Lecture - Renal Development

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Introduction

Historic drawing of adult kidney

Urogenital Sinus Movie

Urogenital Sinus and Renal Development

This animation gives an overview of both early renal and genital (urogenital) development associated with the urogenital sinus.


The paired adult kidneys filter blood, excrete waste, reabsorb water and have endocrine functions. In the embryo, there are several stages in their development closely linked to genital development. The nephron, the functional unit of the kidney, is also a classical epithelial/mesenchyme type of interaction.

The urinary system is developmentally and anatomically associated with genital development, often described as the urogenital system.


2018 Lecture - Print PDF

Objectives

Stage 13 kidney sections.jpg
  • Understand the 3 main stages of kidney development.
  • Understand development of the nephron and renal papilla.
  • Brief understanding of the mechanisms of nephron development.
  • Understand the development of the cloaca, ureter and bladder.
  • Brief understanding of abnormalities of the urinary system.


Take the Quiz

Lecture Resources

Movies  

Renal Development

Urogenital sinus 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Renal Overview
Page | Play
Renal 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Nephron
Page | Play
Urogenital septum 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Urogenital Septum
Page | Play
Trigone 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Trigone
Page | Play
Stage13-GIT-icon.jpg
 ‎‎GIT Stage 13
Page | Play
Stage22-CNS-icon.jpg
 ‎‎Urogenital
Page | Play
Renal blood 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Renal Vascular
Page | Play
References  
UNSW Embryology logo
Hill, M.A. (2018). UNSW Embryology (18th ed.) Retrieved October 20, 2018, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au
Renal Links: renal | Lecture - Renal | Lecture Movie | urinary bladder | Stage 13 | Stage 22 | Fetal | Renal Movies | Stage 22 Movie | renal histology | renal abnormalities | Molecular | Category:Renal
Historic Embryology - Renal  
1907 Urogenital images | 1911 Cloaca | 1921 Urogenital Development | 1915 Renal Artery | 1917 Urogenital System | 1925 Horseshoe Kidney | 1926 Embryo 22 Somites | 1930 Mesonephros 10 to 12 weeks | 1931 Horseshoe Kidney | 1932 Renal Absence | 1939 Ureteric Bud Agenesis | 1943 Renal Position
2017 | 2016 | 2016 PDF | 2015 | 2015 PDF |

2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011

Textbook cover Larsen's human embryology 5th edn.
Moore, K.L., Persaud, T.V.N. & Torchia, M.G. (2015). The developing human: clinically oriented embryology (10th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.
The following chapter links only work with a UNSW connection.
Larsen's human embryology 5th ed.jpgSchoenwolf, G.C., Bleyl, S.B., Brauer, P.R., Francis-West, P.H. & Philippa H. (2015). Larsen's human embryology (5th ed.). New York; Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. The following chapter links only work with UNSW Library subscription (with student Zpass log-in).
Endocrinology - An Integrated Approach.png

Nussey, S. and Whitehead, S. (2001). Endocrinology - An Integrated Approach. UK Oxford: BIOS Scientific Publishers. ISBN-10: 1-85996-252-1

Detailed Table of Contents | Bookshelf Link
2016 Lecture Video Recording  
This 2016 lecture video recording is similar in content to the current 2017 online lecture.

Click to play new window - 2016 Lecture Video (50 MB)

Background

  • mesoderm - then intermediate mesoderm
  • endoderm - cloaca, urogenital sinus, hindgut, allantois
  • Vascular Development
  • Gastrointestional
  • Cloacal development
  • endocrine - covered in future lecture/lab

Renal Anatomy

Nephron histology

Each adult human kidney typically contains about 750,000 nephrons, though the total number can vary significantly from as few as 250,000 to as many as 2,000,000.

Kidney

  • Nephron - Functional unit of kidney
  • Humans up to 1 million
  • Filtration of waste from blood
  • Endocrine
  • Blood pressure regulation

Urine Transport/Storage

  • Ureter - transport to bladder
  • Urinary Bladder - storage
  • Urethra - transport to exterior

Germ layers

  • Endoderm - lining bladder also lines allantois
  • Mesoderm - Intermediate mesoderm (lies between somites and lateral plate)
  • Ectoderm - innervation

Intermediate Mesoderm

  • development occurs laterally symmetrical (left right)
  • intermediate mesoderm lying beside the dorsal aorta
  • initially form mesonephric tubules (epithelial)
  • these tubules connect to a common duct, mesonephric duct
  • the mesonephric duct then extends within the mesoderm, rostro-caudally
  • eventually making contact with the cloaca
Stage7 intermediate-mesoderm.jpg

Intermediate mesoderm (dark orange) lies outside paraxial mesoderm (pale orange) Week 3 embryonic disc.

