Gastrointestinal Tract - Oesophagus Development

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Introduction

Human head (Week 4, Stage 11) showing buccopharyngeal membrane breakdown.
Fetal mouth (week 12)
Early fetal mouth (week 12)

The oesophagus (British English) or esophagus (American English) or allows the passage of food from the mouth, then pharynx to the stomach by gravity and peristaltic contractions.


The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) arises initially during the process of gastrulation from the endoderm of the trilaminar embryo (week 3) and extends from the buccopharyngeal membrane to the cloacal membrane. The tract and associated organs later have contributions from all the germ cell layers.


GIT Links: Introduction | Medicine Lecture | Science Lecture | endoderm | mouth | oesophagus | stomach | liver | gall bladder | Pancreas | intestine | mesentery | tongue | taste | enteric nervous system | Stage 13 | Stage 22 | gastrointestinal abnormalities | Movies | Postnatal | milk | tooth | salivary gland | BGD Lecture | BGD Practical | GIT Terms | Category:Gastrointestinal Tract
GIT Histology Links: Upper GIT | Salivary Gland | Smooth Muscle Histology | Liver | Gall Bladder | Pancreas | Colon | Histology Stains | Histology | GIT Development
Historic Embryology - Gastrointestinal Tract  
1878 Alimentary Canal | 1882 The Organs of the Inner Germ-Layer The Alimentary Tube with its Appended Organs | 1902 The Organs of Digestion | 1903 Submaxillary Gland | 1906 Liver | 1907 Development of the Digestive System | 1907 Atlas | 1907 23 Somite Embryo | 1908 Liver and Vascular | 1910 Mucous membrane Oesophagus to Small Intestine | 1910 Large intestine and Vermiform process | Intestine and Peritoneum - 1911 Part 1 | 1911 Part 2 | 1912 Part 3 | 1913 Part 5 | 1913 Part 6 | 1912 Digestive Tract | 1912 Stomach | 1914 Digestive Tract | 1914 Intestines | 1914 Rectum | 1915 Pharynx | 1915 Intestinal Rotation | 1917 Entodermal Canal | 1918 Anatomy | 1921 Alimentary Tube | 1932 Gall Bladder | 1939 Alimentary Canal Looping | 2008 Liver | 2016 GIT Notes | Historic Disclaimer
Human Embryo: 1908 13-14 Somite Embryo | 1921 Liver Suspensory Ligament | 1926 22 Somite Embryo | 1907 23 Somite Embryo | 1937 25 Somite Embryo | 1914 27 Somite Embryo | 1914 Week 7 Embryo
Animal Development: 1913 Chicken | 1951 Frog

Note that in historic texts the term entoderm is used to describe endoderm and other terminology may also differ from current descriptions.

Some Recent Findings

Tongue taste map[1]
  • Review - Update on Foregut Molecular Embryology and Role of Regenerative Medicine Therapies.[2] "Esophageal atresia (OA) represents one of the commonest and most severe developmental disorders of the foregut, the most proximal segment of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (esophagus and stomach) in embryological terms. Of intrigue is the common origin from this foregut of two very diverse functional entities, the digestive and respiratory systems. OA appears to result from incomplete separation of the ventral and dorsal parts of the foregut during development, resulting in disruption of esophageal anatomy and frequent association with tracheo-oesophageal fistula."
  • The Digestive Tract in Human Embryos Between Carnegie Stages 11 and 13[3] "The digestive tract was initially formed by a narrowing of the yolk sac, and then several derived primordia such as the pharynx, lung, stomach, liver, and dorsal pancreas primordia differentiated during CS12 (21-29 somites) and CS13 (≥ 30 somites). The differentiation of four pairs of pharyngeal pouches was complete in all CS13 embryos. The respiratory primordium was recognized in ≥ 26-somite embryos and it flattened and then branched at CS13. The trachea formed and then elongated in ≥ 35-somite embryos. The stomach adopted a spindle shape in all ≥ 34-somite embryos, and the liver bud was recognized in ≥ 27-somite embryos. The dorsal pancreas appeared as definitive buddings in all but three CS13 embryos, and around these buddings, the small intestine bent in ≥ 33-somite embryos. In ≥ 35-somite embryos, the small intestine rotated around the cranial-caudal axis and had begun to form a primitive intestinal loop, which led to umbilical herniation."
More recent papers  
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
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References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

