Horse Development

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A personal message from Dr Mark Hill (May 2020)  
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I have decided to take early retirement in September 2020. During the many years online I have received wonderful feedback from many readers, researchers and students interested in human embryology. I especially thank my research collaborators and contributors to the site. The good news is Embryology will remain online and I will continue my association with UNSW Australia. I look forward to updating and including the many exciting new discoveries in Embryology!

Introduction

Equine development (Latin, equus = "horse")


Horse Links: horse | Category:Horse
  Historic Papers: 1897 Critical Period in Horse Development | 1925 Organ of Jacobson | 1945 Cleavage Stages of the Horse Ova

Animal Development: axolotl | bat | cat | chicken | cow | dog | dolphin | echidna | fly | frog | goat | grasshopper | guinea pig | hamster | horse | kangaroo | koala | lizard | medaka | mouse | opossum | pig | platypus | rabbit | rat | sea squirt | sea urchin | sheep | worm | zebrafish | life cycles | development timetable | development models | K12
Historic Embryology  
1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 1906 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | 1951 Frog | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer

Some Recent Findings

  • Sonographic appearance of the late gestation equine fetal intestine[1] "Variable gestation length in the mare poses a challenge for determination of fetal readiness for birth. The objectives of this study were to describe sonographic characteristics of the fetal GI tract in the late gestation mare and identify changes that occur with progressing fetal maturity. Based on these characteristics, a grading scale modeled after the existing human and canine scoring system was developed. Weekly sonographic examination of the fetus by one observer beginning 2-3 weeks prior to a calculated due date of 330 days was performed. Fetal assessment included; presence of stomach rugae, bowel segment definition (uniform echogenic, some defined, clearly defined), bowel segment dilation (none, segmental dilation), intestinal contents (none, mixed echogenicity) and peristalsis (none, occasional, every 3 s, continuous). Based on these characteristics a phase was assigned to the GI tract (1-5). Phase 1 was defined as a uniform echogenic grey area caudal to the diaphragm. The differentiation of Phase 2-5 was based primarily on the frequency of peristalsis, with Phase 2 exhibiting no peristalsis, Phase 3 exhibiting occasional peristalsis, Phase 4 exhibiting peristalsis every 3 s and Phase 5 exhibiting continuous peristalsis."


  • Tracking Five Millennia of Horse Management with Extensive Ancient Genome Time Series[2] "Horse domestication revolutionized warfare and accelerated travel, trade, and the geographic expansion of languages. Here, we present the largest DNA time series for a non-human organism to date, including genome-scale data from 149 ancient animals and 129 ancient genomes (≥1-fold coverage), 87 of which are new. This extensive dataset allows us to assess the modern legacy of past equestrian civilizations. We find that two extinct horse lineages existed during early domestication, one at the far western (Iberia) and the other at the far eastern range (Siberia) of Eurasia. None of these contributed significantly to modern diversity. We show that the influence of Persian-related horse lineages increased following the Islamic conquests in Europe and Asia. Multiple alleles associated with elite-racing, including at the MSTN "speed gene," only rose in popularity within the last millennium. Finally, the development of modern breeding impacted genetic diversity more dramatically than the previous millennia of human management."
  • Proteins involved in embryo-maternal interaction around the signalling of maternal recognition of pregnancy in the horse[3] "During maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP), a conceptus-derived signal leads to the persistence of the corpus luteum and the maintenance of gestation. In the horse, the nature of this signal remains to be elucidated. Several studies have focused on the changes in gene expression during MRP, but little information exists at the protein level. The aim of this study was to identify the proteins at the embryo-maternal interface around signalling of MRP in the horse (day 13) by means of mass spectrometry. A distinct influence of pregnancy was established, with 119 proteins differentially expressed in the uterine fluid of pregnant mares compared to cyclic mares and with upregulation of several inhibitors of the prostaglandin synthesis during pregnancy. By creating an overview of the proteins at the embryo-maternal interface in the horse, this study provides a solid foundation for further targeted studies of proteins potentially involved in embryo-maternal interactions, MRP and pregnancy loss in the horse." implantation | placenta


More recent papers  
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This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.