Mesonephric Duct

  • Begins as the pronephric duct.
  • Mesonephros development becomes the mesonephric duct.
  • Gives off lateral branches, the utereric bud.
  • Grows within intermediate mesoderm to fuse with the cloaca.
  • Mesonephric duct finally forms the male internal genital tract.

In development, both the mesonephric duct and the cloaca continue to differentiate and undergo extensive remodelling (and renaming)

Mesonephric duct forms - epididymis, ductus deferens, seminal vesicle

Ureteric Bud

  • arise near the cloacal connection of the mesonephric duct
  • branch from the mesonephric duct laterally into the intermediate mesoderm
  • induce the surrounding mesoderm to differentiate - metanephric blastema
    • this mesoderm will in turn signal back to differentiate the ureteric bud

Epithelial - mesenchymal interaction

Ureteric Bud forms - ureter, pelvis, calyces, collecting ducts

Metanephric Blastema

  • forms glomeruli, capsule, nephron tubules
  • this development continues through fetal period

Nephros Development

The 3 main stages and pairs form in sequence within the intermediate mesoderm:

  1. pronephros
  2. mesonephros
  3. metanephros

Pronephros

  • week 3-4 few cells in cervical region (fish type kidney)
  • Human E19, Mouse E7.5 - pronephric duct forms first with associated nephrogenic mesenchyme
  • grows rostro caudally cervical -> cloaca
  • Human E22 nephrogenic mesenchyme differentiates to form pronephroi not functional in mammals, degenerates rapidly


Stage9 bf1a.jpg Stage9 sem2a.jpg

Mesonephros

Stage 13 mesonephros
Stage 22 mesonephros
  • Human E24, Mouse E9.5 caudal to pronephros
  • forms by induction from pronephros
  • pronephric duct now becomes mesonephric duct (also called Wolffian Duct)


Stage13-GIT-icon.jpg
 ‎‎GIT Stage 13
Page | Play

Metanephros

  • Human E35-37, Mouse E11 epithelia bud at end of mesonephric duct ureteric bud and associated metanephric mesenchyme.
  • This will eventually form the adult kidney.
Stage22-CNS-icon.jpg
 ‎‎Urogenital
Page | Play

Ureteric Bud

  • extends laterally from the mesonephric duct
  • induced by metanephric mesenchyme to differentiate
  • forms collecting tubules, renal pelvis, ureter

Metanephric Mesenchyme

  • the intermediate mesoderm lying at the tip of the ureteric bud.
  • induced by ureteric bud to differentiate forms nephron

Week 5 and Week 8

Stage 13 image 081.jpg Stage 22 image 188.jpg
Embryo Stage 13 mesonephros (week 5) Embryo Stage 22 metanephros (week 8)

Stage 22 image 189.jpg

Fetal

early fetal kidney

Nephron

Adult nephron structure
Nephron histology
Renal 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Nephron
Page | Play
Early Renal Development

Legend

  • Ureteric Bud - developing ureter, pelvis, calyces, collecting ducts
  • Metanephric Blastema (intermediate mesoderm) - developing glomeruli, capsule, nephron tubules

Development has four developmental stages:

  1. vesicle (V) stage (13-19 weeks)
  2. S-shaped body (S) stage ( 20-24 weeks)
  3. capillary loop (C) stage (25-29 weeks)
  4. maturation (M) stage (infants aged 1-6 months)


Links: Nephron Movie | Urogenital Sinus Movie | Renal System Development


Nephron Development

  • disorganised mesenchymal cells become a highly organised epithelial tubule
  • Condensation - groups of about 100 cells condense tightly together to form a distinct mass
  • Epithelialisation - condensed cells lose their mesenchymal character and gain epithelial
  • At end of this period formed a small epithelial cyst complete with a basement membrane, cell-cell junctions and a defined cellular apico-basal polarity.

