Mesoderm

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Introduction

The trilaminar embryo

The middle layer of the early trilaminar embryo germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm) formed by gastrulation. The segmentation of the initial mesoderm into somites, and their regular addition, is often used to stage embryonic development (23 somite embryo).


This middle germ layer forms connective tissues and muscle throughout the body, with the exception of in the head region where some of these structures have a neural crest (ectoderm) origin.

  • connective tissues - cartilage, bone, blood, blood vessel endothelium, dermis, etc.
  • muscle - cardiac, skeletal, smooth.

Students often mix-up the terms mesoderm (middle layer) with mesenchyme (embryonic connective tissue). It is true that mesoderm initially does have a mesenchymal cellular organisation, but can also form a range of epithelial structures (surrounding somites, mesothelium lining of body cavities).


Mesoderm Links: Endoderm | Mesoderm | Ectoderm | Lecture - Mesoderm | Lecture - Musculoskeletal | 2016 Lecture | Notochord | Notochord Movie | Somitogenesis | Musculoskeletal | Sonic hedgehog | Category:Mesoderm
Historic Embryology  
Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Historic Papers: 1883 | 1910 Chick Somites | 1933 | 1935 Rabbit Somites

Historic Textbooks: 1892 Primitive Segments | 1907 Somites | 1910 Skeleton | 1914 Somite | 1920 Chick Mesoderm | 1921 Connective Tissue | 1951 Frog Mesoderm

Some Recent Findings

Mesenchymal cells of the developing limb bud possess long and highly dynamic cytoplasmic extensions.[1]
  • A role for Vg1/Nodal signaling in specification of the intermediate mesoderm[2] "The intermediate mesoderm (IM) is the embryonic source of all kidney tissue in vertebrates. The factors that regulate the formation of the IM are not yet well understood. Through investigations in the chick embryo, the current study identifies and characterizes Vg1/Nodal signaling (henceforth referred to as 'Nodal-like signaling') as a novel regulator of IM formation. ... We postulate that Nodal-like signaling regulates IM formation by modulating the IM-inducing effects of BMP signaling." Renal System Development
  • Signaling gradients during paraxial mesoderm development[3] "These studies indicate that high levels of Wnt and FGF signaling are required for the segmentation clock activity. Furthermore, we discuss how these signaling gradients act in a dose-dependent manner in the progenitors of the paraxial mesoderm, partly by regulating cell movements during gastrulation. Finally, links between the process of axial specification of vertebral segments and Hox gene expression are discussed."
  • Transcriptional profiling of the nucleus pulposus: say yes to notochord[4]"This editorial addresses the debate concerning the origin of adult nucleus pulposus cells in the light of profiling studies by Minogue and colleagues. In their report of several marker genes that distinguish nucleus pulposus cells from other related cell types, the authors provide novel insights into the notochordal nature of the former. Together with recently published work, their work lends support to the view that all cells present within the nucleus pulposus are derived from the notochord. Hence, the choice of an animal model for disc research should be based on considerations other than the cell loss and replacement by non-notochordal cells."
More recent papers
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches


Search term: Mesoderm Development | Images

Arica Beisaw, Pavel Tsaytler, Frederic Koch, Sandra U Schmitz, Maria-Theodora Melissari, Anna D Senft, Lars Wittler, Tracie Pennimpede, Karol Macura, Bernhard G Herrmann, Phillip Grote BRACHYURY directs histone acetylation to target loci during mesoderm development. EMBO Rep.: 2017; PubMed 29141987

Carolina Blugüermann, Leonardo Romorini, Denis Evseenko, Ximena Garate, Gabriel Neiman, Gustavo Emilio Sevlever, María Elida Scassa, Santiago Gabriel Miriuka Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Increases Survival of Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes. J Cardiovasc Transl Res: 2017; PubMed 29019149

A Berthon, F R Faucz, S Espiard, L Drougat, J Bertherat, C A Stratakis Age-dependent effects of Armc5 haploinsufficiency on adrenocortical function. Hum. Mol. Genet.: 2017, 26(18);3495-3507 PubMed 28911199

Paul Bardot, Stéphane D Vincent, Marjorie Fournier, Alexis Hubaud, Mathilde Joint, László Tora, Olivier Pourquié The TAF10-containing TFIID and SAGA transcriptional complexes are dispensable for early somitogenesis in the mouse embryo. Development: 2017; PubMed 28893950

José M Martín-Durán, Yale J Passamaneck, Mark Q Martindale, Andreas Hejnol The developmental basis for the recurrent evolution of deuterostomy and protostomy. Nat Ecol Evol: 2016, 1(1);5 PubMed 28812551

