2017ANAT2341 Tutorial 3

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Dr Mark Hill

I am offering a voluntary third tutorial session on - TBD.

This is a voluntary tutorial session and attendance is not compulsory. Notice of this tutorial will be also on the Moodle Course Announcements.

The tutorial will be an opportunity for students to ask any questions you may have about the content within the next 3 online lectures. Please feel free to post any questions or content you would like covered to Moodle.

Please note the content covered below reflects questions raised during the tutorial.


14 Musculoskeletal

  • Understanding of mesoderm and neural crest development.
  • Brief understanding of connective tissue development.
  • Understanding of cartilage, bone and muscle development.
  • Understanding of the two forms of bone development.
  • Brief understanding of molecular bone development.
  • Brief understanding of bone abnormalities.

Bone - dual ossification process (endochondral and intramembranous). Most bone endochondral, coming from a cartilage template. Intramembranous in parts of the skull and scapula.

Axial skeleton from the sclerotome of the somites.

Muscle - all body skeletal muscle from the myotome of the somite.

  1. myotome cells (predetermined)
  2. migrating predetermined cells (to sites of muscle development)
  3. myoblast cells (at sites of muscle development) proliferate by mitosis
  4. myotube cells (fused myoblasts, multinucleate) unfused myoblasts continue to proliferate
  5. myofibre (innervated, expresses contractile proteins)

The first myofibres formed are called primary, later forming myofibres from later fusing myoblasts are secondary.


16 Renal

  • Understand the 3 main stages of kidney development.
  • Understand development of the nephron and renal papilla.
  • Brief understanding of the mechanisms of nephron development.
  • Understand the development of the cloaca, ureter and bladder.
  • Brief understanding of abnormalities of the urinary system.

The three sequential stages of intermediate mesoderm development and the mesonephric duct (Wolffian duct) role. Pro- and Meso- are transient the Metanephros forms the adult kidney. Understand the mesonephric duct giving a lateral outgrowth (uteric bud) that signals the overlying intermediate mesoderm (metanephric blastema). These 2 stuctures signal back and forth to differentiate each other.

  • uteric bud - ureters, renal pelvis, collecting tubules
  • metanephric blastema - nephron

Nephrogenesis has 4 stages during the fetal period - vesicle (V); S-shaped body (S) stage; capillary loop (C) stage; maturation (M).

Urinary bladder has different embryonic origin

  • endoderm -> cloaca -> urogenital sinus -> urinary bladder epithelium and urethra
  • mesoderm -> detrusor muscle


18 Endocrine

  • Understanding of hormone types
  • Understanding of endocrine gland development
  • Understanding of endocrine developmental functions

Must be able to describe detailed development of at least 2 endocrine organs. Endocrine organs require epithelia, mesenchyme and a vascular contribution.

Some organs form from neural tube elements (pineal, hypothalamus, posterior pituitary). Surface ectoderm (anteriorpituitary), endoderm floor of pharynx (thyroid), endoderm third and fourth pharyngeal pouches (parathyroid), endoderm third pharyngeal pouch (thymus), GIT endoderm and mesenchyme (pancreas), neural crest and mesothelium (adrenal), mesothelium and mesenchyme (gonad), extra embryonic mesoderm and maternal decidua (placenta).

Male (testis) and female (ovary) gonad is not considered 2 endocrine organs.
Some of the organs have dual origins (for example, pituitary, adrenal), all become functional in the early fetal period and are required for normal development.


19 Sensory

  • Understanding of sensory placode development
  • Understanding of inner, middle and external ear origins
  • Understanding of timecourse of auditory development
  • Understanding of abnormalities of auditory development
  • Brief understanding of other (vision) sensory development

Hearing was covered in the lecture. The embryonic origins of (each) of the auditory components needs to be understood. The introductory cartoon should help you in your description of the embryonic origins, make sure you have more details than shown in the cartoon labels.


  • 20 Fetal
  • Understanding of fetal growth - length and weight
  • Understanding of fetal systems development/changes
  • Understanding of fetal abnormalities

What are the systems that have not completed development during the embryonic period and what is the sequence (timing) of their development. Note that these systems have also been covered in lectures on systemic development within the course.


I will provide a last tutorial as revision for the theory exam. Please use the online forum to post any questions or content that you would like discussed.

 2017 ANAT2341 - Timetable | Course Outline | Group Projects | Moodle | Tutorial 1 | Tutorial 2 | Tutorial 3

Labs: 1 Fertility and IVF | 2 ES Cells to Genome Editing | 3 Preimplantation and Early Implantation | 4 Reproductive Technology Revolution | 5 Cardiac and Vascular Development | 6 CRISPR-Cas9 | 7 Somitogenesis and Vertebral Malformation | 8 Organogenesis | 9 Genetic Disorders | 10 Melanocytes | 11 Stem Cells | 12 Group

Lectures: 1 Introduction | 2 Fertilization | 3 Week 1/2 | 4 Week 3 | 5 Ectoderm | 6 Placenta | 7 Mesoderm | 8 Endoderm | 9 Research Technology | 10 Cardiovascular | 11 Respiratory | 12 Neural crest | 13 Head | 14 Musculoskeletal | 15 Limb | 16 Renal | 17 Genital | 18 Endocrine | 19 Sensory | 20 Fetal | 21 Integumentary | 22 Birth | 23 Stem cells | 24 Revision

 Student Projects: 1 Cortex | 2 Kidney | 3 Heart | 4 Eye | 5 Lung | 6 Cerebellum