Early morphogenesis

  • cyst invaginates twice to form a comma
  • then a S-shaped body one invagination site later becomes the glomerular cleft
  • At about this time blood vessel progenitors invade cleft to begin construction of vascular component of glomerulus
  • Tubule maturation specialised transporting segments of nephron differentiate complex of convoluted tubules is created
Renal - podocyte development 01.jpg

Renal - podocyte development

Glomerulus Development
Glomerular podocyte cartoon.jpg
S-shaped stage Head-shaped stage Capillary loop stage Mature glomerulus
Developing podocytes acquire podocyte markers and blood vessels and mesenchyme invade (arrow). The podocytes (round nuclei) separate from the parietal epithelial cells (triangular nuclei) forming what will become Bowman's space. the glomerulus now consists of a ball of cell surrounded by developing podocytes. this stage of glomerular development includes the infolding of the surface layer in order to enlarge the area available for filtration as well as the development of foot processes that interdigitate between podocytes and abut the underlying GBM which is being synthesized as a collaboration between the podocyte and underlying endothelial and mesangial cells. the mature glomerulus has maximized filtration surface area by developing intertwining finger-like projections coated by fenestrated endothelial cells on the inside, a specialized strong thin GBM in the middle, and interdigitating podocyte foot processes connected by slit diaphragms on the outer surface.

Adult nephron structure

Key structure of the adult nephron is the glomerulus (renal corpuscle), which represents the vascular/renal interface.


  • mean glomerular number shown to level at 36 weeks
    • 15 weeks - about 15,000
    • 40 weeks - about 740,000


Related Images: Nephron histology overview | glomerulus structure | vascular and renal poles

Nephron histology 01.jpg

Glomerulus structure

Nephron histology 02.jpg

Vascular and renal poles

Renal Vascular

Renal Arteries

Renal blood 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Renal Vascular
Page | Play
  • starts in week 5 and is completed by week 15.
  • week 6 - the kidneys begin to change their relative position, described as "ascent of the kidneys", to their correct anatomical position.
  • week 9 - the rising movement is completed.
  • During the ascent, the kidneys also become vascularised via the dorsal aorta.
  • As this ascent occurs, the mesonephric ducts and the ureters enter the wall of the developing bladder.
  • Arise with ascent and inferior branches lost
  • Sequential, 25% population have 2 or more renal arteries
  • branch of abdominal aorta, divides into 4-5 branches
    • each gives off small branches to suprarenal glands, ureter, surrounding cellular tissue and muscles
  • Frequently a second renal artery (inferior renal) from abdominal aorta at a lower level, supplies lower portion of kidney.

Renal Venous

These vascular changes embryonic to adult shown below are shown for information purposes and not assessable.

Embryo renal venous cartoon.jpg Adult renal venous cartoon.jpg
Embryo renal venous Adult renal venous

Endocrine Kidney

Covered also in Endocrine Development lecture

  • Renin - Increase Angiotensin-aldosterone system
  • Prostaglandins - decrease Na+ reabsorption
  • Erythropoietin - (Epo) increase erythrocyte (rbc) production
  • 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D - Calcium homeostasis
  • Prekallikreins - (plasma protein inactive precursor of kallikrein)
    • Increase kinin production (altered vascular permeability)


Endocrine Kidney

Cloaca

  • Endoderm (yellow)
  • hindgut region ending at the cloacal membrane
  • divided (ventro-dorsally) by the urogenital septum
    • ventral - common urogenital sinus
    • dorsal - rectum
Urogenital sinus 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Renal Overview
Page | Play
Urogenital septum 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Urogenital Septum
Page | Play
File:Endoderm development

This cartoon sequence shows the changing organisation of the endoderm from week 3 to 5.

Common urogenital sinus

  • Endoderm lining
  • superior end continuous with allantois
  • common urogenital sinus and mesonephric duct fuse (connect)
  • differentiates to form the bladder
  • inferior end forms urethra
    • this will be different in male and female development

Urinary Bladder

  • early origins of the bladder at the superior end of the common urogenital sinus
  • open inferiorly to the cloaca and superiorly to the allantois
  • Septation of the claoca divides
    • anterior region to the primordial bladder component
    • posterior region to the primordial rectal component
  • two ureters form from the ureteric bud
  • single urethra connects the bladder to exterior
    • different length in male (longer) and females (shorter)
  • Ultrasound measurement of the bladder size can be used as a diagnostic tool for developmental abnormalities.
Adult bladder.jpg

