Lizard Development

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Introduction

Anolis carolinensis (green anole) mating.
Australian water skink embryo

Lizards and snakes represent scaled reptiles (squamata). Lizard development involves an amniotic egg, that evolutionary (~320 million years ago) freed the vertebrates from their aquatic (water) to a terrestrial (land) environment. The Galápagos Islands marine iguana was also made famous by Charles Darwin's historic evolution studies.


The genome of the lizard Anolis carolinensis (green anole) from southeastern United States has a karyotype of 18 chromosomes, comprising six pairs of large macrochromosomes and 12 pairs of small microchromosomes, and has recently been sequenced [1]. Interestingly, almost all reptilian genomes also contain "microchromosomes", very small chromosomes less than 20 Mb in sequence size. (More? Genome)


Lizard links: 1904 Sand Lizard | Category:Lizard

Some Recent Findings

  • Identifying the evolutionary building blocks of the cardiac conduction system[2] "The endothermic state of mammals and birds requires high heart rates to accommodate the high rates of oxygen consumption. These high heart rates are driven by very similar conduction systems consisting of an atrioventricular node that slows the electrical impulse and a His-Purkinje system that efficiently activates the ventricular chambers. While ectothermic vertebrates have similar contraction patterns, they do not possess anatomical evidence for a conduction system. ... Mammalian and avian ventricles uniquely develop thick compact walls and septum and, hence, form a discrete ventricular conduction system from the embryonic spongy ventricle. Our study uncovers the evolutionary building plan of heart and indicates that the building blocks of the conduction system of adult ectothermic vertebrates and embryos of endotherms are similar."
  • Tooth development in a model reptile: functional and null generation teeth in the gecko Paroedura picta[3] "This paper describes tooth development in a basal squamate, Paroedura picta. Due to its reproductive strategy, mode of development and position within the reptiles, this gecko represents an excellent model organism for the study of reptile development. ...We show evidence for a stratum intermedium layer in the enamel epithelium of functional teeth and show that the bicuspid shape of the teeth is created by asymmetrical deposition of enamel, and not by folding of the inner dental epithelium as observed in mammals."
  • Patterns of interspecific variation in the heart rates of embryonic reptiles[4] "New non-invasive technologies allow direct measurement of heart rates (and thus, developmental rates) of embryos. We applied these methods to a diverse array of oviparous reptiles (24 species of lizards, 18 snakes, 11 turtles, 1 crocodilian), to identify general influences on cardiac rates during embryogenesis. Heart rates increased with ambient temperature in all lineages, but (at the same temperature) were faster in lizards and turtles than in snakes and crocodilians. We analysed these data within a phylogenetic framework. Embryonic heart rates were faster in species with smaller adult sizes, smaller egg sizes, and shorter incubation periods."
  • Reptilian spermatogenesis: A histological and ultrastructural perspective[5] "Until recently, the histology and ultrastructural events of spermatogenesis in reptiles were relatively unknown. Most of the available morphological information focuses on specific stages of spermatogenesis, spermiogenesis, and/or of the mature spermatozoa. No study to date has provided complete ultrastructural information on the early events of spermatogenesis, proliferation and meiosis in class Reptilia. Furthermore, no comprehensive data set exists that describes the ultrastructure of the entire ontogenic progression of germ cells through the phases of reptilian spermatogenesis (mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis)."
More recent papers
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Search term: Lizard Embryology

Weronika Rupik, Magdalena Kowalska, Elwira Swadźba, Robert Maślak Ultrastructural features of the differentiating thyroid primordium in the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis L.) from the differentiation of the cellular cords to the formation of the follicular lumen. Zoology (Jena): 2015; PubMed 26966051