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Search term: Oesophagus Embryology

Enrique Salmerón-González, Elena García-Vilariño, Pedro A Antolin-Santamaria, Alberto Sanchez-Garcia, Alfonso A Valverde-Navarro Reconstruction of a Posterior Tracheal Wall Defect With a Myocutaneous Pectoralis Major Flap After Salvage Cervical Exenteration for a Squamous Carcinoma of the Upper Third of the Esophagus. Plast Surg Nurs: 2018, 38(4);162-165 PubMed 30507816

Bo Liu, Xiujuan Li, Fengxi Liu, Fengyu Li, Shuxia Wei, Junchao Liu, Yang Lv Expression and Significance of TRIM 28 in Squamous Carcinoma of Esophagus. Pathol. Oncol. Res.: 2018; PubMed 30484263

Tetsuya Tachibana, Wataru Ueoka, Md Sakirul Islam Khan, Ryosuke Makino, Mark A Cline Compound 48/80 reduces the crop-emptying rate, likely through a histamine-associated pathway in chicks. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol.: 2018; PubMed 30472035

Jia Kang, Meng Mao, Ye Zhang, Fang-Fang Ai, Lan Zhu Congenital anal atresia with rectovestibular fistula, scoliosis, unilateral renal agenesis, and finger defect (VACTERL association) in a patient with partial bicornuate uterus and distal vaginal atresia: A case report. Medicine (Baltimore): 2018, 97(45);e12822 PubMed 30407282

Kinga Skieresz-Szewczyk, Hanna Jackowiak, Marlena Ratajczak Embryonic development of parakeratinized epithelium of the tongue in the domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica): LM, SEM, and TEM observations. Protoplasma: 2018; PubMed 30382421


Textbooks

  • Human Embryology Larson Chapter 9 p229-260
  • The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (6th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter 12 p271-302
  • Before We Are Born (5th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter 13 p255-287
  • Essentials of Human Embryology Larson Chapter 9 p123-146
  • Human Embryology Fitzgerald and Fitzgerald Chapter 19,20 p119-123

More? References | Online Textbooks | Historic Textbooks

UNSW Students  
Mark Hill.jpg You have access the following online Embryology resources and textbooks through the UNSW Library.
Logo.png Hill, M.A. (2018). UNSW Embryology (18th ed.) Retrieved December 10, 2018, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au
GIT Links: Introduction | Medicine Lecture | Science Lecture | endoderm | mouth | oesophagus | stomach | liver | gall bladder | Pancreas | intestine | mesentery | tongue | taste | enteric nervous system | Stage 13 | Stage 22 | gastrointestinal abnormalities | Movies | Postnatal | milk | tooth | salivary gland | BGD Lecture | BGD Practical | GIT Terms | Category:Gastrointestinal Tract
GIT Histology Links: Upper GIT | Salivary Gland | Smooth Muscle Histology | Liver | Gall Bladder | Pancreas | Colon | Histology Stains | Histology | GIT Development
Historic Embryology - Gastrointestinal Tract  
1878 Alimentary Canal | 1882 The Organs of the Inner Germ-Layer The Alimentary Tube with its Appended Organs | 1902 The Organs of Digestion | 1903 Submaxillary Gland | 1906 Liver | 1907 Development of the Digestive System | 1907 Atlas | 1907 23 Somite Embryo | 1908 Liver and Vascular | 1910 Mucous membrane Oesophagus to Small Intestine | 1910 Large intestine and Vermiform process | Intestine and Peritoneum - 1911 Part 1 | 1911 Part 2 | 1912 Part 3 | 1913 Part 5 | 1913 Part 6 | 1912 Digestive Tract | 1912 Stomach | 1914 Digestive Tract | 1914 Intestines | 1914 Rectum | 1915 Pharynx | 1915 Intestinal Rotation | 1917 Entodermal Canal | 1918 Anatomy | 1921 Alimentary Tube | 1932 Gall Bladder | 1939 Alimentary Canal Looping | 2008 Liver | 2016 GIT Notes | Historic Disclaimer
Human Embryo: 1908 13-14 Somite Embryo | 1921 Liver Suspensory Ligament | 1926 22 Somite Embryo | 1907 23 Somite Embryo | 1937 25 Somite Embryo | 1914 27 Somite Embryo | 1914 Week 7 Embryo
Animal Development: 1913 Chicken | 1951 Frog
The Developing Human, 10th edn.jpg Moore, K.L., Persaud, T.V.N. & Torchia, M.G. (2015). The developing human: clinically oriented embryology (10th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders. (links only function with UNSW connection)