Adult bladder

Bladder Structure

Histology Adult histology Detrusor Muscle
Described anatomically by 4 layers from outside inward:
  • Serous - superior or abdominal surfaces and lateral surfaces of the bladder are covered by visceral peritoneum, the serous membrane (serosa) of the abdominal cavity, consisting of mesothelium and elastic fibrous connective tissue.
  • Muscular - the detrusor muscle is the muscle of the urinary bladder wall.
  • Submucosa - connects the muscular layer with the mucous layer.
  • Mucosa - (mucus layer) a transitional epithelium layer formed into folds (rugae).
Bladder histology.jpg Adult detrusor muscle consists of three layers of smooth (involuntary) muscle fibres.
  • external layer - fibres arranged longitudinally
  • middle layer - fibres arranged circularly
  • internal layer - fibres arranged longitudinally

Ureter Development

  • Ureteric bud origin
  • Adult ureter is a thick-walled muscular tube, 25 - 30 cm in length, running from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
  • Anatomically two parts the abdominal part (pars abdominalis) and pelvic part (pars pelvina).
  • Ureter has three layers: outer fibrous layer (tunica adventitia), muscular layer (tunica muscularis) and mucous layer (tunica mucosa).
    • The muscular layer can also be subdivided into 3 fibre layers: an external longitudinal, a middle circular, and an internal longitudinal.

Urethra Development

  • Further development of the urinary system varies depending on the sex of the embryo.
  • Males - the pelvic urethra forms the membranous urethra, the prostatic urethra and penile urethra. (The sex of the above animation and sections is male)
  • Females - the pelvic urethra forms the membranous urethra and the vestibule of the vagina.

Abnormalities

Australian abnormalities pie urogen.png

ICD10 Congenital malformations of the urinary system (Q60-Q64)  
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) World Health Organization's classification used worldwide as the standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes. Includes this section on XVII Congenital Malformations.
Q60 Renal agenesis and other reduction defects of kidney

Incl.: atrophy of kidney: congenital infantile congenital absence of kidney

  • Q60.0 Renal agenesis, unilateral
  • Q60.1 Renal agenesis, bilateral
  • Q60.2 Renal agenesis, unspecified
  • Q60.3 Renal hypoplasia, unilateral
  • Q60.4 Renal hypoplasia, bilateral
  • Q60.5 Renal hypoplasia, unspecified
  • Q60.6 Potter's syndrome
Q61 Cystic kidney disease

Excl.: acquired cyst of kidney (N28.1) Potter's syndrome (60.6)

  • Q61.0 Congenital single renal cyst Cyst of kidney (congenital)(single)
  • Q61.1 Polycystic kidney, autosomal recessive Polycystic kidney, infantile type
  • Q61.2 Polycystic kidney, autosomal dominant Polycystic kidney, adult type
  • Q61.3 Polycystic kidney, unspecified
  • Q61.4 Renal dysplasia Multicystic: dyplastic kidney kidney (developmental) kidney disease renal dysplasia Excl.: polycystic kidney disease (61.1-61.3)
  • Q61.5 Medullary cystic kidney Sponge kidney NOS
  • Q61.8 Other cystic kidney diseases Fibrocystic: kidney renal degeneration or disease
  • Q61.9 Cystic kidney disease, unspecified Meckel-Gruber syndrome
Q62 Congenital obstructive defects of renal pelvis and congenital malformations of ureter
  • Q62.0 Congenital hydronephrosis
  • Q62.1 Atresia and stenosis of ureter Congenital occlusion of: ureter ureteropelvic junction ureterovesical orifice Impervious ureter
  • Q62.2 Congenital megaloureter Congenital dilatation of ureter
  • Q62.3 Other obstructive defects of renal pelvis and ureter Congenital ureterocele
  • Q62.4 Agenesis of ureter Absent ureter
  • Q62.5 Duplication of ureter Accessory Double ureter
  • Q62.6 Malposition of ureter Deviation Displacement Ectopic Implantation, anomalous (of) ureter or ureteric orifice
  • Q62.7 Congenital vesico-uretero-renal reflux
  • Q62.8 Other congenital malformations of ureter Anomaly of ureter NOS
Q63 Other congenital malformations of kidney

Excl.: congenital nephrotic syndrome (N04.-)

