Gastrointestinal Tract - Mouth Development

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Introduction

Human head (Week 4, Stage 11) showing buccopharyngeal membrane breakdown.
Fetal mouth (week 12)
Early fetal mouth (week 12)

The oral cavity (mouth) is formed following breakdown of the buccopharyngeal membrane (oropharyngeal or oral membrane) and contributed to mainly by the pharynx lying within the pharyngeal arches and has contributions from neural crest. The mouth is also separated from the nasal cavity by the palate, that has both embryonic and fetal development components. This is also the source of the main developmental abnormalities of cleft lip and palate and cleft palate.

The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) arises initially during the process of gastrulation from the endoderm of the trilaminar embryo (week 3) and extends from the buccopharyngeal membrane to the cloacal membrane. The tract and associated organs later have contributions from all the germ cell layers. This current page provides an introductory overview, use the links below for descriptions of specific components and regions as well as developmental abnormalities. More detailed topic information can be found on the linked pages.



Components found within the oral cavity such as tooth, tongue and taste also have their own specific pages.


Loss of buccopharyngeal membrane opens the tract to amniotic fluid through the remainder of development, and during the fetal period is actively swallowed.


GIT Links: Introduction | Medicine Lecture | Science Lecture | endoderm | mouth | oesophagus | stomach | liver | gall bladder | Pancreas | intestine | mesentery | tongue | taste | enteric nervous system | Stage 13 | Stage 22 | gastrointestinal abnormalities | Movies | Postnatal | milk | tooth | salivary gland | BGD Lecture | BGD Practical | GIT Terms | Category:Gastrointestinal Tract
GIT Histology Links: Upper GIT | Salivary Gland | Smooth Muscle Histology | Liver | Gall Bladder | Pancreas | Colon | Histology Stains | Histology | GIT Development
Historic Embryology - Gastrointestinal Tract  
1878 Alimentary Canal | 1882 The Organs of the Inner Germ-Layer The Alimentary Tube with its Appended Organs | 1902 The Organs of Digestion | 1903 Submaxillary Gland | 1906 Liver | 1907 Development of the Digestive System | 1907 Atlas | 1907 23 Somite Embryo | 1908 Liver and Vascular | 1910 Mucous membrane Oesophagus to Small Intestine | 1910 Large intestine and Vermiform process | Intestine and Peritoneum - 1911 Part 1 | 1911 Part 2 | 1912 Part 3 | 1913 Part 5 | 1913 Part 6 | 1912 Digestive Tract | 1912 Stomach | 1914 Digestive Tract | 1914 Intestines | 1914 Rectum | 1915 Pharynx | 1915 Intestinal Rotation | 1917 Entodermal Canal | 1918 Anatomy | 1921 Alimentary Tube | 1932 Gall Bladder | 1939 Alimentary Canal Looping | 2008 Liver | 2016 GIT Notes | Historic Disclaimer
Human Embryo: 1908 13-14 Somite Embryo | 1921 Liver Suspensory Ligament | 1926 22 Somite Embryo | 1907 23 Somite Embryo | 1937 25 Somite Embryo | 1914 27 Somite Embryo | 1914 Week 7 Embryo
Animal Development: 1913 Chicken | 1951 Frog

Note that in historic texts the term entoderm is used to describe endoderm and other terminology may also differ from current descriptions.