Chapter 11 Alimentary System

Larsen's human embryology 5th ed.jpg Schoenwolf, G.C., Bleyl, S.B., Brauer, P.R., Francis-West, P.H. & Philippa H. (2015). Larsen's human embryology (5th ed.). New York; Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.(links only function with UNSW connection)

Chapter 14 Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Objectives

  • Understanding of germ layer contributions to the early gastrointestinal tract (GIT)
  • Understanding of the folding of the GIT
  • Understanding of three main GIT embryonic divisions
  • Understanding of associated organ development (liver, pancreas, spleen)
  • Brief understanding of mechanical changes (rotations) during GIT development
  • Brief understanding of gastrointestinal abnormalities

Germ Layer Contributions

  • Endoderm - epithelium and associated glands
  • Mesoderm (splanchnic) - mesentry, connective tissues, smooth muscle, blood vessels
  • Ectoderm (neural crest) - enteric nervous system (neural tube) - extrinsic innervation

Both endoderm and mesoderm will contribute to associated organs.

Gastrointestinal Tract Movies

Gastrointestinal Tract Movies  
Mesoderm 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Week 3 Mesoderm
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Week3 folding icon.jpg
 ‎‎Week 3
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Amnion 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Amniotic Cavity
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Endoderm 002 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Endoderm
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Stomach rotation 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Stomach Rotation
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Gastrointestinal tract growth 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Tract Growth
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Greater omentum 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Greater Omentum
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Lesser sac 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Lesser sac
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Urogenital septum 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Urogenital Septum
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Stage13-GIT-icon.jpg
 ‎‎GIT Stage 13
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Stage22-GIT-icon.jpg
 ‎‎GIT Stage 22
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Stage23 MRI S04 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Sagittal GIT
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ChickenGITmotility-icon.jpg
 ‎‎GIT Motility
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Gastroschisis 01.jpg
 ‎‎Gastroschisis
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Omphalocele 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Omphalocele
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Stage 13 (week 5) Stage 22 (week 8) Stage 23 (week 8) GIT Abnormalities Ultrasound

Foregut

Stage 11 foregut
From the oral cavity the next portion of the foregut is initially a single gastrointestinal (oesophagus) and respiratory (trachea) common tube, the pharynx which lies behind the heart. Note that the respiratory tract will form from a ventral bud arising at this level.
  • Oral cavity
  • Pharynx (oesophagus, trachea)
  • Respiratory tract
  • Stomach

Development Overview

Week 5

(Embryo Carnegie stage 13)

Below is an overview of the sections starting at the level of pharynx compressed dorsoventrally, following the GIT through to the rectum. The most obvious feature is that of a continuous tube initially, attached by dorsoventral mesentery.