Daniel J Klionsky, Kotb Abdelmohsen, Akihisa Abe, Md Joynal Abedin, Hagai Abeliovich, Abraham Acevedo Arozena, Hiroaki Adachi, Christopher M Adams, Peter D Adams, Khosrow Adeli, Peter J Adhihetty, Sharon G Adler, Galila Agam, Rajesh Agarwal, Manish K Aghi, Maria Agnello, Patrizia Agostinis, Patricia V Aguilar, Julio Aguirre-Ghiso, Edoardo M Airoldi, Slimane Ait-Si-Ali, Takahiko Akematsu, Emmanuel T Akporiaye, Mohamed Al-Rubeai, Guillermo M Albaiceta, Chris Albanese, Diego Albani, Matthew L Albert, Jesus Aldudo, Hana Algül, Mehrdad Alirezaei, Iraide Alloza, Alexandru Almasan, Maylin Almonte-Beceril, Emad S Alnemri, Covadonga Alonso, Nihal Altan-Bonnet, Dario C Altieri, Silvia Alvarez, Lydia Alvarez-Erviti, Sandro Alves, Giuseppina Amadoro, Atsuo Amano, Consuelo Amantini, Santiago Ambrosio, Ivano Amelio, Amal O Amer, Mohamed Amessou, Angelika Amon, Zhenyi An, Frank A Anania, Stig U Andersen, Usha P Andley, Catherine K Andreadi, Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie, Alberto Anel, David K Ann, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Manuela Antonioli, Hiroshi Aoki, Nadezda Apostolova, Saveria Aquila, Katia Aquilano, Koichi Araki, Eli Arama, Agustin Aranda, Jun Araya, Alexandre Arcaro, Esperanza Arias, Hirokazu Arimoto, Aileen R Ariosa, Jane L Armstrong, Thierry Arnould, Ivica Arsov, Katsuhiko Asanuma, Valerie Askanas, Eric Asselin, Ryuichiro Atarashi, Sally S Atherton, Julie D Atkin, Laura D Attardi, Patrick Auberger, Georg Auburger, Laure Aurelian, Riccardo Autelli, Laura Avagliano, Maria Laura Avantaggiati, Limor Avrahami, Suresh Awale, Neelam Azad, Tiziana Bachetti, Jonathan M Backer, Dong-Hun Bae, Jae-Sung Bae, Ok-Nam Bae, Soo Han Bae, Eric H Baehrecke, Seung-Hoon Baek, Stephen Baghdiguian, Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna, Hua Bai, Jie Bai, Xue-Yuan Bai, Yannick Bailly, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy Balaji, Walter Balduini, Andrea Ballabio, Rena Balzan, Rajkumar Banerjee, Gábor Bánhegyi, Haijun Bao, Benoit Barbeau, Maria D Barrachina, Esther Barreiro, Bonnie Bartel, Alberto Bartolomé, Diane C Bassham, Maria Teresa Bassi, Robert C Bast, Alakananda Basu, Maria Teresa Batista, Henri Batoko, Maurizio Battino, Kyle Bauckman, Bradley L Baumgarner, K Ulrich Bayer, Rupert Beale, Jean-François Beaulieu, George R Beck, Christoph Becker, J David Beckham, Pierre-André Bédard, Patrick J Bednarski, Thomas J Begley, Christian Behl, Christian Behrends, Georg Mn Behrens, Kevin E Behrns, Eloy Bejarano, Amine Belaid, Francesca Belleudi, Giovanni Bénard, Guy Berchem, Daniele Bergamaschi, Matteo Bergami, Ben Berkhout, Laura Berliocchi, Amélie Bernard, Monique Bernard, Francesca Bernassola, Anne Bertolotti, Amanda S Bess, Sébastien Besteiro, Saverio Bettuzzi, Savita Bhalla, Shalmoli Bhattacharyya, Sujit K Bhutia, Caroline Biagosch, Michele Wolfe Bianchi, Martine Biard-Piechaczyk, Viktor Billes, Claudia Bincoletto, Baris Bingol, Sara W Bird, Marc Bitoun, Ivana Bjedov, Craig Blackstone, Lionel Blanc, Guillermo A Blanco, Heidi Kiil Blomhoff, Emilio Boada-Romero, Stefan Böckler, Marianne Boes, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, Lawrence H Boise, Alessandra Bolino, Andrea Boman, Paolo Bonaldo, Matteo Bordi, Jürgen Bosch, Luis M Botana, Joelle Botti, German Bou, Marina Bouché, Marion Bouchecareilh, Marie-Josée Boucher, Michael E Boulton, Sebastien G Bouret, Patricia Boya, Michaël Boyer-Guittaut, Peter V Bozhkov, Nathan