Some Recent Findings

Tongue taste map[1]
  • The digestive tract in Human Embryos Between Carnegie Stages 11 and 13[2] "The digestive tract was initially formed by a narrowing of the yolk sac, and then several derived primordia such as the pharynx, lung, stomach, liver, and dorsal pancreas primordia differentiated during CS12 (21-29 somites) and CS13 (≥ 30 somites). The differentiation of four pairs of pharyngeal pouches was complete in all CS13 embryos. The respiratory primordium was recognized in ≥ 26-somite embryos and it flattened and then branched at CS13. The trachea formed and then elongated in ≥ 35-somite embryos. The stomach adopted a spindle shape in all ≥ 34-somite embryos, and the liver bud was recognized in ≥ 27-somite embryos. The dorsal pancreas appeared as definitive buddings in all but three CS13 embryos, and around these buddings, the small intestine bent in ≥ 33-somite embryos. In ≥ 35-somite embryos, the small intestine rotated around the cranial-caudal axis and had begun to form a primitive intestinal loop, which led to umbilical herniation."
More recent papers  
Mark Hill.jpg
PubMed logo.gif

This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches


Search term: Mouth Embryology


Erdal Bozkaya, Nehir Canigur Bavbek, Begum Ulasan New perspective for evaluation of tooth widths in patients with missing or peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors: Quadrant analysis. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop: 2018, 154(6);820-828 PubMed 30477780

Reza Moonesi Rad, Engin Pazarçeviren, Elif Ece Akgün, Zafer Evis, Dilek Keskin, Sıla Şahin, Ayşen Tezcaner In vitro performance of a nanobiocomposite scaffold containing boron-modified bioactive glass nanoparticles for dentin regeneration. J Biomater Appl: 2018;885328218812487 PubMed 30458663

Daniella Cristina Borges, Paulo Rogério de Faria, Helvécio Marangon Júnior, Leonardo Bíscaro Pereira Conservative Treatment of a Periapical Cementoblastoma: A Case Report. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.: 2018; PubMed 30414393

Kinga Skieresz-Szewczyk, Hanna Jackowiak, Marlena Ratajczak Embryonic development of parakeratinized epithelium of the tongue in the domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica): LM, SEM, and TEM observations. Protoplasma: 2018; PubMed 30382421

Nicolas Arboleda-Ariza, Juan Schilling, Luis Ernesto Arriola-Guillén, Gustavo Armando Ruíz-Mora, Yalil Augusto Rodríguez-Cárdenas, Aron Aliaga-Del Castillo Maxillary transverse dimensions in subjects with and without impacted canines: A comparative cone-beam computed tomography study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop: 2018, 154(4);495-503 PubMed 30268260

Textbooks

  • Human Embryology Larson Chapter 9 p229-260
  • The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (6th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter 12 p271-302
  • Before We Are Born (5th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter 13 p255-287
  • Essentials of Human Embryology Larson Chapter 9 p123-146
  • Human Embryology Fitzgerald and Fitzgerald Chapter 19,20 p119-123

More? References | Online Textbooks | Historic Textbooks

UNSW Students  
Mark Hill.jpg You have access the following online Embryology resources and textbooks through the UNSW Library.
Logo.png Hill, M.A. (2018). UNSW Embryology (18th ed.) Retrieved December 15, 2018, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au
GIT Links: Introduction | Medicine Lecture | Science Lecture | endoderm | mouth | oesophagus | stomach | liver | gall bladder | Pancreas | intestine | mesentery | tongue | taste | enteric nervous system | Stage 13 | Stage 22 | gastrointestinal abnormalities | Movies | Postnatal | milk | tooth | salivary gland | BGD Lecture | BGD Practical | GIT Terms | Category:Gastrointestinal Tract
GIT Histology Links: Upper GIT | Salivary Gland | Smooth Muscle Histology | Liver | Gall Bladder | Pancreas | Colon | Histology Stains | Histology | GIT Development
Historic Embryology - Gastrointestinal Tract  
1878 Alimentary Canal | 1882 The Organs of the Inner Germ-Layer The Alimentary Tube with its Appended Organs | 1902 The Organs of Digestion | 1903 Submaxillary Gland | 1906 Liver | 1907 Development of the Digestive System | 1907 Atlas | 1907 23 Somite Embryo | 1908 Liver and Vascular | 1910 Mucous membrane Oesophagus to Small Intestine | 1910 Large intestine and Vermiform process | Intestine and Peritoneum - 1911 Part 1 | 1911 Part 2 | 1912 Part 3 | 1913 Part 5 | 1913 Part 6 | 1912 Digestive Tract | 1912 Stomach | 1914 Digestive Tract | 1914 Intestines | 1914 Rectum | 1915 Pharynx | 1915 Intestinal Rotation | 1917 Entodermal Canal | 1918 Anatomy | 1921 Alimentary Tube | 1932 Gall Bladder | 1939 Alimentary Canal Looping | 2008 Liver | 2016 GIT Notes | Historic Disclaimer
Human Embryo: 1908 13-14 Somite Embryo | 1921 Liver Suspensory Ligament | 1926 22 Somite Embryo | 1907 23 Somite Embryo | 1937 25 Somite Embryo | 1914 27 Somite Embryo | 1914 Week 7 Embryo
Animal Development: 1913 Chicken | 1951 Frog
The Developing Human, 10th edn.jpg Moore, K.L., Persaud, T.V.N. & Torchia, M.G. (2015). The developing human: clinically oriented embryology (10th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders. (links only function with UNSW connection)