  • Q63.0 Accessory kidney
  • Q63.1 Lobulated, fused and horseshoe kidney
  • Q63.2 Ectopic kidney Congenital displaced kidney Malrotation of kidney
  • Q63.3 Hyperplastic and giant kidney
  • Q63.8 Other specified congenital malformations of kidney Congenital renal calculi
  • Q63.9 Congenital malformation of kidney, unspecified
Q64 Other congenital malformations of urinary system
  • Q64.0 Epispadias Excl.: hypospadias (54.-)
  • Q64.1 Exstrophy of urinary bladder Ectopia vesicae Extroversion of bladder
  • Q64.2 Congenital posterior urethral valves
  • Q64.3 Other atresia and stenosis of urethra and bladder neck Congenital: bladder neck obstruction stricture of: urethra urinary meatus vesicourethral orifice Impervious urethra
  • Q64.4 Malformation of urachus Cyst of urachus Patent urachus Prolapse of urachus
  • Q64.5 Congenital absence of bladder and urethra
  • Q64.6 Congenital diverticulum of bladder
  • Q64.7 Other congenital malformations of bladder and urethra Accessory: bladder urethra Congenital: hernia of bladder malformation of bladder or urethra NOS prolapse of: bladder (mucosa) urethra urinary meatus urethrorectal fistula Double: urethra urinary meatus
  • Q64.8 Other specified congenital malformations of urinary system
  • Q64.9 Congenital malformation of urinary system, unspecified Congenital: anomaly deformity NOS of urinary system
World Health Organisation. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. (1992) 10th Revision (ICD-10). Geneva: WHO ICD-10 - 2016 Online (English)
Renal Links: renal | Lecture - Renal | Lecture Movie | urinary bladder | Stage 13 | Stage 22 | Fetal | Renal Movies | Stage 22 Movie | renal histology | renal abnormalities | Molecular | Category:Renal
Historic Embryology - Renal  
1907 Urogenital images | 1911 Cloaca | 1921 Urogenital Development | 1915 Renal Artery | 1917 Urogenital System | 1925 Horseshoe Kidney | 1926 Embryo 22 Somites | 1930 Mesonephros 10 to 12 weeks | 1931 Horseshoe Kidney | 1932 Renal Absence | 1939 Ureteric Bud Agenesis | 1943 Renal Position
ICD10 - Gastrointestinal | Genital | Renal | Integumentary

Horseshoe Kidney

Horseshoe kidney.jpg
  • fusion of the lower poles of the kidney.
  • During migration from the sacral region the two metanephric blastemas can come into contact, mainly at the lower pole.
  • The ureters pass in front of the zone of fusion of the kidneys.
  • The kidneys and ureters usually function adequately but there is an increased incidence of upper urinary tract obstruction or infection.
  • Some horseshoe variations have been described as having associated ureter abnormalities including duplications.

Kidney Vascular

Supernumerary renal arteries

Accessory renal artery.jpg Multiple renal arteries 01.jpg

Supernumerary renal vein

Supernumerary renal vein 02.jpg Supernumerary renal vein 04.jpg

Urorectal Septum Malformation

  • thought to be a deficiency in caudal mesoderm which in turn leads to the malformation of the urorectal septum and other structures in the pelvic region.
  • Recent research has also identified the potential presence of a persistent urachus prior to septation of the cloaca (common urogenital sinus).

Bladder

  • absent or small bladder -

associated with renal agenesis.

Bladder Exstrophy

Bladder_Exstrophy
  • developmental abnormality associated with bladder development.
  • origins appear to occur not just by abnormal bladder development, but by a congenital malformation of the ventral wall of abdomen (between umbilicus and pubic symphysis).
  • There may also be other anomolies associated with failure of closure of abdominal wall and bladder (epispadias, pubic bone anomolies).