Brady, Vania Mm Braga, Claudio Brancolini, Gerhard H Braus, José M Bravo-San Pedro, Lisa A Brennan, Emery H Bresnick, Patrick Brest, Dave Bridges, Marie-Agnès Bringer, Marisa Brini, Glauber C Brito, Bertha Brodin, Paul S Brookes, Eric J Brown, Karen Brown, Hal E Broxmeyer, Alain Bruhat, Patricia Chakur Brum, John H Brumell, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Robert J Bryson-Richardson, Shilpa Buch, Alastair M Buchan, Hikmet Budak, Dmitry V Bulavin, Scott J Bultman, Geert Bultynck, Vladimir Bumbasirevic, Yan Burelle, Robert E Burke, Margit Burmeister, Peter Bütikofer, Laura Caberlotto, Ken Cadwell, Monika Cahova, Dongsheng Cai, Jingjing Cai, Qian Cai, Sara Calatayud, Nadine Camougrand, Michelangelo Campanella, Grant R Campbell, Matthew Campbell, Silvia Campello, Robin Candau, Isabella Caniggia, Lavinia Cantoni, Lizhi Cao, Allan B Caplan, Michele Caraglia, Claudio Cardinali, Sandra Morais Cardoso, Jennifer S Carew, Laura A Carleton, Cathleen R Carlin, Silvia Carloni, Sven R Carlsson, Didac Carmona-Gutierrez, Leticia Am Carneiro, Oliana Carnevali, Serena Carra, Alice Carrier, Bernadette Carroll, Caty Casas, Josefina Casas, Giuliana Cassinelli, Perrine Castets, Susana Castro-Obregon, Gabriella Cavallini, Isabella Ceccherini, Francesco Cecconi, Arthur I Cederbaum, Valentín Ceña, Simone Cenci, Claudia Cerella, Davide Cervia, Silvia Cetrullo, Hassan Chaachouay, Han-Jung Chae, Andrei S Chagin, Chee-Yin Chai, Gopal Chakrabarti, Georgios Chamilos, Edmond Yw Chan, Matthew Tv Chan, Dhyan Chandra, Pallavi Chandra, Chih-Peng Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Ta Yuan Chang, John C Chatham, Saurabh Chatterjee, Santosh Chauhan, Yongsheng Che, Michael E Cheetham, Rajkumar Cheluvappa, Chun-Jung Chen, Gang Chen, Guang-Chao Chen, Guoqiang Chen, Hongzhuan Chen, Jeff W Chen, Jian-Kang Chen, Min Chen, Mingzhou Chen, Peiwen Chen, Qi Chen, Quan Chen, Shang-Der Chen, Si Chen, Steve S-L Chen, Wei Chen, Wei-Jung Chen, Wen Qiang Chen, Wenli Chen, Xiangmei Chen, Yau-Hung Chen, Ye-Guang Chen, Yin Chen, Yingyu Chen, Yongshun Chen, Yu-Jen Chen, Yue-Qin Chen, Yujie Chen, Zhen Chen, Zhong Chen, Alan Cheng, Christopher Hk Cheng, Hua Cheng, Heesun Cheong, Sara Cherry, Jason Chesney, Chun Hei Antonio Cheung, Eric Chevet, Hsiang Cheng Chi, Sung-Gil Chi, Fulvio Chiacchiera, Hui-Ling Chiang, Roberto Chiarelli, Mario Chiariello, Marcello Chieppa, Lih-Shen Chin, Mario Chiong, Gigi Nc Chiu, Dong-Hyung Cho, Ssang-Goo Cho, William C Cho, Yong-Yeon Cho, Young-Seok Cho, Augustine Mk Choi, Eui-Ju Choi, Eun-Kyoung Choi, Jayoung Choi, Mary E Choi, Seung-Il Choi, Tsui-Fen Chou, Salem Chouaib, Divaker Choubey, Vinay Choubey, Kuan-Chih Chow, Kamal Chowdhury, Charleen T Chu, Tsung-Hsien Chuang, Taehoon Chun, Hyewon Chung, Taijoon Chung, Yuen-Li Chung, Yong-Joon Chwae, Valentina Cianfanelli, Roberto Ciarcia, Iwona A Ciechomska, Maria Rosa Ciriolo, Mara Cirone, Sofie Claerhout, Michael J Clague, Joan Clària, Peter Gh Clarke, Robert Clarke, Emilio Clementi, Cédric Cleyrat, Miriam Cnop, Eliana M Coccia, Tiziana Cocco, Patrice Codogno, Jörn Coers, Ezra Ew Cohen, David Colecchia, Luisa Coletto, Núria S Coll, Emma Colucci-Guyon, Sergio Comincini, Maria Condello, Katherine L Cook, Graham H Coombs, Cynthia D Cooper, J Mark Cooper, Isabelle Coppens, Maria Tiziana Corasaniti, Marco Corazzari, Ramon Corbalan, Elisabeth Corcelle-Termeau, Mario D Cordero, Cristina Corral-Ramos, Olga Corti, Andrea Cossarizza, Paola