Chapter 11 Alimentary System

Larsen's human embryology 5th ed.jpg Schoenwolf, G.C., Bleyl, S.B., Brauer, P.R., Francis-West, P.H. & Philippa H. (2015). Larsen's human embryology (5th ed.). New York; Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.(links only function with UNSW connection)

Chapter 14 Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Objectives

  • Understanding of germ layer contributions to the early gastrointestinal tract (GIT)
  • Understanding of the folding of the GIT
  • Understanding of three main GIT embryonic divisions
  • Understanding of associated organ development (liver, pancreas, spleen)
  • Brief understanding of mechanical changes (rotations) during GIT development
  • Brief understanding of gastrointestinal abnormalities

Germ Layer Contributions

  • Endoderm - epithelium and associated glands
  • Mesoderm (splanchnic) - mesentry, connective tissues, smooth muscle, blood vessels
  • Ectoderm (neural crest) - enteric nervous system (neural tube) - extrinsic innervation

Both endoderm and mesoderm will contribute to associated organs.

Gastrointestinal Tract Movies

Gastrointestinal Tract Movies  
Mesoderm 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Week 3 Mesoderm
Page | Play
Week3 folding icon.jpg
 ‎‎Week 3
Page | Play
Amnion 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Amniotic Cavity
Page | Play
Endoderm 002 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Endoderm
Page | Play
Stomach rotation 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Stomach Rotation
Page | Play
Gastrointestinal tract growth 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Tract Growth
Page | Play
Greater omentum 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Greater Omentum
Page | Play
Lesser sac 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Lesser sac
Page | Play
Urogenital septum 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Urogenital Septum
Page | Play
Stage13-GIT-icon.jpg
 ‎‎GIT Stage 13
Page | Play
Stage22-GIT-icon.jpg
 ‎‎GIT Stage 22
Page | Play
Stage23 MRI S04 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Sagittal GIT
Page | Play
ChickenGITmotility-icon.jpg
 ‎‎GIT Motility
Page | Play
Gastroschisis 01.jpg
 ‎‎Gastroschisis
Page | Play
Omphalocele 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Omphalocele
Page | Play
Stage 13 (week 5) Stage 22 (week 8) Stage 23 (week 8) GIT Abnormalities Ultrasound

Foregut

Stage 11 foregut
From the oral cavity the next portion of the foregut is initially a single gastrointestinal (oesophagus) and respiratory (trachea) common tube, the pharynx which lies behind the heart. Note that the respiratory tract will form from a ventral bud arising at this level.
  • Oral cavity
  • Pharynx (esophagus, trachea)
  • Respiratory tract
  • Stomach

Development Overview

Week 5

(Embryo Carnegie stage 13)

Below is an overview of the sections starting at the level of pharynx compressed dorsoventrally, following the GIT through to the rectum. The most obvious feature is that of a continuous tube initially, attached by dorsoventral mesentery.