Ureter and Urethra

  • Ureter - Duplex Ureter
  • Urethra- Urethral Obstruction and Hypospadias

Hydronephrosis.jpg

Hydronephrosis

Polycystic Kidney Disease

Multicystic kidney
  • diffuse cystic malformation of both kidneys
  • cystic malformations of liver and lung often associated, Often familial disposition
  • Two types
    • Infantile (inconsistent with prolonged survival)
    • Adult (less severe and allows survival)
  • Autosomal dominant PKD disease - recently identified at mutations in 2 different human genes encoding membrane proteins (possibly channels)

Wilms' Tumor

Wilms' tumor
  • (nephroblastoma) Named after Max Wilms, a German doctor who wrote first medical articles 1899
  • most common type of kidney cancer children
  • WT1 gene - encodes a zinc finger protein
  • Both constitutional and somatic mutations disrupting the DNA-binding domain of WT1 result in a potentially dominant-negative phenotype
  • some blastema cells (mass of undifferentiated cells) persist to form a ‘nephrogenic rest’
  • Most rests become dormant or regress but others proliferate to form hyperplastic rests
  • any type of rest can then undergo a genetic or epigenetic change to become a neoplastic rest
  • can proliferate further to produce a benign lesion (adenomatous rest) or a malignant Wilms’ tumour

Prune Belly Syndrome

  • lower urinary tract obstruction
  • mainly male
  • fetal urinary system ruptures leading to collapse and "prune belly" appearance.

Additional Images

References

Textbooks

  • The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (8th Edition) by Keith L. Moore and T.V.N Persaud - Moore & Persaud Chapter 13 p303-346
  • Larsen’s Human Embryology by GC. Schoenwolf, SB. Bleyl, PR. Brauer and PH. Francis-West - Chapter 10 p261-306
  • Before We Are Born (5th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter14 p289-326
  • Essentials of Human Embryology, Larson Chapter 10 p173-205
  • Human Embryology, Fitzgerald and Fitzgerald Chapter 21-22 p134-152

Online Textbooks

Reviews

  • Quaggin SE, Kreidberg JA. Development of the renal glomerulus: good neighbors and good fences. Development. 2008 Feb;135(4):609-20. PMID: 18184729
  • Brenner-Anantharam A, Cebrian C, Guillaume R, Hurtado R, Sun TT, Herzlinger D. Tailbud-derived mesenchyme promotes urinary tract segmentation via BMP4 signaling. Development. 2007 May;134(10):1967-75. PMID: 17442697
  • Forefronts Symposium on Nephrogenetics: from development to physiology March 8-11, 2007 Danvers, MA A meeting to synthesize an integrated view of the normal development and function of the kidney from the genetic standpoint.
  • Costantini F. Renal branching morphogenesis: concepts, questions, and recent advances. Differentiation. 2006 Sep;74(7):402-21. PMID: 16916378