Costelli, Safia Costes, Susan L Cotman, Ana Coto-Montes, Sandra Cottet, Eduardo Couve, Lori R Covey, L Ashley Cowart, Jeffery S Cox, Fraser P Coxon, Carolyn B Coyne, Mark S Cragg, Rolf J Craven, Tiziana Crepaldi, Jose L Crespo, Alfredo Criollo, Valeria Crippa, Maria 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Matthias Gaestel, Philippe Gailly, Malgorzata Gajewska, Sehamuddin Galadari, Gad Galili, Inmaculada Galindo, Maria F Galindo, Giovanna Galliciotti, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Luca Galluzzi, Vincent Galy, Noor Gammoh, Sam Gandy, Anand K Ganesan, Swamynathan Ganesan, Ian G Ganley, Monique Gannagé, Fen-Biao Gao, Feng Gao, Jian-Xin Gao, Lorena García Nannig, Eleonora García Véscovi, Marina Garcia-Macía, Carmen Garcia-Ruiz, Abhishek D Garg, Pramod Kumar Garg, Ricardo Gargini, Nils Christian Gassen, Damián Gatica, Evelina Gatti, Julie Gavard, Evripidis Gavathiotis, Liang Ge, Pengfei Ge, Shengfang Ge, Po-Wu Gean, Vania Gelmetti, Armando A Genazzani, Jiefei Geng, Pascal Genschik, Lisa Gerner, Jason E Gestwicki, David A Gewirtz, Saeid Ghavami, Eric Ghigo, Debabrata Ghosh, Anna Maria Giammarioli, Francesca Giampieri, Claudia Giampietri, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Derrick J Gibbings, Lara Gibellini, Spencer B Gibson, Vanessa Ginet, Antonio Giordano, Flaviano Giorgini, Elisa Giovannetti, Stephen E Girardin, Suzana Gispert, Sandy Giuliano, Candece L Gladson, Alvaro Glavic, Martin Gleave, Nelly Godefroy, Robert M Gogal, Kuppan Gokulan, Gustavo H Goldman, Delia Goletti, Michael S Goligorsky, Aldrin V Gomes, Ligia C Gomes, Hernando Gomez, Candelaria Gomez-Manzano, Rubén Gómez-Sánchez, Dawit Ap Gonçalves, Ebru Goncu, Qingqiu Gong, Céline Gongora, Carlos B Gonzalez, Pedro Gonzalez-Alegre, Pilar Gonzalez-Cabo, Rosa Ana González-Polo, Ing Swie Goping, Carlos Gorbea, Nikolai V Gorbunov, Daphne R Goring, Adrienne M Gorman, Sharon M Gorski, Sandro Goruppi, Shino Goto-Yamada, Cecilia Gotor, Roberta A Gottlieb, Illana Gozes, Devrim Gozuacik, Yacine Graba, Martin Graef, Giovanna E Granato, Gary Dean Grant, Steven Grant, Giovanni Luca Gravina, Douglas R Green, Alexander Greenhough, Michael T Greenwood, Benedetto Grimaldi, Frédéric Gros, Charles Grose, Jean-Francois Groulx, Florian Gruber, Paolo Grumati, Tilman Grune, Jun-Lin Guan, Kun-Liang Guan, Barbara Guerra, Carlos Guillen, Kailash Gulshan, Jan 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Hilfiker, Bradford G Hill, Joseph A Hill, William D Hill, Keisuke Hino, Daniel Hofius, Paul Hofman, Günter U Höglinger, Jörg Höhfeld, Marina K Holz, Yonggeun Hong, David A Hood, Jeroen Jm Hoozemans, Thorsten Hoppe, Chin Hsu, Chin-Yuan Hsu, Li-Chung Hsu, Dong Hu, Guochang Hu, Hong-Ming Hu, Hongbo Hu, Ming Chang Hu, Yu-Chen Hu, Zhuo-Wei Hu, Fang Hua, Ya Hua, Canhua Huang, Huey-Lan Huang, Kuo-How Huang, Kuo-Yang Huang, Shile Huang, Shiqian Huang, Wei-Pang Huang, Yi-Ran Huang, Yong Huang, Yunfei Huang, Tobias B Huber, Patricia Huebbe, Won-Ki Huh, Juha J Hulmi, Gang Min Hur, James H Hurley, Zvenyslava Husak, Sabah Na Hussain, Salik Hussain, Jung Jin Hwang, Seungmin Hwang, Thomas Is Hwang, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Yuzuru Imai, Carol Imbriano, Megumi Inomata, Takeshi Into, Valentina Iovane, Juan L Iovanna, Renato V Iozzo, Nancy Y Ip, Javier E Irazoqui, Pablo Iribarren, Yoshitaka Isaka, Aleksandra J Isakovic, Harry Ischiropoulos, Jeffrey S Isenberg, Mohammad Ishaq, Hiroyuki Ishida, Isao