Stage14-git.jpg
Bifurcation of the pharynx into anterior respiratory and posterior oesophagous. The stomach forming beneath the lung buds and adjacent to the developing liver. Below the stomach the GIT has a large dorsal mesogastrium and finer ventral mesogastrium. Associated with the tract is the large portal blood vessel derived from the vitelline circulation. At the bottom curvature of the embryo the mesentry association with the GIT shows extensive vitelline vessels running out through the umbilicus. The hindgut can then be seen, ending at the common urogenital sinus, the cloaca.

(Embryo Carnegie stage 15)

Stage15 sagittal section upper half 01.jpg

Later week 5 development showing a sagittal section upper half of embryo.

Week 8

(Embryo Carnegie stage 23)

Images showing both the floor and roof of the embryonic oral cavity in week 8.


Glands

The data below comes from a historic study by Johnson (1910)[4]

  1. The oesophagus is at first a simple epithelial tube, the walls of which contain three or four rows of nuclei.
  2. 20 mm - vaduoles form in the epithelium but the lumen remains pervious throughout. These vacuoles disappear by breaking into the lumen. This causes the epithelium to become thinner and the lumen to increase in size. The cause of the formation of vacuoles has not yet been determined.
  3. Longitudinal folds of the mucosa are constant structures in the oesophagus. In the upper third of the oesophagus the folds are irregular and variable. In the middle and lower thirds there are four large primary folds. Of these the dorsal and ventral (left and right respectively in the lower part of the oesophagus) develop first; the left and right (ventral and dorsal below) develop soon afterward. Smaller secondary folds, variable in number, appear later at the bases of the primary folds. In the lower part of the oesophagus both primary and secondary folds are twisted through an arc of about 90 degrees in the direction of the hands of a clock. It is probable that this twisting is due to the early rotation of the stomach.
  4. 55 mm to birth - Areas of ciliated cells are found in the epithelium of the oesophagus. There is both an actual and a relative increase in the amount of surface covered by ciliated cells in embryos up to 187 mm. At birth these areas are relatively smaller. Ciliated cells are absent in the oesophagus of a child of 14 days (seven months premature birth).
  5. 78 mm - Cardiac glands small areas first seen at this length and will later be found in both the upper and lower ends of the oesophagus. Later these areas evaginate, forming small pockets and grooves. Later, a number of tubular glands grow out from these pockets.
  6. 240 mm - Oeophageal glands were first observed. They grow out from the epithelium through the muscularis mucosae and lie in the submucosa. In contradistinction to the cardiac glands, their glandular epithelium does not develop until after the excretory ducts are formed. At birth the end pieces of the glands have begun to branch.

Muscles

The oesophagus muscular wall is unique for the gastrointestinal tract in having both smooth and skeletal muscle layers in the muscularis externa upper portion. There is a craniocaudal development with more skeletal muscle in the muscularis externa upper end, a transitional level, and then no skeletal muscle in the lower part. The majority of studies of oesophagus muscle development have used the rodent (mouse, rat) model.
  • muscularis mucosae layer - smooth muscle
  • muscularis externae layers (longitudinal and circumferential)
    • muscularis externae variably composed of striated and smooth muscle elements


This histology image shows a transverse section of the middle part of oesophagus with both skeletal and smooth muscle layers in the wall.

Oesophagus histology

Adult Human Oesophagus (transverse section). (Stain - Masson's Trichrome)

Smooth Muscle

The smooth muscle in the oesophagus develops from the splanchnic mesoderm, like the rest of the gastrointestinal tract.


Developmental Sequence: epiblast -> mesoderm -> lateral plate mesoderm -> splanchnic mesoderm -> GIT connective tissue and smooth muscle.

Mesoderm-cartoon4.jpg

Cartoon showing the splanchnic mesoderm.