Mesoderm Movies

Mesoderm 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Week 3 Mesoderm
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Notochord 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Week 3 Notochord
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Notochord 02 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Week 3 Notochord
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Vertebra 003 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Vertebra
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Somite 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Musculoskeletal
Page | Play
Mesoderm migration movie 1 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Mesoderm Move
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Presomitic mesoderm movie 3 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Presomite Mesod
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Somitogenesis 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Somitogenesis
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Mesoderm Formation during Gastrulation

Human embryo (stage 10) mesoderm

Chicken-gastrulation2.jpg


Links: Gastrulation

Patterning

Notochord secreting sonic hedgehog, shown in white

Mesoderm cartoon.gif

Mesoderm-cartoon1.jpgMesoderm-cartoon2.jpgMesoderm-cartoon3.jpgMesoderm-cartoon4.jpg


Somite cartoon5.png

Somite patterning


Molecular Factors

References

  1. Timothy A. Sanders, Esther Llagostera, Maria Barna. Specialized filopodia direct long-range transport of SHH during vertebrate tissue patterning. Nature Apr 28, 2013.
  2. Britannia M Fleming, Ronit Yelin, Richard G James, Thomas M Schultheiss A role for Vg1/Nodal signaling in specification of the intermediate mesoderm. Development: 2013, 140(8);1819-29 PubMed 23533180
  3. Alexander Aulehla, Olivier Pourquié Signaling gradients during paraxial mesoderm development. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol: 2010, 2(2);a000869 PubMed 20182616
  4. Irving M Shapiro, Makarand V Risbud Transcriptional profiling of the nucleus pulposus: say yes to notochord. Arthritis Res. Ther.: 2010, 12(3);117 PubMed 20497604

Reviews

Makarand V Risbud, Thomas P Schaer, Irving M Shapiro Toward an understanding of the role of notochordal cells in the adult intervertebral disc: from discord to accord. Dev. Dyn.: 2010, 239(8);2141-8 PubMed 20568241


Ann Campbell Burke Development and evolution of the vertebrate mesoderm. Dev. Dyn.: 2007, 236(9);2369-70 PubMed 17705304


Articles

Benjamin L Martin, David Kimelman Brachyury establishes the embryonic mesodermal progenitor niche. Genes Dev.: 2010, 24(24);2778-83 PubMed 21159819

Casey L Korecki, Juan M Taboas, Rocky S Tuan, James C Iatridis Notochordal cell conditioned medium stimulates mesenchymal stem cell differentiation toward a young nucleus pulposus phenotype. Stem Cell Res Ther: 2010, 1(2);18 PubMed 20565707

P A Trainor, S S Tan, P P Tam Cranial paraxial mesoderm: regionalisation of cell fate and impact on craniofacial development in mouse embryos. Development: 1994, 120(9);2397-408 PubMed 7956820


Historic

J Florian The Early Development of Man, with Special Reference to the Development of the Mesoderm and Cloacal Membrane. J. Anat.: 1933, 67(Pt 2);263-76 PubMed 17104422


Search PubMed

Search NLM Online Textbooks: "Mesoderm" : Developmental Biology | The Cell- A molecular Approach | Molecular Biology of the Cell | Endocrinology


Search Pubmed: Mesoderm | Notochord

External Links

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Take the Quiz

1. Mesenchyme refers to the middle layer of the trilaminar embryo

true
false
The the middle layer of the trilaminar embryo is the mesoderm (meaning middle layer), while most of these cells are mesemchymal in appearance, this term is used to describe the cell histological appearance/organization.

2. The intraembryonic coelom forms within :

somites
lateral plate
neural tube
intermediate mesoderm
The intraembryonic coelom forms initially small spaces in the mesoderm layer and coalesce to form a single large "horseshoe-shaped" space within the lateral plate mesoderm around the embryonic disc. Both young somites (somitocoels) and the neural tube (neural tube lumen) do have cavities, but neither is called the intraembryonic coelom.

3. All paraxial mesoderm segments into somites.

true
false
While somites do form within paraxial mesoderm, this region remains unsegmented at the level of the head and therefore does not incorporate into somites.

4. Somites are developmental structures that contribute the following adult structures :

vertebra, notochord, dermis, skeletal muscle
vertebra, intervertebral discs, dermis, skeletal muscle
kidney, body wall connective tissue, sensory ganglia
kidney, gastrointestinal tract smooth muscle, mesentry
Each somite has specific regions that contribute different components of the embryo. Sclerotome contributes the vertebral column (vertebra, intervertebral discs). Dermotome contributes the connective tissue layers of the skin (dermis, hypodermis). Myotome ontributes the skeletal muscle of the body and limbs.

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Mesoderm. Retrieved November 18, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Mesoderm

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© Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G