Ishii, Jane E Ishmael, Ciro Isidoro, Ken-Ichi Isobe, Erika Isono, Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas, Koji Itahana, Eisuke Itakura, Andrei I Ivanov, Anand Krishnan V Iyer, José M Izquierdo, Yotaro Izumi, Valentina Izzo, Marja Jäättelä, Nadia Jaber, Daniel John Jackson, William T Jackson, Tony George Jacob, Thomas S Jacques, Chinnaswamy Jagannath, Ashish Jain, Nihar Ranjan Jana, Byoung Kuk Jang, Alkesh Jani, Bassam Janji, Paulo Roberto Jannig, Patric J Jansson, Steve Jean, Marina Jendrach, Ju-Hong Jeon, Niels Jessen, Eui-Bae Jeung, Kailiang Jia, Lijun Jia, Hong Jiang, Hongchi Jiang, Liwen Jiang, Teng Jiang, Xiaoyan Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Ying Jiang, Yongjun Jiang, Alberto Jiménez, Cheng Jin, Hongchuan Jin, Lei Jin, Meiyan Jin, Shengkan Jin, Umesh Kumar Jinwal, Eun-Kyeong Jo, Terje Johansen, Daniel E Johnson, Gail Vw Johnson, James D Johnson, Eric Jonasch, Chris Jones, Leo Ab Joosten, Joaquin Jordan, Anna-Maria Joseph, Bertrand Joseph, Annie M Joubert, Dianwen Ju, Jingfang Ju, Hsueh-Fen Juan, 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Arianna L Kim, Cheol Hyeon Kim, Deok Ryong Kim, Do-Hyung Kim, Eung Kweon Kim, Hye Young Kim, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Jae-Sung Kim, Jeong Hun Kim, Jin Cheon Kim, Jin Hyoung Kim, Kwang Woon Kim, Michael D Kim, Moon-Moo Kim, Peter K Kim, Seong Who Kim, Soo-Youl Kim, Yong-Sun Kim, Yonghyun Kim, Adi Kimchi, Alec C Kimmelman, Tomonori Kimura, Jason S King, Karla Kirkegaard, Vladimir Kirkin, Lorrie A Kirshenbaum, Shuji Kishi, Yasuo Kitajima, Katsuhiko Kitamoto, Yasushi Kitaoka, Kaio Kitazato, Rudolf A Kley, Walter T Klimecki, Michael Klinkenberg, Jochen Klucken, Helene Knævelsrud, Erwin Knecht, Laura Knuppertz, Jiunn-Liang Ko, Satoru Kobayashi, Jan C Koch, Christelle Koechlin-Ramonatxo, Ulrich Koenig, Young Ho Koh, Katja Köhler, Sepp D Kohlwein, Masato Koike, Masaaki Komatsu, Eiki Kominami, Dexin Kong, Hee Jeong Kong, Eumorphia G Konstantakou, Benjamin T Kopp, Tamas Korcsmaros, Laura Korhonen, Viktor I Korolchuk, Nadya V Koshkina, Yanjun Kou, Michael I Koukourakis, Constantinos Koumenis, Attila L Kovács, Tibor Kovács, Werner J Kovacs, Daisuke Koya, Claudine Kraft, Dimitri Krainc, Helmut Kramer, Tamara Kravic-Stevovic, Wilhelm Krek, Carole Kretz-Remy, Roswitha Krick, Malathi Krishnamurthy, Janos Kriston-Vizi, Guido Kroemer, Michael C Kruer, Rejko Kruger, Nicholas T Ktistakis, Kazuyuki Kuchitsu, Christian Kuhn, Addanki Pratap Kumar, Anuj Kumar, Ashok Kumar, Deepak Kumar, Dhiraj Kumar, Rakesh Kumar, Sharad Kumar, Mondira Kundu, Hsing-Jien Kung, Atsushi Kuno, Sheng-Han Kuo, Jeff Kuret, Tino Kurz, Terry Kwok, Taeg Kyu Kwon, Yong Tae Kwon, Irene Kyrmizi, Albert R La Spada, Frank Lafont, Tim Lahm, Aparna Lakkaraju, Truong Lam, Trond Lamark, Steve Lancel, Terry H Landowski, Darius Jr Lane, Jon D Lane, Cinzia Lanzi, Pierre Lapaquette, Louis R Lapierre, Jocelyn Laporte, Johanna Laukkarinen, Gordon W Laurie, Sergio Lavandero, Lena Lavie, Matthew J LaVoie, Betty Yuen Kwan Law, Helen Ka-Wai Law, Kelsey B Law, Robert Layfield, Pedro A Lazo, Laurent Le Cam, Karine G Le Roch, Hervé Le Stunff, 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Xiangbo Wan, Bo Wang, Caihong Wang, Chao-Yung Wang, Chengshu Wang, Chenran Wang, Chuangui Wang, Dong Wang, Fen Wang, Fuxin Wang, Guanghui Wang, Hai-Jie Wang, Haichao Wang, Hong-Gang Wang, Hongmin Wang, Horng-Dar Wang, Jing Wang, Junjun Wang, Mei Wang, Mei-Qing