Stage14-git.jpg
Bifurcation of the pharynx into anterior respiratory and posterior oesophagous. The stomach forming beneath the lung buds and adjacent to the developing liver. Below the stomach the GIT has a large dorsal mesogastrium and finer ventral mesogastrium. Associated with the tract is the large portal blood vessel derived from the vitelline circulation. At the bottom curvature of the embryo the mesentry association with the GIT shows extensive vitelline vessels running out through the umbilicus. The hindgut can then be seen, ending at the common urogenital sinus, the cloaca.

(Embryo Carnegie stage 15)

Stage15 sagittal section upper half 01.jpg

Later week 5 development showing a sagittal section upper half of embryo.

Week 8

(Embryo Carnegie stage Template:23)

Images showing both the floor and roof of the embryonic oral cavity in week 8.


Salivary Glands

Parotid Gland

Embryo CRL 10 mm - 18mm - initial parotid gland bud appears and is divided into a body and a duct.

A study of human embryos and foetuses between CRL 19 mm to 67 mm. [3] Identified the parotid gland primordia located most lateral and cranial point of the sulcus buccalis and its duct orifice formation dependent upon the developmental processes of the fetal skeleton.


Submandibular Gland

(submaxillary gland) Embryo CRL 10 mm - 16mm - initial epithelial bud appears.

Innervation

Neural History

  • 1857 Meissner was the first to describe a nerve plexus in the submucosa of the bowel wall.
  • 1864 Auerbach described the myenteric plexus between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers.
  • 1981 LeDouarin describes neural crest contribution to both plexuses.


Molecular

The endoderm of the developing gastrointestinal tract is a source for patterning signals for both within the tract and also for the surrounding organs and tissues.


  • Sox2 - expressed in the anterior part of the primitive gut[4]
  • Cdx2 - expressed in the posterior part of the primitive gut[4]
  • GDNF - regulate migration of enteric neural crest cells[5]
  • endothelin - regulate migration of enteric neural crest cells[5]

References

  1. Chandrashekar J, Hoon MA, Ryba NJ & Zuker CS. (2006). The receptors and cells for mammalian taste. Nature , 444, 288-94. PMID: 17108952 DOI.
  2. Ueno S, Yamada S, Uwabe C, Männer J, Shiraki N & Takakuwa T. (2016). The Digestive Tract and Derived Primordia Differentiate by Following a Precise Timeline in Human Embryos Between Carnegie Stages 11 and 13. Anat Rec (Hoboken) , 299, 439-49. PMID: 26995337 DOI.
  3. B Guizetti, R J Radlanski Development of the parotid gland and its closer neighboring structures in human embryos and fetuses of 19-67 mm CRL. Ann. Anat.: 1996, 178(6);503-8 PubMed 9010565
  4. 4.0 4.1 Raghoebir L, Bakker ER, Mills JC, Swagemakers S, Kempen MB, Munck AB, Driegen S, Meijer D, Grosveld F, Tibboel D, Smits R & Rottier RJ. (2012). SOX2 redirects the developmental fate of the intestinal epithelium toward a premature gastric phenotype. J Mol Cell Biol , 4, 377-85. PMID: 22679103 DOI.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Goto A, Sumiyama K, Kamioka Y, Nakasyo E, Ito K, Iwasaki M, Enomoto H & Matsuda M. (2013). GDNF and endothelin 3 regulate migration of enteric neural crest-derived cells via protein kinase A and Rac1. J. Neurosci. , 33, 4901-12. PMID: 23486961 DOI.

Reviews

Articles

Guizetti B & Radlanski RJ. (1996). Development of the submandibular gland and its closer neighboring structures in human embryos and fetuses of 19-67 mm CRL. Ann. Anat. , 178, 509-14. PMID: 9010566 DOI.