  • This search now requires a manual link as the original PubMed extension has been disabled.
  • The displayed list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
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References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

More? References | Discussion Page | Journal Searches | 2019 References | 2020 References

Search term: Equine Development | Equine Embryology | Horse Development

Older papers  
These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.

See also the Discussion Page for other references listed by year and References on this current page.

  • Histological study of the external, middle and inner ear of horses[4] "The histological composition of external, middle and inner ear structures are predominantly congruent to those of other mammals, especially to human beings. Unique inwardly directed rete pegs within the osseous ear canal and the prominent tensor tympani muscle are described for the first time." hearing
  • Random X inactivation in the mule and horse placenta[5] "In eutherian mammals, dosage compensation of X-linked genes is achieved by X chromosome inactivation. X inactivation is random in embryonic and adult tissues, but imprinted X inactivation (paternal X silencing) has been identified in the extra-embryonic membranes of the mouse, rat, and cow. ...As the most structurally and morphologically diverse organ in mammals, the placenta also appears to show diverse mechanisms for dosage compensation that may result in differences in conceptus development across species."

Taxon

Equine Development

338 days

Animal Development Time 

Animal Average Days
Bear (Black) 210
Bison 270
Budgerigar 18
Camel 410
cat 65
cow 281
chicken 21
Chimpanzee 236
Chinchilla 111
Coyote 63
deer (Mule) 200
dog 63
Donkey 365
Duck 28
Duck (Muscovy) 35
elephant 660
Elk, Wapiti 255
Ferret 42
Finch 14
Fox 52
Giraffe 425
goat 150
Goose 28
Gorilla 270
Guinea fowl 28
guinea pig 68
Hare 36
Hippopotamus 240
horse 338
Human 274
Leopard 95
Lion 108
Llama 350
Marmoset 150
Mink (European) 41
monkey (Macaque) 180
Moose 240
mouse 20
Muskox 255
Muskrat 29
Nutria, Coypu 130
opossum 12
Otter 285
Panther 90
Parrot 26
Pheasant 24
Pig 114
Pigeon 18
Porcupine 210
Pronghorn 230
Quail 16
rabbit 31
Raccoon 63
rat 21
Reindeer 225
Rhinoceros (African) 480
Seal 330
sheep 150
Shrew 20
Skunk 63
Squirrel (Gray) 40
Swan 35
Tapir 390
Tarsier 182
Tiger 103
Turkey 28
Walrus 450
whale (Sperm) 450
Wolf 63
Woodchuck 31
Animal Notes and Table Data Sources
  • Each animal species has different variations +/- the average values shown in the table.
  • Gestation is the carrying of an animal embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. Except in the case of human gestational age GA.
  • Incubation is the laying of an egg (birds, reptiles, monotremes) with development occurring outside the female animal.


See also - Timeline Comparisons

Animal Development: axolotl | bat | cat | chicken | cow | dog | dolphin | echidna | fly | frog | goat | grasshopper | guinea pig | hamster | horse | kangaroo | koala | lizard | medaka | mouse | opossum | pig | platypus | rabbit | rat | sea squirt | sea urchin | sheep | worm | zebrafish | life cycles | development timetable | development models | K12
Historic Embryology  
1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 1906 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | 1951 Frog | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer


Additional Data Sources

  • Theiler K. The House Mouse: Atlas of Mouse Development (1972, 1989) Springer-Verlag, NY. Online
  • Witschi E. Rat Development. In: Growth Including Reproduction and Morphological Development. (1962) Altman PL. and Dittmer DS. ed. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Washington DC, pp. 304-314.
  • The Genetics of the Dog. E Ostrander, E. and Ruvinsky, A. ISBN: 9781845939403 (2012)
  • Merck Veterinary Manual. Aiello, S.E. and Moses, M.A. (ed) ISBN: 0911910506 (2013) Online
  • Witschi, E. (1962) Development: Rat. In: Growth Including Reproduction and Morphological Development. Altman, P. L. , and D. S. Dittmer, ed. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Washington DC, pp. 304-314.