Skeletal Muscle

In animal models (mouse, rat) the oesophagus muscularis externa is initially composed of smooth muscle, and then replaced by skeletal muscle in a craniocaudal progression. This skeletal muscle was historically thought to "transdifferentiate" from smooth muscle.[5] More recent studies suggest a different model with a distinct lineage (skeletal progenitor cell pool) for the skeletal myocytes that form this skeletal muscle.[6][7][8]


Innervation

Neural History

  • 1857 Meissner was the first to describe a nerve plexus in the submucosa of the bowel wall.
  • 1864 Auerbach described the myenteric plexus between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers.
  • 1981 LeDouarin describes neural crest contribution to both plexuses.


Molecular

The endoderm of the developing gastrointestinal tract is a source for patterning signals for both within the tract and also for the surrounding organs and tissues.


  • Sox2 - expressed in the anterior part of the primitive gut[9]
  • Cdx2 - expressed in the posterior part of the primitive gut[9]
  • GDNF - regulate migration of enteric neural crest cells[10]
  • endothelin - regulate migration of enteric neural crest cells[10]


Histology

Early embryo esophagus epithelium is simple columnar while the adult oesophagus epithelium is stratified squamous. This also involves a change of keratin expression from K8 to K14.


Oesophagus Histology: Skeletal and Smooth Muscle | Submucosa Gland | Muscle | Gland-Muscle Animation | Epithelia and Lamina Propria | Labeled Epithelia | Labeled Connective Tissue | Unlabelled | Unlabelled | Oesophagus Development

Abnormalities

The current International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) code XVII Congenital Malformations Q39 Congenital malformations of oesophagus

  • Q39.0 Atresia of oesophagus without fistula Atresia of oesophagus NOS
  • Q39.1 Atresia of oesophagus with tracheo-oesophageal fistula Atresia of oesophagus with broncho-oesophageal fistula
  • Q39.2 Congenital tracheo-oesophageal fistula without atresia Congenital tracheo-oesophageal fistula NOS
  • Q39.3 Congenital stenosis and stricture of oesophagus
  • Q39.4 Oesophageal web
  • Q39.5 Congenital dilatation of oesophagus
  • Q39.6 Diverticulum of oesophagus Oesophageal pouch
  • Q39.8 Other congenital malformations of oesophagus Absent Congenital displacement Duplication (of) oesophagus
  • Q39.9 Congenital malformation of oesophagus, unspecified

Note ICD-10 is currently being updated to ICD-11 and will have new replacement coding.

Oesophageal Atresia with Tracheo-Oesophageal Fistula

(Q39.1 Atresia of oesophagus with tracheo-oesophageal fistula Atresia of oesophagus with broncho-oesophageal fistula, OA/TOF)

ICD-11 (beta) LB12.2 Atresia of oesophagus "Oesophageal atresia encompasses a group of congenital anomalies with an interruption in the continuity of the oesophagus, with or without persistent communication with the trachea. In 86% of cases there is a distal tracheooesophageal fistula, in 7% of cases there is no fistulous connection, while in 4% of cases there is a tracheooesophageal fistula without atresia. The remaining cases are made up of patients with OA with proximal, or both proximal and distal, tracheooesophageal fistula."


This abnormality has been shown to be associated with Tbx1 mutations that also include DiGeorge syndrome.[11]


Links: TBX | Student Project - Di George syndrome | OMIM - TBX1 | OMIM - DiGeorge

