|Embryology - 15 Jul 2018 Expand to Translate|
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The mesoderm forms the middle layer of the early trilaminar embryo germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm) formed by gastrulation. The segmentation of the initial mesoderm into somites, and their regular addition, is often used to stage embryonic development (23 somite embryo).
This middle germ layer forms connective tissues and muscle throughout the body, with the exception of in the head region where some of these structures have a neural crest (ectoderm) origin.
- connective tissues - cartilage, bone, blood, blood vessel endothelium, dermis, etc.
- muscle - cardiac, skeletal, smooth.
Students often mix-up the terms mesoderm (middle layer) with mesenchyme (embryonic connective tissue). It is true that mesoderm initially does have a mesenchymal cellular organisation, but can also form a range of epithelial structures (surrounding somites, mesothelium lining of body cavities).
|Mesoderm Links: endoderm | mesoderm | ectoderm | Lecture - Mesoderm | Lecture - Musculoskeletal | 2016 Lecture | notochord | renal | Notochord Movie | somitogenesis | musculoskeletal | cartilage | bone | sonic hedgehog | Category:Mesoderm|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Igor I Slukvin, Akhilesh Kumar The mesenchymoangioblast, mesodermal precursor for mesenchymal and endothelial cells. Cell. Mol. Life Sci.: 2018; PubMed 29992471
Jemma L Webber, Jie Zhang, Alex Massey, Nicelio Sanchez-Luege, Ilaria Rebay ##Title## Development: 2018; PubMed 29848501
Guilai Chen, Da Zhang, Linlin Zhang, Guihai Feng, Boya Zhang, Yihui Wu, Wei Li, Ying Zhang, Baoyang Hu RBM14 is indispensable for pluripotency maintenance and mesoderm development of mouse embryonic stem cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.: 2018; PubMed 29729270
Bridgette E Drummond, Rebecca A Wingert ##Title## Cancer Cell Microenviron: 2018, 5(1); PubMed 29707605
Yu Shi, Jiejing Li, Chunjiang Chen, Yongwu Xia, Yanxi Li, Pan Zhang, Ying Xu, Tingyu Li, Weihui Zhou, Weihong Song Ketamine Modulates Zic5 Expression via the Notch Signaling Pathway in Neural Crest Induction. Front Mol Neurosci: 2018, 11;9 PubMed 29472839
Mesoderm Formation during Gastrulation
- Links: gastrulation
Extra-embryonic mesoderm (EEM) origin has been discussed extensively. This mesoderm outside the embryo associated with fetal membrane and placenta development is formed at gastrulation along with the embryonic mesoderm from the proximal side of the primitive streak. A recent study in mouse, has shown that the primitive streak absence and excessive epiblast Nodal activity in pre-gastrulation stage, but not in the primitive streak cells during gastrulation, disrupts extraembryonic mesoderm development. 
- Sanders TA, Llagostera E & Barna M. (2013). Specialized filopodia direct long-range transport of SHH during vertebrate tissue patterning. Nature , 497, 628-32. PMID: 23624372 DOI.
- Row RH, Pegg A, Kinney B, Farr GH, Maves L, Lowell S, Wilson V & Martin BL. (2018). BMP and FGF signaling interact to pattern mesoderm by controlling basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor activity. Elife , 7, . PMID: 29877796 DOI.
- Beisaw A, Tsaytler P, Koch F, Schmitz SU, Melissari MT, Senft AD, Wittler L, Pennimpede T, Macura K, Herrmann BG & Grote P. (2018). BRACHYURY directs histone acetylation to target loci during mesoderm development. EMBO Rep. , 19, 118-134. PMID: 29141987 DOI.
- Bazzi H, Soroka E, Alcorn HL & Anderson KV. (2017). STRIP1, a core component of STRIPAK complexes, is essential for normal mesoderm migration in the mouse embryo. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 114, E10928-E10936. PMID: 29203676 DOI.
- Koh PW, Sinha R, Barkal AA, Morganti RM, Chen A, Weissman IL, Ang LT, Kundaje A & Loh KM. (2016). An atlas of transcriptional, chromatin accessibility, and surface marker changes in human mesoderm development. Sci Data , 3, 160109. PMID: 27996962 DOI.
- Fleming BM, Yelin R, James RG & Schultheiss TM. (2013). A role for Vg1/Nodal signaling in specification of the intermediate mesoderm. Development , 140, 1819-29. PMID: 23533180 DOI.
- Aulehla A & Pourquié O. (2010). Signaling gradients during paraxial mesoderm development. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol , 2, a000869. PMID: 20182616 DOI.
- Shapiro IM & Risbud MV. (2010). Transcriptional profiling of the nucleus pulposus: say yes to notochord. Arthritis Res. Ther. , 12, 117. PMID: 20497604 DOI.
- Jin JZ, Zhu Y, Warner D & Ding J. (2016). Analysis of extraembryonic mesodermal structure formation in the absence of morphological primitive streak. Dev. Growth Differ. , 58, 522-9. PMID: 27273137 DOI.
Risbud MV, Schaer TP & Shapiro IM. (2010). Toward an understanding of the role of notochordal cells in the adult intervertebral disc: from discord to accord. Dev. Dyn. , 239, 2141-8. PMID: 20568241 DOI.
Korecki CL, Taboas JM, Tuan RS & Iatridis JC. (2010). Notochordal cell conditioned medium stimulates mesenchymal stem cell differentiation toward a young nucleus pulposus phenotype. Stem Cell Res Ther , 1, 18. PMID: 20565707 DOI.
Trainor PA, Tan SS & Tam PP. (1994). Cranial paraxial mesoderm: regionalisation of cell fate and impact on craniofacial development in mouse embryos. Development , 120, 2397-408. PMID: 7956820
Florian J. (1933). The Early Development of Man, with Special Reference to the Development of the Mesoderm and Cloacal Membrane. J. Anat. , 67, 263-76. PMID: 17104422
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, July 15) Embryology Mesoderm. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Mesoderm
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