Search

Terms

Renal Terms  
  • bladder exstrophy - A congenital malformation with bladder open to ventral wall of abdomen (between umbilicus and pubic symphysis) and may have other anomolies associated with failure of closure of abdominal wall and bladder (epispadias, pubic bone anomolies).
  • blastema - Term used to describe a mass of undifferentiated cells. (More? Wilm's tumour)
  • Bowman's capsule - (capsula glomeruli, glomerular capsule) Surrounds the glomerulus within the nephron with a vascular and urinary pole and is the beginning of the tubular component. Named in 1842 after Sir William Bowman (1816 – 1892) an English surgeon and anatomist.
  • Brenner hypothesis - a clinical hypothesis that states, individuals with a congenital reduction in nephron number have a much greater likelihood of developing adult hypertension and subsequent renal failure. Developed in the 1980's by Barry Brenner at the Brigham and Women's Hospital, this also fits with the DOHAD hypothesis. (More? PubMed 3063284 | Barry Brenner)
  • capillary loop - (C stage) The third stage in nephron development between 25-29 weeks. (stage sequence: V - S - C - M)
  • diabetes insipidus - The disorder is related to the hormone antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also called vasopressin) its synthesis, secretion, receptors and signaling pathway. In diabetes insipidus there is an excretion of large amounts (up to 30 litres/day) of a watery urine and an unremitting thirst.
  • fenestrated capillary - Specialised capillaries containing circular pores (fenestrae) that penetrate the endothelium, may be closed by a thin diaphragm.
  • glomerulus - The capillary network (tuft) within Bowman's capsule of the nephron enters at the vascular pole (afferent and efferent arteriole).
  • hydronephrosis - (congenital hydronephrosis, Greek, hydro = water) A kidney abnormality due to partial or complete obstruction at the pelvi-ureteric junction. This leads to a grossly dilated renal pelvis causing extensive renal damage before birth.
  • hyperplastic rests - In kidney development, embryonic blastema cells can persist and proliferate to form a pool of cells, which under either genetic or epigenetic influence can then change to become a neoplastic rest. Normally the majority of nephrogenic rests either regress or become dormant.
  • juxtaglomerular cells - Cells located at the vascular pole that secrete renin and form a part of the juxtaglomerular complex.
  • loop of Henle - Nephron region spanning from the proximal convoluted tubule to the distal convoluted tubule. Named after Named after Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle (1809–1885) a German anatomist.
  • macula densa - Columnar cell cluster appearing as a dense row of cell nuclei where the straight portion of the distal tubule contacts the glomerulus. Region also in close contact with the efferent and afferent arterioles of the glomerulus and involved in sodium chloride regulation. (More? image)
  • maturation stage - (M stage) The forth stage in nephron development in infants aged 1-6 months. (stage sequence: V - S - C - M)
  • mesangial cells - Cells in the nephron glomerulus that form the connective tissue giving structural support to podocytes and vessels.
  • mesonephros - The second temporary stage of kidney development (pro-, meso-, meta-). The intermediate mesonephros develops and disappears with the exception of its duct, the mesonephric duct, which will form the male reproductive duct system. In males, the mesonephric tubules go on to form the ducts of the testis. In females, these degenerate. A few mesonephric tubules remain as efferent ductules in the male and vestigial remnants in the female.
  • mesonephric duct - (= Wollfian duct) An early developing urogenital duct running the length of the embryo that will differentiate and form the male reproductive duct system. In females this duct degenerates (some remnants may remain associated in broad ligament).
  • metanephros - The adult kidney, third stage of mammalian kidney (pro-, meso-, meta-) development within the intermediate mesoderm.
  • metanephric cap - (metanephric blastema) The intermediate mesoderm which surrounds the ureteric bud and will contribute most of the adult nephron.
  • multicystic kidney - There is no functional kidney tissue present in the kidney and it is replaced by a multilocular cyst. This is non-familial and is produced by atresia of a ureter and is always unilateral.
  • neoplastic rest - In kidney development, a neoplastic rest can develop under either genetic or epigenetic influence from a hyperplastic rest, originating from an embryonic blastema cell. Normally the majority of nephrogenic rests either regress or become dormant.
  • nephrogenic rest - Used to describe the embryonic blastema cells which persist and under either genetic or epigenetic can change to become a neoplastic rest. These neoplastic rests can develop postnatally as a benign form (adenomatous rest) or a malignant Wilm's tumour form. The rests are further characterised by the time of generation leading to different anatomical kidney locations: early intralobar nephrogenic rests (within the renal lobe) and late pelilobar nephrogenic rests (periphery of the renal lobe)
  • nephron - (Greek, nephros = kidney) The functional unit of the adult kidney.
  • nephros - (Greek, nephros = kidney) Term used to describe features associated with the kidney. (pronephros, mesonephros, metanephros, nephric, nephron, nephroblastoma).
  • parietal layer - Cells of the outer of Bowman's capsule that form a simple squamous epithelium. The inner layer is the visceral layer.
