Horse Development

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Introduction

Equine development (Latin, equus = "horse")


Horse Links: 1897 Critical Period in Horse Development | 1945 Cleavage Stages of the Horse Ova | Category:Horse



Animal Development: axolotl | bat | cat | chicken | cow | dog | dolphin | echidna | fly | frog | goat | grasshopper | guinea pig | hamster | kangaroo | koala | lizard | medaka | mouse | pig | platypus | rabbit | rat | sea squirt | sea urchin | sheep | worm | zebrafish | life cycles | development timetable | development models | K12
Historic Embryology  
1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 1906 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | 1951 Frog | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer

Some Recent Findings

  • Proteins involved in embryo-maternal interaction around the signalling of maternal recognition of pregnancy in the horse[1] "During maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP), a conceptus-derived signal leads to the persistence of the corpus luteum and the maintenance of gestation. In the horse, the nature of this signal remains to be elucidated. Several studies have focused on the changes in gene expression during MRP, but little information exists at the protein level. The aim of this study was to identify the proteins at the embryo-maternal interface around signalling of MRP in the horse (day 13) by means of mass spectrometry. A distinct influence of pregnancy was established, with 119 proteins differentially expressed in the uterine fluid of pregnant mares compared to cyclic mares and with upregulation of several inhibitors of the prostaglandin synthesis during pregnancy. By creating an overview of the proteins at the embryo-maternal interface in the horse, this study provides a solid foundation for further targeted studies of proteins potentially involved in embryo-maternal interactions, MRP and pregnancy loss in the horse." implantation | placenta
  • Histological study of the external, middle and inner ear of horses[2] "The histological composition of external, middle and inner ear structures are predominantly congruent to those of other mammals, especially to human beings. Unique inwardly directed rete pegs within the osseous ear canal and the prominent tensor tympani muscle are described for the first time."
  • Random X inactivation in the mule and horse placenta[3] "In eutherian mammals, dosage compensation of X-linked genes is achieved by X chromosome inactivation. X inactivation is random in embryonic and adult tissues, but imprinted X inactivation (paternal X silencing) has been identified in the extra-embryonic membranes of the mouse, rat, and cow. ...As the most structurally and morphologically diverse organ in mammals, the placenta also appears to show diverse mechanisms for dosage compensation that may result in differences in conceptus development across species."
More recent papers  
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Search term: Equine Embryology

<pubmed limit=5>Equine Embryology</pubmed>

Taxon

Equine Development

338 days

Animal Development Time 

Animal Average Days
Bear (Black) 210
Bison 270
Budgerigar 18
Camel 410
cat 65
cow 281
chicken 21
Chimpanzee 236
Chinchilla 111
Coyote 63
Deer (Mule) 200
dog 63
Donkey 365
Duck 28
Duck (Muscovy) 35
Elephant 660
Elk, Wapiti 255
Ferret 42
Finch 14
Fox 52
Giraffe 425
goat 150
Goose 28
Gorilla 270
Guinea fowl 28
guinea pig 68
Hare 36
Hippopotamus 240
Horse 338
Human 274
Leopard 95
Lion 108
Llama 350
Marmoset 150
Mink (European) 41
Monkey (Macaque) 180
Moose 240
mouse 20
Muskox 255
Muskrat 29
Nutria, Coypu 130
Opossum 12
Otter 285
Panther 90
Parrot 26
Pheasant 24
Pig 114
Pigeon 18
Porcupine 210
Pronghorn 230
Quail 16
rabbit 31
Raccoon 63
rat 21
Reindeer 225
Rhinoceros (African) 480
Seal 330
sheep 150
Shrew 20
Skunk 63
Squirrel (Gray) 40
Swan 35
Tapir 390
Tarsier 182
Tiger 103
Turkey 28
Walrus 450
Whale (Sperm) 450
Wolf 63
Woodchuck 31
Animal Notes and Table Data Sources
  • Each animal species has different variations +/- the average values shown in the table.
  • Gestation is the carrying of an animal embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. Except in the case of human gestational age GA.
  • Incubation is the laying of an egg (birds, reptiles, monotremes) with development occurring outside the female animal.