Guizetti B & Radlanski RJ. (1996). Development of the parotid gland and its closer neighboring structures in human embryos and fetuses of 19-67 mm CRL. Ann. Anat. , 178, 503-8. PMID: 9010565 DOI.

Online Textbooks


Historic Textbooks

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Search PubMed

Search Pubmed: Mouth Development | Oral Cavity Development

Additional Images

Terms

Gastrointestinal Tract Terms  
  • allantois - An extraembryonic membrane, endoderm in origin extension from the early hindgut, then cloaca into the connecting stalk of placental animals, connected to the superior end of developing bladder. In reptiles and birds, acts as a reservoir for wastes and mediates gas exchange. In mammals is associated/incorporated with connecting stalk/placental cord fetal-maternal interface.
  • amnion - An extra-embryonic membrane, ectoderm and extraembryonic mesoderm in origin, also forms the innermost fetal membrane, that produces amniotic fluid. This fluid-filled sac initially lies above the trilaminar embryonic disc and with embryoic disc folding this sac is drawn ventrally to enclose (cover) the entire embryo, then fetus. The presence of this membane led to the description of reptiles, bird, and mammals as amniotes.
  • amniotic fluid - The fluid that fills amniotic cavity totally encloses and cushions the embryo. Amniotic fluid enters both the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract following rupture of the buccopharyngeal membrane. The late fetus swallows amniotic fluid.
  • buccal - (Latin, bucca = cheek) A term used to relate to the mouth (oral cavity).
  • bile salts - Liver synthesized compounds derived from cholesterol that function postnatally in the small intestine to solubilize and absorb lipids, vitamins, and proteins. These compounds act as water-soluble amphipathic detergents. liver
  • buccopharyngeal membrane - (oral membrane) (Latin, bucca = cheek) A membrane which forms the external upper membrane limit (cranial end) of the early gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This membrane develops during gastrulation by ectoderm and endoderm without a middle (intervening) layer of mesoderm. The membrane lies at the floor of the ventral depression (stomodeum) where the oral cavity will open and will breakdown to form the initial "oral opening" of the gastrointestinal tract. The equivilent membrane at the lower end of the gastrointestinal tract is the cloacal membrane.
  • cloacal membrane - Forms the external lower membrane limit (caudal end) of the early gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This membrane is formed during gastrulation by ectoderm and endoderm without a middle (intervening) layer of mesoderm. The membrane breaks down to form the initial "anal opening" of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • cholangiocytes - epithelial cells that line the intra- and extrahepatic ducts of the biliary tree. These cells modify the hepatocyte-derived bile, and are regulated by hormones, peptides, nucleotides, neurotransmitters, and other molecules. liver
  • coelom - Term used to describe a space. There are extraembryonic and intraembryonic coeloms that form during vertebrate development. The single intraembryonic coelom will form the 3 major body cavities: pleural, pericardial and peritoneal.
  • crypt of Lieberkühn - (intestinal gland, intestinal crypt) intestinal villi epithelia extend down into the lamina propria where they form crypts that are the source of epithelial stem cells and immune function.
  • foregut - The first of the three part/division (foregut - midgut - hindgut) of the early forming gastrointestinal tract. The foregut runs from the buccopharyngeal membrane to the midgut and forms all the tract (esophagus and stomach) from the oral cavity to beneath the stomach. In addition, a ventral bifurcation of the foregut will also form the respiratory tract epithelium.
  • galactosemia - Metabolic abnormality where the simple sugar galactose (half of lactose, the sugar in milk) cannot be metabolised. People with galactosemia cannot tolerate any form of milk (human or animal). Detected by the Guthrie test.
  • gastrula - (Greek, gastrula = little stomach) A stage of an animal embryo in which the three germ layers (Endoderm/ Mesoderm/Ectoderm) have just formed.