Wang, Pei-Yu Wang, Peng Wang, Richard C Wang, Shuo Wang, Ting-Fang Wang, Xian Wang, Xiao-Jia Wang, Xiao-Wei Wang, Xin Wang, Xuejun Wang, Yan Wang, Yanming Wang, Ying Wang, Ying-Jan Wang, Yipeng Wang, Yu Wang, Yu Tian Wang, Yuqing Wang, Zhi-Nong Wang, Pablo Wappner, Carl Ward, Diane McVey Ward, Gary Warnes, Hirotaka Watada, Yoshihisa Watanabe, Kei Watase, Timothy E Weaver, Colin D Weekes, Jiwu Wei, Thomas Weide, Conrad C Weihl, Günther Weindl, Simone Nardin Weis, Longping Wen, Xin Wen, Yunfei Wen, Benedikt Westermann, Cornelia M Weyand, Anthony R White, Eileen White, J Lindsay Whitton, Alexander J Whitworth, Joëlle Wiels, Franziska Wild, Manon E Wildenberg, Tom Wileman, Deepti Srinivas Wilkinson, Simon Wilkinson, Dieter Willbold, Chris Williams, Katherine Williams, Peter R Williamson, Konstanze F Winklhofer, Steven S Witkin, Stephanie E Wohlgemuth, Thomas Wollert, Ernst J Wolvetang, Esther Wong, G William Wong, Richard W Wong, Vincent Kam Wai Wong, Elizabeth A Woodcock, Karen L Wright, Chunlai Wu, Defeng Wu, Gen Sheng Wu, Jian Wu, Junfang Wu, Mian Wu, Min Wu, Shengzhou Wu, William Kk Wu, Yaohua Wu, Zhenlong Wu, Cristina Pr Xavier, Ramnik J Xavier, Gui-Xian Xia, Tian Xia, Weiliang Xia, Yong Xia, Hengyi Xiao, Jian Xiao, Shi Xiao, Wuhan Xiao, Chuan-Ming Xie, Zhiping Xie, Zhonglin Xie, Maria Xilouri, Yuyan Xiong, Chuanshan Xu, Congfeng Xu, Feng Xu, Haoxing Xu, Hongwei Xu, Jian Xu, Jianzhen Xu, Jinxian Xu, Liang Xu, Xiaolei Xu, Yangqing Xu, Ye Xu, Zhi-Xiang Xu, Ziheng Xu, Yu Xue, Takahiro Yamada, Ai Yamamoto, Koji Yamanaka, Shunhei Yamashina, Shigeko Yamashiro, Bing Yan, Bo Yan, Xianghua Yan, Zhen Yan, Yasuo Yanagi, Dun-Sheng Yang, Jin-Ming Yang, Liu Yang, Minghua Yang, Pei-Ming Yang, Peixin Yang, Qian Yang, Wannian Yang, Wei Yuan Yang, Xuesong Yang, Yi Yang, Ying Yang, Zhifen Yang, Zhihong Yang, Meng-Chao Yao, Pamela J Yao, Xiaofeng Yao, Zhenyu Yao, Zhiyuan Yao, Linda S Yasui, Mingxiang Ye, Barry Yedvobnick, Behzad Yeganeh, Elizabeth S Yeh, Patricia L Yeyati, Fan Yi, Long Yi, Xiao-Ming Yin, Calvin K Yip, Yeong-Min Yoo, Young Hyun Yoo, Seung-Yong Yoon, Ken-Ichi Yoshida, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Ken H Young, Huixin Yu, Jane J Yu, Jin-Tai Yu, Jun Yu, Li Yu, W Haung Yu, Xiao-Fang Yu, Zhengping Yu, Junying Yuan, Zhi-Min Yuan, Beatrice Yjt Yue, Jianbo Yue, Zhenyu Yue, David N Zacks, Eldad Zacksenhaus, Nadia Zaffaroni, Tania Zaglia, Zahra Zakeri, Vincent Zecchini, Jinsheng Zeng, Min Zeng, Qi Zeng, Antonis S Zervos, Donna D Zhang, Fan Zhang, Guo Zhang, Guo-Chang Zhang, Hao Zhang, Hong Zhang, Hong Zhang, Hongbing Zhang, Jian Zhang, Jian Zhang, Jiangwei Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Jing-Pu Zhang, Li Zhang, Lin Zhang, Lin Zhang, Long Zhang, Ming-Yong Zhang, Xiangnan Zhang, Xu Dong Zhang, Yan Zhang, Yang Zhang, Yanjin Zhang, Yingmei Zhang, Yunjiao Zhang, Mei Zhao, Wei-Li Zhao, Xiaonan Zhao, Yan G Zhao, Ying Zhao, Yongchao Zhao, Yu-Xia Zhao, Zhendong Zhao, Zhizhuang J Zhao, Dexian Zheng, Xi-Long Zheng, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Boris Zhivotovsky, Qing Zhong, Guang-Zhou Zhou, Guofei Zhou, Huiping Zhou, Shu-Feng Zhou, Xu-Jie Zhou, Hongxin Zhu, Hua Zhu, Wei-Guo Zhu, Wenhua Zhu, Xiao-Feng Zhu, Yuhua Zhu, Shi-Mei Zhuang, Xiaohong Zhuang, Elio Ziparo, Christos E Zois, Teresa Zoladek, Wei-Xing Zong, Antonio Zorzano, Susu M Zughaier Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition). Autophagy: 2016, 12(1);1-222 PubMed 26799652