See also - Timeline Comparisons

Animal Development: axolotl | bat | cat | chicken | cow | dog | dolphin | echidna | fly | frog | goat | grasshopper | guinea pig | hamster | kangaroo | koala | lizard | medaka | mouse | pig | platypus | rabbit | rat | sea squirt | sea urchin | sheep | worm | zebrafish | life cycles | development timetable | development models | K12
Historic Embryology  
1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 1906 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | 1951 Frog | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer


Additional Data Sources

  • Theiler K. The House Mouse: Atlas of Mouse Development (1972, 1989) Springer-Verlag, NY. Online
  • Witschi E. Rat Development. In: Growth Including Reproduction and Morphological Development. (1962) Altman PL. and Dittmer DS. ed. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Washington DC, pp. 304-314.
  • The Genetics of the Dog. E Ostrander, E. and Ruvinsky, A. ISBN: 9781845939403 (2012)
  • Merck Veterinary Manual. Aiello, S.E. and Moses, M.A. (ed) ISBN: 0911910506 (2013) Online
  • Witschi, E. (1962) Development: Rat. In: Growth Including Reproduction and Morphological Development. Altman, P. L. , and D. S. Dittmer, ed. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Washington DC, pp. 304-314.

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Genetics

Chromosomes: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 |

31 | X | 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 X

Genome: Equus caballus


Morula and Blastocyst

The following images are from a historic (1945) article on early horse development.[4]

Links: Fig. 1 | Fig. 2 | Fig. 3 | Fig. 4 | Fig. 5 | Plate 1 | Fig 6 | Fig 7 | Fig 8 | Fig 9 | Fig 10 | Fig 11 | Plate 2 | Fig 12 | Fig 13 | Fig 14 | Fig 15 | Plate 3
Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Plate 1

Hamilton1945-plate01.jpg

Plate 2

Hamilton1945-plate02.jpg

Plate 3

Hamilton1945-plate03.jpg


Genital Development

Gastrointestinal Tract

Prenatal Development of the Digestive System in the Horse.[5]

  • 21 days - oral cavity was an empty space, and the liver contained proliferating endodermal cells.
  • 25 days - fusiform stomach and the pancreatic bud were present.
  • 28 days - small tongue and the esophagus occurred.
  • 30 days - primary and secondary palates were developed, the liver contained cords of hepatocytes, and the pancreas was triangular.
  • 40 days - crypts had formed in the intestinal loops, cell differentiation was observed in the hepatic parenchyma, and the pancreas was elongated.
  • 50 days - Pancreatic acini and islets and intestines were highly convoluted.
  • 75 days - Three segments of the pharynx
  • 105 days - intestinal villi were wide with round tips; especially, the liver, stomach, and oral cavity showed key steps of anatomical and cellular differentiation.

References

  1. Smits K, Willems S, Van Steendam K, Van De Velde M, De Lange V, Ververs C, Roels K, Govaere J, Van Nieuwerburgh F, Peelman L, Deforce D & Van Soom A. (2018). Proteins involved in embryo-maternal interaction around the signalling of maternal recognition of pregnancy in the horse. Sci Rep , 8, 5249. PMID: 29588480 DOI.
  2. Blanke A, Aupperle H, Seeger J, Kubick C & Schusser GF. (2015). Histological study of the external, middle and inner ear of horses. Anat Histol Embryol , 44, 401-9. PMID: 25283481 DOI.
  3. Wang X, Miller DC, Clark AG & Antczak DF. (2012). Random X inactivation in the mule and horse placenta. Genome Res. , 22, 1855-63. PMID: 22645258 DOI.
  4. Hamilton WJ. Cleavage Stages of the Ova of the Horse, with Notes on Ovulation. J Anat. 1945 Jul; 79(Pt 3): 127–130.3.
  5. <pubmed>24778084</pubmed>

Reviews

Articles

Rodrigues MN, Carvalho RC, Franciolli AL, Rodrigues RF, Rigoglio NN, Jacob JC, Gastal EL & Miglino MA. (2014). Prenatal development of the digestive system in the horse. Anat Rec (Hoboken) , 297, 1218-27. PMID: 24778084 DOI.

Wang X, Miller DC, Clark AG & Antczak DF. (2012). Random X inactivation in the mule and horse placenta. Genome Res. , 22, 1855-63. PMID: 22645258 DOI.

Fahiminiya S, Labas V, Roche S, Dacheux JL & Gérard N. (2011). Proteomic analysis of mare follicular fluid during late follicle development. Proteome Sci , 9, 54. PMID: 21923925 DOI.

Klein C & Troedsson MH. (2011). Transcriptional profiling of equine conceptuses reveals new aspects of embryo-maternal communication in the horse. Biol. Reprod. , 84, 872-85. PMID: 21209420 DOI.

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Animal Development: axolotl | bat | cat | chicken | cow | dog | dolphin | echidna | fly | frog | goat | grasshopper | guinea pig | hamster | kangaroo | koala | lizard | medaka | mouse | pig | platypus | rabbit | rat | sea squirt | sea urchin | sheep | worm | zebrafish | life cycles | development timetable | development models | K12
Historic Embryology  
1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 1906 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | 1951 Frog | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, July 19) Embryology Horse Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Horse_Development

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