  • gastrulation - The process of differentiation forming a gastrula. Term means literally means "to form a gut" but is more in development, as this process converts the bilaminar embryo (epiblast/hypoblast) into the trilaminar embryo (Endoderm/ Mesoderm/Ectoderm) establishing the 3 germ layers that will form all the future tissues of the entire embryo. This process also establishes the the initial body axes. (More? Gastrulation)
  • Guthrie test - (heel prick) A neonatal blood screening test developed by Dr Robert Guthrie (1916-95) for determining a range of metabolic disorders and infections in the neonate. (More? Guthrie test)
  • hindgut - The last of the three part/division foregut - midgut - hindgut) of the early forming gastrointestinal tract. The hindgut forms all the tract from the distral transverse colon to the cloacal membrane and extends into the connecting stalk (placental cord) as the allantois. In addition, a ventral of the hindgut will also form the urinary tract (bladder, urethra) epithelium.
  • intraembryonic coelom - The "horseshoe-shaped" space (cavity) that forms initially in the third week of development in the lateral plate mesoderm that will eventually form the 3 main body cavities: pericardial, pleural, peritoneal. The intraembryonic coelom communicates transiently with the extraembryonic coelom.
  • mesothelium - The mesoderm derived epithelial covering of coelomic organs and also line their cavities.
  • neuralation - The general term used to describe the early formation of the nervous system. It is often used to describe the early events of differentiation of the central ectoderm region to form the neural plate, then neural groove, then neural tube. The nervous system includes the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) from the neural tube and the peripheral nervous system (peripheral sensory and sympathetic ganglia) from neural crest. In humans, early neuralation begins in week 3 and continues through week 4.
  • neural crest - region of cells at the edge of the neural plate that migrates throughout the embryo and contributes to many different tissues. In the gastrointestinal tract it contributes mainly the enteric nervous system within the wall of the gut responsible for peristalsis and secretion.
  • peritoneal stomata - the main openings forming the pathways for drainage of intra-peritoneal fluid from the peritoneal cavity into the lymphatic system.
  • pharynx - uppermost end of gastrointestinal and respiratory tract, in the embryo beginning at the buccopharyngeal membrane and forms a major arched cavity within the phrayngeal arches.
  • recanalization - describes the process of a hollow structure becoming solid, then becoming hollow again. For example, this process occurs during GIT, auditory and renal system development.
  • somitogenesis The process of segmentation of the paraxial mesoderm within the trilaminar embryo body to form pairs of somites, or balls of mesoderm. A somite is added either side of the notochord (axial mesoderm) to form a somite pair. The segmentation does not occur in the head region, and begins cranially (head end) and extends caudally (tailward) adding a somite pair at regular time intervals. The process is sequential and therefore used to stage the age of many different species embryos based upon the number visible somite pairs. In humans, the first somite pair appears at day 20 and adds caudally at 1 somite pair/4 hours (mouse 1 pair/90 min) until on average 44 pairs eventually form.
  • splanchnic mesoderm - Gastrointestinal tract (endoderm) associated mesoderm formed by the separation of the lateral plate mesoderm into two separate components by a cavity, the intraembryonic coelom. Splanchnic mesoderm is the embryonic origin of the gastrointestinal tract connective tissue, smooth muscle, blood vessels and contribute to organ development (pancreas, spleen, liver). The intraembryonic coelom will form the three major body cavities including the space surrounding the gut, the peritoneal cavity. The other half of the lateral plate mesoderm (somatic mesoderm) is associated with the ectoderm of the body wall.
  • stomodeum - (stomadeum, stomatodeum) A ventral surface depression on the early embryo head surrounding the buccopharyngeal membrane, which lies at the floor of this depression. This surface depression lies between the maxillary and mandibular components of the first pharyngeal arch.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, December 15) Embryology Gastrointestinal Tract - Mouth Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Gastrointestinal_Tract_-_Mouth_Development

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