Genetics

Chromosomes: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 |

31 | X | 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 X

Genome: Equus caballus


Morula and Blastocyst

The following images are from a historic (1945) article on early horse development.[6]

Links: Fig. 1 | Fig. 2 | Fig. 3 | Fig. 4 | Fig. 5 | Plate 1 | Fig 6 | Fig 7 | Fig 8 | Fig 9 | Fig 10 | Fig 11 | Plate 2 | Fig 12 | Fig 13 | Fig 14 | Fig 15 | Plate 3
Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
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Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Plate 1

Hamilton1945-plate01.jpg

Plate 2

Hamilton1945-plate02.jpg

Plate 3

Hamilton1945-plate03.jpg


Genital Development

Gastrointestinal Tract

Prenatal Development of the Digestive System in the Horse.[7]

  • 21 days - oral cavity was an empty space, and the liver contained proliferating endodermal cells.
  • 25 days - fusiform stomach and the pancreatic bud were present.
  • 28 days - small tongue and the esophagus occurred.
  • 30 days - primary and secondary palates were developed, the liver contained cords of hepatocytes, and the pancreas was triangular.
  • 40 days - crypts had formed in the intestinal loops, cell differentiation was observed in the hepatic parenchyma, and the pancreas was elongated.
  • 50 days - Pancreatic acini and islets and intestines were highly convoluted.
  • 75 days - Three segments of the pharynx
  • 105 days - intestinal villi were wide with round tips; especially, the liver, stomach, and oral cavity showed key steps of anatomical and cellular differentiation.

Neural

Neonatal encephalopathy is the most common neurologic condition affecting newborn foals.[8] This neural abnormality has been compared to perinatal asphyxia syndrome of human infants.

References

  1. Agnew ME, Slack J, Stefanovski D, Linton JK & Sertich PL. (2019). Sonographic appearance of the late gestation equine fetal intestine. Theriogenology , 138, 121-126. PMID: 31326658 DOI.
  2. Fages A, Hanghøj K, Khan N, Gaunitz C, Seguin-Orlando A, Leonardi M, McCrory Constantz C, Gamba C, Al-Rasheid KAS, Albizuri S, Alfarhan AH, Allentoft M, Alquraishi S, Anthony D, Baimukhanov N, Barrett JH, Bayarsaikhan J, Benecke N, Bernáldez-Sánchez E, Berrocal-Rangel L, Biglari F, Boessenkool S, Boldgiv B, Brem G, Brown D, Burger J, Crubézy E, Daugnora L, Davoudi H, de Barros Damgaard P, de Los Ángeles de Chorro Y de Villa-Ceballos M, Deschler-Erb S, Detry C, Dill N, do Mar Oom M, Dohr A, Ellingvåg S, Erdenebaatar D, Fathi H, Felkel S, Fernández-Rodríguez C, García-Viñas E, Germonpré M, Granado JD, Hallsson JH, Hemmer H, Hofreiter M, Kasparov A, Khasanov M, Khazaeli R, Kosintsev P, Kristiansen K, Kubatbek T, Kuderna L, Kuznetsov P, Laleh H, Leonard JA, Lhuillier J, Liesau von Lettow-Vorbeck C, Logvin A, Lõugas L, Ludwig A, Luis C, Arruda AM, Marques-Bonet T, Matoso Silva R, Merz V, Mijiddorj E, Miller BK, Monchalov O, Mohaseb FA, Morales A, Nieto-Espinet A, Nistelberger H, Onar V, Pálsdóttir AH, Pitulko V, Pitskhelauri K, Pruvost M, Rajic Sikanjic P, Rapan Papeša A, Roslyakova N, Sardari A, Sauer E, Schafberg R, Scheu A, Schibler J, Schlumbaum A, Serrand N, Serres-Armero A, Shapiro B, Sheikhi Seno S, Shevnina I, Shidrang S, Southon J, Star B, Sykes N, Taheri K, Taylor W, Teegen WR, Trbojević Vukičević T, Trixl S, Tumen D, Undrakhbold S, Usmanova E, Vahdati A, Valenzuela-Lamas S, Viegas C, Wallner B, Weinstock J, Zaibert V, Clavel B, Lepetz S, Mashkour M, Helgason A, Stefánsson K, Barrey E, Willerslev E, Outram AK, Librado P & Orlando L. (2019). Tracking Five Millennia of Horse Management with Extensive Ancient Genome Time Series. Cell , 177, 1419-1435.e31. PMID: 31056281 DOI.
  3. Smits K, Willems S, Van Steendam K, Van De Velde M, De Lange V, Ververs C, Roels K, Govaere J, Van Nieuwerburgh F, Peelman L, Deforce D & Van Soom A. (2018). Proteins involved in embryo-maternal interaction around the signalling of maternal recognition of pregnancy in the horse. Sci Rep , 8, 5249. PMID: 29588480 DOI.
  4. Blanke A, Aupperle H, Seeger J, Kubick C & Schusser GF. (2015). Histological study of the external, middle and inner ear of horses. Anat Histol Embryol , 44, 401-9. PMID: 25283481 DOI.
  5. Wang X, Miller DC, Clark AG & Antczak DF. (2012). Random X inactivation in the mule and horse placenta. Genome Res. , 22, 1855-63. PMID: 22645258 DOI.
  6. Hamilton WJ. Cleavage Stages of the Ova of the Horse, with Notes on Ovulation. J Anat. 1945 Jul; 79(Pt 3): 127–130.3.
  7. <pubmed>24778084</pubmed>
  8. Tennent-Brown BS, Morrice AV & Reed S. (2015). The Equine Neonatal Central Nervous System: Development and Diseases. Vet. Clin. North Am. Equine Pract. , 31, 587-600. PMID: 26612749 DOI.