Alexandra Goe, Darryl J Heard, Daniel V Fredholm, Nicole I Stacy, Lenice McCoy, James F X Wellehan MANAGEMENT OF A PATENT URACHUS AND YOLK COELOMITIS IN A PREHENSILE-TAILED SKINK (CORUCIA ZEBRATA). J. Zoo Wildl. Med.: 2015, 46(4);909-12 PubMed 26667549

Diego Villar, Duncan T Odom When the Snake Lost Its Limbs, What Did the Mouse and Lizard Say? Dev. Cell: 2015, 35(1);3-4 PubMed 26460939

Carlos R Infante, Alexandra G Mihala, Sungdae Park, Jialiang S Wang, Kenji K Johnson, James D Lauderdale, Douglas B Menke Shared Enhancer Activity in the Limbs and Phallus and Functional Divergence of a Limb-Genital cis-Regulatory Element in Snakes. Dev. Cell: 2015; PubMed 26439399

Taxon

Iguana - historic drawing

root; cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Coelomata; Deuterostomia; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Gnathostomata; Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Sauropsida; Sauria; Lepidosauria

Squamata (squamates) - snakes and lizards.

  • Iguania (iguanian lizards) - arboreal with primitively fleshy, non-prehensile tongues, highly modified in the chameleons.
    • Acrodonta
    • Iguanidae (iguanid lizards)
  • Scleroglossa
    • Amphisbaenia
    • Anguimorpha (anguimorph lizards)
    • Gekkota - all geckos and the limbless Pygopodidae.
    • Scincomorpha (scincomorph lizards)
    • Serpentes (snakes)
  • unclassified Squamata
Links: Taxonomy Browser Lizards

Development Overview

Australian Water Skink

Genome

Anolis carolinensis (green anole) mating.

Anolis carolinensis (green anole)

The genome of the lizard Anolis carolinensis (green anole) from southeastern United States has a karyotype of 18 chromosomes, comprising six pairs of large macrochromosomes and 12 pairs of small microchromosomes, and has recently been sequenced [1]. Interestingly, almost all reptilian genomes also contain "microchromosomes", very small chromosomes less than 20 Mb in sequence size.

It is a model organism for laboratory-based studies of organismal function and for field studies of ecology and evolution. This species was chosen for genome sequencing in part because of the ease and low expense of captive breeding, well studied brain, and sophisticated color vision. It is also well suited for studies involving the role of hormones in development and adult nervous system plasticity. (modified from Genome)

Search PubMed Genome: Lizard

Historic

Fig. 343. Head of a Lizard Embryo (Sphenodon punctatum Hatteria)

Schwalbe (1891) points out the significant fact that in reptiles that lack an external ear (lizard and turtle) there occur distinct hillocks in the embryo, resembling those in vertebrates that develop an auricle. These hillocks undergo degeneration and are reduced to the level of the surrounding skin. He finds in both birds and reptiles hillocks corresponding to the tragus and antitragus hillocks of His. These animals have one hillock (Auricularkegel), situated dorsal to the first cleft, which seems to represent a more primitive apparatus than is present in mammals, although it may be related to the helix system. In Salachians it possesses a spiracle.

