pedersen, Øygunn Aass Utheim, Jiaxin Xiao, Muhammed Yasin Adil, Behzod Tashbayev, Neil Lagali, Darlene Ann Dartt, Rigmor C Baraas, Tor Paaske Utheim Meibomian gland dysfunction and keratopathy are associated with dry eye disease in aniridia. Br J Ophthalmol: 2018; PubMed 29519880
Zhihua Zhang, Minwen Zhou, Kun Liu, Bijun Zhu, Haiyun Liu, Xiaodong Sun, Xun Xu Development of a new valid and reliable microsurgical skill assessment scale for ophthalmology residents. BMC Ophthalmol: 2018, 18(1);68 PubMed 29506509
Kathryn E Hendee, Elena A Sorokina, Sanaa S Muheisen, Linda M Reis, Rebecca C Tyler, Vujica Markovic, Goran Cuturilo, Brian A Link, Elena V Semina PITX2 deficiency and associated human disease: insights from the zebrafish model. Hum. Mol. Genet.: 2018; PubMed 29506241
F M Gür, S Timurkaan, B Gençer Tarakçi, M H Yalçin, Z E Özkan, S B Baygeldi, S Yilmaz, H Eröksüz Identification of immunohistochemical localization of irisin in the dwarf hamster (Phodopus roborovskii) tissues. Anat Histol Embryol: 2018, 47(2);174-179 PubMed 29527793
Joachim C Manning, Gabriel García Caballero, Clemens Knospe, Herbert Kaltner, Hans-Joachim Gabius Three-step monitoring of glycan and galectin profiles in the anterior segment of the adult chicken eye. Ann. Anat.: 2018; PubMed 29501632
Yu-Hong Cui, Zi-Xuan Hu, Zi-Xun Gao, Xi-Ling Song, Qing-Yang Feng, Guang Yang, Zhi-Jie Li, Hong-Wei Pan Airborne particulate matter impairs corneal epithelial cells migration via disturbing FAK/RhoA signaling pathway and cytoskeleton organization. Nanotoxicology: 2018;1-13 PubMed 29463199
S Altan, H Sağsöz, Z Oğurtan Topical dimethyl sulfoxide inhibits corneal neovascularization and stimulates corneal repair in rabbits following acid burn. Biotech Histochem: 2017;1-18 PubMed 29233043
Megan R Silas, Sarah M Hilkert, James J Reidy, Asim V Farooq Posterior keratoconus. Br J Ophthalmol: 2017; PubMed 29122822
Carnegie Stages - Eye
|Human Eye Development|
|Stage 10||optic primordia appear.|
|Stage 11||right and left optic primordia meet at the optic chiasma forming a U-shaped rim.|
|Stage 12||optic neural crest reaches its maximum extent and the optic vesicle becomes covered by a complete sheath,|
|Stage 13||By the end of the fourth week the optic vesicle lies close to the surface ectoderm. Optic evagination differentiation allows identification of optic part of retina, future pigmented layer of retina, and optic stalk. The surface ectoderm overlying the optic vesicle, in response to this contact, has thickened to form the lense placode.|
|Stage 14||(about 32 days) the lens placode is indented by the lens pit, cup-shaped and still communicates with the surface by a narrowing pore.|
|Stage 15||(about 33 days) the lens pit is closed. The lens vesicle and optic cup lie close to the surface ectoderm and appear to press against the surface.|
|Stage 16||(37 days) Growth of the lens body results in a D-shaped lens cavity. Perilental blood vessels (tunica vasculosa lentis) are visible. Prior to the development of the eyelids, one small sulcus or groove forms above the eye (eyelid groove) and another below it.|
|Stages 17 - 19||Retinal pigment is visible and the retinal fissure is largely closed. Eyelids grooves deepen, eyelid folds develop, first below, and then above, the eye.|
|Stages 18||Mesenchyme invades the region between the lens epithelium and the surface ectoderm.|
|Stages 19 - 22||the eyelid folds develop into the eyelids and cover more of the eye as the palpebral fissure takes shape. The upper and the lower eyelids meet at the outer canthus in Stage 19.|
|Stage 20||The lens cavity is lost and a lens suture begins to form. The inner canthus is established.|
|Stage 23||The retina comprises the pigmented layer, external limiting membrane, proliferative zone, external neuroblastic layer, transient fiber layer, internal neuroblastic layer, nerve fiber layer, and internal limiting membrane. Eyelids closure is complete (Note - shown as still open in the Kyoto embryo).|
| Data from a study of human embryonic carnegie stages and other sources.
Week 8 Stage 22
The images below link to virtual slides of the human developing eye at Carnegie stage 22. Click on the image to open or select specific regions from the regions of interest links.
Virtual Slide - Regions of Interest
Links: Embryo Virtual Slides
| The cornea ocular surface is composed of three epithelia, conjunctival, limbal and corneal.
Corneal epithelial cells cartoon
| The Adult Human Limbal Palisades of Vogt
Bar represents 500 μm in A and B, 200 μm in C and E, and 50 μm in D
Adult human limbal palisades of Vogt
Limbal Stem Cells
Cartoon showing the location of limbal stem cells at the limbal basal layer.
- Links: Stem Cells
Corneal endothelium basement membrane beginning in children at 3 μm thick and increases in adults to 10 μm. Consists of collagen type IV and VIII fibrils.