References

  1. Chandrashekar J, Hoon MA, Ryba NJ & Zuker CS. (2006). The receptors and cells for mammalian taste. Nature , 444, 288-94. PMID: 17108952 DOI.
  2. Perin S, McCann CJ, Borrelli O, De Coppi P & Thapar N. (2017). Update on Foregut Molecular Embryology and Role of Regenerative Medicine Therapies. Front Pediatr , 5, 91. PMID: 28503544 DOI.
  3. Ueno S, Yamada S, Uwabe C, Männer J, Shiraki N & Takakuwa T. (2016). The Digestive Tract and Derived Primordia Differentiate by Following a Precise Timeline in Human Embryos Between Carnegie Stages 11 and 13. Anat Rec (Hoboken) , 299, 439-49. PMID: 26995337 DOI.
  4. Johnson FP. The development of the mucous membrane of the oesophagus, stomach and small intestine in the human embryo. (1910) Amer. J Anat., 10: 521-559.
  5. Patapoutian A, Wold BJ & Wagner RA. (1995). Evidence for developmentally programmed transdifferentiation in mouse esophageal muscle. Science , 270, 1818-21. PMID: 8525375
  6. Zhao W & Dhoot GK. (2000). Skeletal muscle precursors in mouse esophagus are determined during early fetal development. Dev. Dyn. , 219, 10-20. PMID: 10974667 <::AID-DVDY1029>3.0.CO;2-2 DOI.
  7. Rishniw M, Xin HB, Deng KY & Kotlikoff MI. (2003). Skeletal myogenesis in the mouse esophagus does not occur through transdifferentiation. Genesis , 36, 81-2. PMID: 12820168 DOI.
  8. Su PH, Wang TC, Wong ZR, Huang BM & Yang HY. (2011). The expression of nestin delineates skeletal muscle differentiation in the developing rat esophagus. J. Anat. , 218, 311-23. PMID: 21323914 DOI.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Raghoebir L, Bakker ER, Mills JC, Swagemakers S, Kempen MB, Munck AB, Driegen S, Meijer D, Grosveld F, Tibboel D, Smits R & Rottier RJ. (2012). SOX2 redirects the developmental fate of the intestinal epithelium toward a premature gastric phenotype. J Mol Cell Biol , 4, 377-85. PMID: 22679103 DOI.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Goto A, Sumiyama K, Kamioka Y, Nakasyo E, Ito K, Iwasaki M, Enomoto H & Matsuda M. (2013). GDNF and endothelin 3 regulate migration of enteric neural crest-derived cells via protein kinase A and Rac1. J. Neurosci. , 33, 4901-12. PMID: 23486961 DOI.
  11. Mc Laughlin D, Murphy P & Puri P. (2014). Altered Tbx1 gene expression is associated with abnormal oesophageal development in the adriamycin mouse model of oesophageal atresia/tracheo-oesophageal fistula. Pediatr. Surg. Int. , 30, 143-9. PMID: 24356861 DOI.

Online Textbooks

Historic Textbooks

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Reviews

Silvia Perin, Conor J McCann, Osvaldo Borrelli, Paolo De Coppi, Nikhil Thapar Update on Foregut Molecular Embryology and Role of Regenerative Medicine Therapies. Front Pediatr: 2017, 5;91 PubMed 28503544

Kornilia Nikaki, Joanne Li Shen Ooi, Daniel Sifrim Chicago Classification of Esophageal Motility Disorders: Applications and Limits in Adults and Pediatric Patients with Esophageal Symptoms. Curr Gastroenterol Rep: 2016, 18(11);59 PubMed 27738966


Articles

Mark Rishniw, Pavel Rodriguez, Jianwen Que, Zoe D Burke, David Tosh, Hao Chen, Xiaoxin Chen Molecular aspects of esophageal development. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.: 2011, 1232;309-15 PubMed 21950820

X-M Cao, Y-P Yang, H-R Li, H-L Cui, J Ya Morphology of the developing muscularis externa in the mouse esophagus. Dis. Esophagus: 2012, 25(1);10-6 PubMed 21595780

Peng-Han Su, Tung-Cheng Wang, Zong-Ruei Wong, Bu-Miin Huang, Hsi-Yuan Yang The expression of nestin delineates skeletal muscle differentiation in the developing rat esophagus. J. Anat.: 2011, 218(3);311-23 PubMed 21323914

J J Rumessen, A de Kerchove d'Exaerde, S Mignon, F Bernex, J P Timmermans, S N Schiffmann, J J Panthier, J M Vanderwinden Interstitial cells of Cajal in the striated musculature of the mouse esophagus. Cell Tissue Res.: 2001, 306(1);1-14 PubMed 11683170