  • podocyte - (visceral epithelial cell) kidney glomerulus cell forming the main component of the glomerular filtration barrier. (glomerular podocyte) Kidney epithelial cell type in the nephron (kidney functional unit) located in the glomerulus. Podocytes form the visceral layer of Bowman's capsule and are at the filtration barrier between capillary blood and the nephron tubular system and function to ultrafiltrate blood, and support glomerular capillary pressures. The differentiation of podocytes involves the formation of cellular foot processes and then the slit membrane. (More? image)
  • podocyte specific proteins - podocalyxin, glomerular epithelial protein-1, podocin, nephrin, synaptopodin, and alpha-actinin-4), podocyte synthesized proteins (vascular endothelial growth factor and novH), transcription factors (WT1 and PAX2).
  • pronephros - (Greek, pro = before) The first temporary stage of kidney development (pro-, meso-, meta-). This forms the kidney of primitive fish and lower vertebrates. Kidney development occurs within the intermediate mesoderm interacting with endoderm. In humans, this very rudimentary kidney forms very early at the level of the neck. It is rapidly replaced by the mesonephros, intermediate stage kidney, differentiating in mesoderm beneath.
  • proteinuria - The abnormal presence of protein in the urine and an indicator of diesease including diabetic kidney disease (DKD, diabetic nephropathy).
  • proximal tubule - Portion of the nephron duct between Bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle, divided into the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) and the proximal straight tubule (PST).
  • renal - (Latin, renes = kidney) Term used in relation to the kidney and associated structures (renal pelvis, renal artery)
  • S-shaped body - (S stage) The second stage in nephron development between 20-24 weeks. (stage sequence: V - S - C - M)
  • transitional epithelium - (urothelium) Histological term to describe the epithelium lining the ureters and urinary bladder. (More? image)
  • trigone - refers to the urinary bladder triangular region formed by the two ureters and the urethra.
  • ureter - The two ureters are hollow tubes that link the kidney and the bladder and carry urine. They develop from the ureteric bud and are lined by a transitional epithelium with an outer muscular wall.
  • urethra - The single muscular tube that links and carries urine from the bladder to the exterior. In humans, the urethral length differs between the sexes (male longer, female shorter).
  • vascular pole - The side of nephron Bowman's capsule where the afferent arteriole and efferent arteriole enter the glomerulus. image
  • visceral layer - Cells (podocytes) of the inner of Bowman's capsule that form extremely complex shapes. Cytoplasm form a fenestrated epithelium around the fenestrated capillaries of the glomerulus. The outer layer is the parietal layer.
  • vesicle stage - (V stage) The first stage in nephron development between 13-19 weeks. (stage sequence: V - S - C - M)
  • urinary - Term used to describe all components of the kidney system including the bladder, ureters and urethra.
  • urinary pole - The side of nephron Bowman's capsule where the proximal convoluted tubule starts. image
  • urine - Term used to describe the liquid waste produced by the kidney, stored in the bladder and excreted from teh body through the urethra.
  • urorectal septum - (URS) The structure which develops to separate the cloaca (common urogenital sinus) into an anterior urinary part and a posterior rectal part.
  • Wilms' tumour - A form of kidney/renal cancer (nephroblastoma) named after Dr Max Wilms who first described the tumor. This childhood kidney cancer is caused by the inactivation of a tumour suppressor gene (BRCA2) or Wilms tumor-1 gene (Wt1) and is one of the most common solid tumors of childhood, occurring in 1 in 10,000 children and accounting for 8% of childhood cancers. Wt1 also required at early stages of gonadal development. (More? OMIM - Wilm's tumour | Dr Max Wilms)
  • Wilms' tumor 1-associating protein - (WTAP) protein expressed in extraembryonic tissues and required for the formation of embryonic mesoderm and endoderm.
  • Wolffian duct - (= mesonephric duct, preferred terminology), runs from the mesonephros to cloaca, differentiates to form the male vas deferens and in the female regresses. Named after Caspar Friedrich Wolff (1733-1794), a German scientist and early embryology researcher and is said to have established the doctrine of germ layers. (More? Caspar Friedrich Wolff)
Other Terms Lists  
Terms Lists: ART | Birth | Bone | Cardiovascular | Cell Division | Endocrine | Gastrointestinal | Genetic | Head | Hearing | Heart | Immune | Integumentary | NeonatalNeural | Oocyte | Palate | Placenta | Radiation | Renal | Respiratory | Spermatozoa | Statistics | Ultrasound | Vision | Historic | Drugs | Glossary
 2018 ANAT2341 - Timetable | Course Outline | Moodle | Tutorial 1 | Tutorial 2 | Tutorial 3

Labs: 1 Preimplantation and Implantation | 2 Reproductive Technology Revolution | 3 Group Projects | 4 GM manipulation mouse embryos | 5 Early chicken eggs | 6 Female reproductive tract | 7 Skin regeneration | 8 Vertebral development | 9 Organogenesis Lab | 10 Cardiac development | 11 Group projects | 12 Stem Cell Journal Club

Lectures: 1 Introduction | 2 Fertilization | 3 Week 1/2 | 4 Week 3 | 5 Ectoderm | 6 Placenta | 7 Mesoderm | 8 Endoderm | 9 Research Technology | 10 Cardiovascular | 11 Respiratory | 12 Neural crest | 13 Head | 14 Musculoskeletal | 15 Limb | 16 Renal | 17 Genital | 18 Endocrine | 19 Sensory | 20 Fetal | 21 Integumentary | 22 Birth | 23 Stem cells | 24 Revision

 Student Projects: Group Projects Information Project 1 | Project 2 | Project 3 | Project 4 | Project 5 | 2018 Test Student | Copyright