Composed of two layers:
- anterior banded layer - commencing in week 10 (GA week 12) as collagen lamellae and proteoglycans.
- posterior non-banded layer - deposited by endothelial cells over time and thickens postnatally over decades.
Descemet membrane was historically named after Jean Descemet (1732–1810) a French physician.
Palisades of Vogt
The palisades of Vogt are a series of radially oriented fibrovascular ridges concentrated along the upper and lower corneoscleral limbus, the vasculature component consists of radially oriented hairpin loops of narrow arterial and venous vessels. Named by Vogt in 1921. (for review see)
Aggregate into distinct crescentic zones and lie peripheral to the terminal capillary loops of the limbus and central to Schlemm’s canal. Lying between the connective tissue palisades are intervening radial zones of thickened conjunctival epithelium, the so-called inter-palisades or epithelial rete ridges.
Neural crest-derived cells contribute to mouse cornea development.
This developmental timeline is from a recent frog (Xenopus laevis) cornea study
- stage 25 - cornea starts from a simple embryonic epidermis overlying the developing optic vesicle.
- stage 30 - detachment of the lens placode, cranial neural crest cells start to invade the space between the lens and the embryonic epidermis to construct the corneal endothelium.
- stage 41 - a second wave of migratory cells containing presumptive keratocytes invades the matrix leading to the formation of inner cornea and outer cornea. A unique cell mass (stroma attracting center) connects the two layers like the center pole of a tent.
- stage 48 - many secondary stromal keratocytes individually migrate to the center and form the stroma layer.
- stage 60 - the stroma space is filled by collagen lamellae and keratocytes, and the stroma attracting center disappears. At early metamorphosis, the embryonic epithelium gradually changes to the adult corneal epithelium, which is covered by microvilli.
- stage 62 - the embryonic epithelium thickens and cell death is observed in the epithelium, coinciding with eyelid opening.
- After metamorphosis - cornea has attained the adult structure of three cellular layers, epithelium, stroma, and endothelium, and between the cellular layers lie two acellular layers (Bowman's layer and Descemet's membrane)
- Links: Frog Development
Mouse Eye TGF-beta Model - Summary of the TGFβ-dependent development of anterior and posterior ocular structures.
|a Neural crest-derived cells (NC, blue) contribute to structures of the anterior eye segment and the primary vitreous (PV).
||b In the cornea, prospective stromal keratocytes and endothelial cells are of neural crest origin.
- Lwigale PY. (2015). Corneal Development: Different Cells from a Common Progenitor. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci , 134, 43-59. PMID: 26310148 DOI.
- Ho LT, Harris AM, Tanioka H, Yagi N, Kinoshita S, Caterson B, Quantock AJ, Young RD & Meek KM. (2014). A comparison of glycosaminoglycan distributions, keratan sulphate sulphation patterns and collagen fibril architecture from central to peripheral regions of the bovine cornea. Matrix Biol. , 38, 59-68. PMID: 25019467 DOI.
- Pearson AA. (1980). The development of the eyelids. Part I. External features. J. Anat. , 130, 33-42. PMID: 7364662
- Kayama M, Kurokawa MS, Ueno H & Suzuki N. (2007). Recent advances in corneal regeneration and possible application of embryonic stem cell-derived corneal epithelial cells. Clin Ophthalmol , 1, 373-82. PMID: 19668514
- Li W, Hayashida Y, Chen YT & Tseng SC. (2007). Niche regulation of corneal epithelial stem cells at the limbus. Cell Res. , 17, 26-36. PMID: 17211449 DOI.
- Goldberg MF & Bron AJ. (1982). Limbal palisades of Vogt. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc , 80, 155-71. PMID: 7182957
- Ittner LM, Wurdak H, Schwerdtfeger K, Kunz T, Ille F, Leveen P, Hjalt TA, Suter U, Karlsson S, Hafezi F, Born W & Sommer L. (2005). Compound developmental eye disorders following inactivation of TGFbeta signaling in neural-crest stem cells. J. Biol. , 4, 11. PMID: 16403239 DOI.
- Hu W, Haamedi N, Lee J, Kinoshita T & Ohnuma S. (2013). The structure and development of Xenopus laevis cornea. Exp. Eye Res. , 116, 109-28. PMID: 23896054 DOI.
- Cornea "For corneal specialists and for all general ophthalmologists with an interest in this exciting subspecialty, Cornea brings together the latest clinical and basic research on the cornea and the anterior segment of the eye." [jour PuMed Listing]
The International Journal of Developmental Biology Vol. 48 Nos. 8/9 (2004) Eye Development
MAURICE DM. (1957). The structure and transparency of the cornea. J. Physiol. (Lond.) , 136, 263-86. PMID: 13429485
Bookshelf cornea development
Search Pubmed: cornea development
Search Entrez: cornea development
- Limbal epithelial stem cells - cells located at the limbal basal layer.
- palisades of Vogt - series of radially oriented fibrovascular ridges concentrated along the upper and lower corneoscleral limbus, the vasculature component consists of radially oriented hairpin loops of narrow arterial and venous vessels. Named by Vogt in 1921. PMID 7182957
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
- A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols
Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, March 19) Embryology Vision - Cornea Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Vision_-_Cornea_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G