W Zhao, G K Dhoot Both smooth and skeletal muscle precursors are present in foetal mouse oesophagus and they follow different differentiation pathways. Dev. Dyn.: 2000, 218(4);587-602 PubMed 10906778


Search PubMed

Search Pubmed: Oesophagus Development | Oesophagus Development

Additional Images

Terms

Gastrointestinal Tract Terms  
  • allantois - An extraembryonic membrane, endoderm in origin extension from the early hindgut, then cloaca into the connecting stalk of placental animals, connected to the superior end of developing bladder. In reptiles and birds, acts as a reservoir for wastes and mediates gas exchange. In mammals is associated/incorporated with connecting stalk/placental cord fetal-maternal interface.
  • amnion - An extra-embryonic membrane, ectoderm and extraembryonic mesoderm in origin, also forms the innermost fetal membrane, that produces amniotic fluid. This fluid-filled sac initially lies above the trilaminar embryonic disc and with embryoic disc folding this sac is drawn ventrally to enclose (cover) the entire embryo, then fetus. The presence of this membane led to the description of reptiles, bird, and mammals as amniotes.
  • amniotic fluid - The fluid that fills amniotic cavity totally encloses and cushions the embryo. Amniotic fluid enters both the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract following rupture of the buccopharyngeal membrane. The late fetus swallows amniotic fluid.
  • buccal - (Latin, bucca = cheek) A term used to relate to the mouth (oral cavity).
  • bile salts - Liver synthesized compounds derived from cholesterol that function postnatally in the small intestine to solubilize and absorb lipids, vitamins, and proteins. These compounds act as water-soluble amphipathic detergents. liver
  • buccopharyngeal membrane - (oral membrane) (Latin, bucca = cheek) A membrane which forms the external upper membrane limit (cranial end) of the early gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This membrane develops during gastrulation by ectoderm and endoderm without a middle (intervening) layer of mesoderm. The membrane lies at the floor of the ventral depression (stomodeum) where the oral cavity will open and will breakdown to form the initial "oral opening" of the gastrointestinal tract. The equivilent membrane at the lower end of the gastrointestinal tract is the cloacal membrane.
  • cloacal membrane - Forms the external lower membrane limit (caudal end) of the early gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This membrane is formed during gastrulation by ectoderm and endoderm without a middle (intervening) layer of mesoderm. The membrane breaks down to form the initial "anal opening" of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • cholangiocytes - epithelial cells that line the intra- and extrahepatic ducts of the biliary tree. These cells modify the hepatocyte-derived bile, and are regulated by hormones, peptides, nucleotides, neurotransmitters, and other molecules. liver
  • coelom - Term used to describe a space. There are extraembryonic and intraembryonic coeloms that form during vertebrate development. The single intraembryonic coelom will form the 3 major body cavities: pleural, pericardial and peritoneal.
  • crypt of Lieberkühn - (intestinal gland, intestinal crypt) intestinal villi epithelia extend down into the lamina propria where they form crypts that are the source of epithelial stem cells and immune function.
  • foregut - The first of the three part/division (foregut - midgut - hindgut) of the early forming gastrointestinal tract. The foregut runs from the buccopharyngeal membrane to the midgut and forms all the tract (esophagus and stomach) from the oral cavity to beneath the stomach. In addition, a ventral bifurcation of the foregut will also form the respiratory tract epithelium.
  • galactosemia - Metabolic abnormality where the simple sugar galactose (half of lactose, the sugar in milk) cannot be metabolised. People with galactosemia cannot tolerate any form of milk (human or animal). Detected by the Guthrie test.
  • gastrula - (Greek, gastrula = little stomach) A stage of an animal embryo in which the three germ layers (Endoderm/ Mesoderm/Ectoderm) have just formed.
  • gastrulation - The process of differentiation forming a gastrula. Term means literally means "to form a gut" but is more in development, as this process converts the bilaminar embryo (epiblast/hypoblast) into the trilaminar embryo (Endoderm/ Mesoderm/Ectoderm) establishing the 3 germ layers that will form all the future tissues of the entire embryo. This process also establishes the the initial body axes. (More? Gastrulation)