(From Contributions to Embryology No.69)

Sand Lizard 1904

Normal Plates of the Development of Vertebrates 4 - Sand Lizard (Lacerta agilis) by Karl Peter

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Jessica Alföldi, Federica Di Palma, Manfred Grabherr, Christina Williams, Lesheng Kong, Evan Mauceli, Pamela Russell, Craig B Lowe, Richard E Glor, Jacob D Jaffe, David A Ray, Stephane Boissinot, Andrew M Shedlock, Christopher Botka, Todd A Castoe, John K Colbourne, Matthew K Fujita, Ricardo Godinez Moreno, Boudewijn F ten Hallers, David Haussler, Andreas Heger, David Heiman, Daniel E Janes, Jeremy Johnson, Pieter J de Jong, Maxim Y Koriabine, Marcia Lara, Peter A Novick, Chris L Organ, Sally E Peach, Steven Poe, David D Pollock, Kevin de Queiroz, Thomas Sanger, Steve Searle, Jeremy D Smith, Zachary Smith, Ross Swofford, Jason Turner-Maier, Juli Wade, Sarah Young, Amonida Zadissa, Scott V Edwards, Travis C Glenn, Christopher J Schneider, Jonathan B Losos, Eric S Lander, Matthew Breen, Chris P Ponting, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh The genome of the green anole lizard and a comparative analysis with birds and mammals. Nature: 2011, 477(7366);587-91 PubMed 21881562
  2. Bjarke Jensen, Bastiaan J D Boukens, Alex V Postma, Quinn D Gunst, Maurice J B van den Hoff, Antoon F M Moorman, Tobias Wang, Vincent M Christoffels Identifying the evolutionary building blocks of the cardiac conduction system. PLoS ONE: 2012, 7(9);e44231 PubMed 22984480
  3. Oldrich Zahradnicek, Ivan Horacek, Abigail S Tucker Tooth development in a model reptile: functional and null generation teeth in the gecko Paroedura picta. J. Anat.: 2012, 221(3);195-208 PubMed 22780101
  4. Wei-Guo Du, Hua Ye, Bo Zhao, Ligia Pizzatto, Xiang Ji, Richard Shine Patterns of interspecific variation in the heart rates of embryonic reptiles. PLoS ONE: 2011, 6(12);e29027 PubMed 22174948 | PMC3184186
  5. Kevin M Gribbins Reptilian spermatogenesis: A histological and ultrastructural perspective. Spermatogenesis: 2011, 1(3);250-269 PubMed 22319673

Reviews

Bridget F Murphy, Michael B Thompson A review of the evolution of viviparity in squamate reptiles: the past, present and future role of molecular biology and genomics. J. Comp. Physiol. B, Biochem. Syst. Environ. Physiol.: 2011, 181(5);575-94 PubMed 21573966

Edward M Dzialowski, Tushar Sirsat, Saskia van der Sterren, Eduardo Villamor Prenatal cardiovascular shunts in amniotic vertebrates. Respir Physiol Neurobiol: 2011, 178(1);66-74 PubMed 21513818

T Gamble A review of sex determining mechanisms in geckos (Gekkota: Squamata). Sex Dev: 2010, 4(1-2);88-103 PubMed 20234154


Articles

Patrick A D Wise, Matthew K Vickaryous, Anthony P Russell An embryonic staging table for in ovo development of Eublepharis macularius, the leopard gecko. Anat Rec (Hoboken): 2009, 292(8);1198-212 PubMed 19645023

Miyuki Noro, Asaka Uejima, Gembu Abe, Makoto Manabe, Koji Tamura Normal developmental stages of the Madagascar ground gecko Paroedura pictus with special reference to limb morphogenesis. Dev. Dyn.: 2009, 238(1);100-9 PubMed 19097047

Melissa A Storm, Michael J Angilletta Rapid assimilation of yolk enhances growth and development of lizard embryos from a cold environment. J. Exp. Biol.: 2007, 210(Pt 19);3415-21 PubMed 17872995

| J Exp Biol. Marissa Fabrezi, Virginia Abdala, María Inés Martínez Oliver Developmental basis of limb homology in lizards. Anat Rec (Hoboken): 2007, 290(7);900-12 PubMed 17415759

Thomas J Sanger, Jeremy J Gibson-Brown The developmental bases of limb reduction and body elongation in squamates. Evolution: 2004, 58(9);2103-6; discussion 2107-8 PubMed 15521466

V Muthukkaruppan, P Kanakambika, V Manickavel, K Veeraraghavan Analysis of the development of the lizard, Calotes versicolor. I. A series of normal stages in the embryonic development. J. Morphol.: 1970, 130(4);479-89 PubMed 5437480

M B Mohammed Development of the lizard limb as shown by the distribution of [35S]sulphate incorporation. J. Anat.: 1984, 138 ( Pt 3);399-403 PubMed 6429113


Books

Search PubMed

Search PubMed: Lizard development | Anolis carolinensis

External Links

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2016) Embryology Lizard Development. Retrieved July 28, 2016, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Lizard_Development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2016, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G