Reviews

Miraglia N, Salimei E & Fantuz F. (2020). Equine Milk Production and Valorization of Marginal Areas-A Review. Animals (Basel) , 10, . PMID: 32098374 DOI.

Fowden AL, Giussani DA & Forhead AJ. (2020). Physiological development of the equine fetus during late gestation. Equine Vet. J. , 52, 165-173. PMID: 31721295 DOI.

Roser JF & Meyers-Brown G. (2019). Enhancing Fertility in Mares: Recombinant Equine Gonadotropins. J. Equine Vet. Sci. , 76, 6-13. PMID: 31084750 DOI.

Tennent-Brown BS, Morrice AV & Reed S. (2015). The Equine Neonatal Central Nervous System: Development and Diseases. Vet. Clin. North Am. Equine Pract. , 31, 587-600. PMID: 26612749 DOI.

Perkins GA & Wagner B. (2015). The development of equine immunity: Current knowledge on immunology in the young horse. Equine Vet. J. , 47, 267-74. PMID: 25405920 DOI.

Articles

Rigoglio NN, Smith OE, Matias GSS, Miglino MA & Smith LC. (2019). Development of the central nervous system in equine twin fetuses derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. , 31, 941-952. PMID: 30689958 DOI.

Rodrigues MN, Carvalho RC, Franciolli AL, Rodrigues RF, Rigoglio NN, Jacob JC, Gastal EL & Miglino MA. (2014). Prenatal development of the digestive system in the horse. Anat Rec (Hoboken) , 297, 1218-27. PMID: 24778084 DOI.

Wang X, Miller DC, Clark AG & Antczak DF. (2012). Random X inactivation in the mule and horse placenta. Genome Res. , 22, 1855-63. PMID: 22645258 DOI.

Fahiminiya S, Labas V, Roche S, Dacheux JL & Gérard N. (2011). Proteomic analysis of mare follicular fluid during late follicle development. Proteome Sci , 9, 54. PMID: 21923925 DOI.

Klein C & Troedsson MH. (2011). Transcriptional profiling of equine conceptuses reveals new aspects of embryo-maternal communication in the horse. Biol. Reprod. , 84, 872-85. PMID: 21209420 DOI.

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Animal Development: axolotl | bat | cat | chicken | cow | dog | dolphin | echidna | fly | frog | goat | grasshopper | guinea pig | hamster | horse | kangaroo | koala | lizard | medaka | mouse | opossum | pig | platypus | rabbit | rat | sea squirt | sea urchin | sheep | worm | zebrafish | life cycles | development timetable | development models | K12
Historic Embryology  
1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 1906 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | 1951 Frog | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, June 2) Embryology Horse Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Horse_Development

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