  • Guthrie test - (heel prick) A neonatal blood screening test developed by Dr Robert Guthrie (1916-95) for determining a range of metabolic disorders and infections in the neonate. (More? Guthrie test)
  • hindgut - The last of the three part/division foregut - midgut - hindgut) of the early forming gastrointestinal tract. The hindgut forms all the tract from the distral transverse colon to the cloacal membrane and extends into the connecting stalk (placental cord) as the allantois. In addition, a ventral of the hindgut will also form the urinary tract (bladder, urethra) epithelium.
  • intraembryonic coelom - The "horseshoe-shaped" space (cavity) that forms initially in the third week of development in the lateral plate mesoderm that will eventually form the 3 main body cavities: pericardial, pleural, peritoneal. The intraembryonic coelom communicates transiently with the extraembryonic coelom.
  • mesothelium - The mesoderm derived epithelial covering of coelomic organs and also line their cavities.
  • neuralation - The general term used to describe the early formation of the nervous system. It is often used to describe the early events of differentiation of the central ectoderm region to form the neural plate, then neural groove, then neural tube. The nervous system includes the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) from the neural tube and the peripheral nervous system (peripheral sensory and sympathetic ganglia) from neural crest. In humans, early neuralation begins in week 3 and continues through week 4.
  • neural crest - region of cells at the edge of the neural plate that migrates throughout the embryo and contributes to many different tissues. In the gastrointestinal tract it contributes mainly the enteric nervous system within the wall of the gut responsible for peristalsis and secretion.
  • peritoneal stomata - the main openings forming the pathways for drainage of intra-peritoneal fluid from the peritoneal cavity into the lymphatic system.
  • pharynx - uppermost end of gastrointestinal and respiratory tract, in the embryo beginning at the buccopharyngeal membrane and forms a major arched cavity within the phrayngeal arches.
  • recanalization - describes the process of a hollow structure becoming solid, then becoming hollow again. For example, this process occurs during GIT, auditory and renal system development.
  • somitogenesis The process of segmentation of the paraxial mesoderm within the trilaminar embryo body to form pairs of somites, or balls of mesoderm. A somite is added either side of the notochord (axial mesoderm) to form a somite pair. The segmentation does not occur in the head region, and begins cranially (head end) and extends caudally (tailward) adding a somite pair at regular time intervals. The process is sequential and therefore used to stage the age of many different species embryos based upon the number visible somite pairs. In humans, the first somite pair appears at day 20 and adds caudally at 1 somite pair/4 hours (mouse 1 pair/90 min) until on average 44 pairs eventually form.
  • splanchnic mesoderm - Gastrointestinal tract (endoderm) associated mesoderm formed by the separation of the lateral plate mesoderm into two separate components by a cavity, the intraembryonic coelom. Splanchnic mesoderm is the embryonic origin of the gastrointestinal tract connective tissue, smooth muscle, blood vessels and contribute to organ development (pancreas, spleen, liver). The intraembryonic coelom will form the three major body cavities including the space surrounding the gut, the peritoneal cavity. The other half of the lateral plate mesoderm (somatic mesoderm) is associated with the ectoderm of the body wall.
  • stomodeum - (stomadeum, stomatodeum) A ventral surface depression on the early embryo head surrounding the buccopharyngeal membrane, which lies at the floor of this depression. This surface depression lies between the maxillary and mandibular components of the first pharyngeal arch.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, December 10) Embryology Gastrointestinal Tract - Oesophagus Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Gastrointestinal_Tract_-_Oesophagus_Development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G