Endocrine System - Abnormalities

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Introduction

Human adrenal gland (Week 10)

The endocrine system has an ongoing important role in embryonic, fetal and postnatal development as well as maintainance of homeostasis and reproductive function. There exists a complex interaction between the maternal and fetal endocrine system during development and failure for fetal endocrine development has a cascading effect on many other developing systems. There are additional pages covering abnormalities of specific endocrine organs.

The endocrine system resides within specific endocrine organs and both organs and tissues with other specific functions. Epithelia (ectoderm and endoderm) form the majority of the “ductless” endocrine glands like gastrointestinal and skin associated “ducted” glands. Differentiation of several also organs involves a epithelial/mesenchye interaction, seen in repeated in many differentiation of many different tissues. The endocrine glands produce hormones, which are distributed by the vascular system to the many body tissues, subsequently these organs are richly vascularized.

Hormones are recognised by either cell surface receptors (modified amino acids, peptides, proteins) or cytoplasmic/nuclear receptors (steroids). Hormones “orchestrate” responses in other tissues, including other endocrine organs, and these overall effects can be similar or different in different tissues. In addition, these hormone effects (like music) can be rapid, slow, brief, diurnal, or long-term. Hormone effects can be mimicked, stimulated, and blocked by therapeutic drugs, nutritional and environmental chemicals.

The human fetus is dependent upon endocrine development for hormones, which support normal development. Peripheral endocrine glands (thyroid, pancreas, adrenals, gonads) form early in the second month from epithelial/mesenchye interactions and differentiate into the third month. The fetus also has a unique hormonal system that combines not only its own developing endocrine system, but also that of the placenta and maternal hormones.

Abnormal endocrine development/function can impact on many different systems. For example, insufficient maternal dietary iodine impacts on fetal thyroid gland thyroid hormone production, which in turn can lead to abnormal neural development. Alternatively, we now know many environmental and therapeutic chemicals have a wide range of effects on the endocrine system.

Sex hormones from the gonads also have significant effects prenatally and postnatally, specifically at puberty with a role to play in male/female biological maturity and have wide actions throughout the body. Finally, each endocrine organ page listed below has additional abnormalities information specific to that organ.


Endocrine Links: Introduction | BGD Lecture | Science Lecture | Lecture Movie | pineal | hypothalamus‎ | pituitary | thyroid | parathyroid | thymus | pancreas | adrenal | endocrine gonad‎ | endocrine placenta | other tissues | Stage 22 | endocrine abnormalities | Hormones | Category:Endocrine
Historic Embryology - Endocrine  
1903 Islets of Langerhans | 1904 interstitial Cells | 1908 Pancreas Different Species | 1908 Pituitary | 1908 Pituitary histology | 1911 Rathke's pouch | 1912 Suprarenal Bodies | 1914 Suprarenal Organs | 1915 Pharynx | 1916 Thyroid | 1918 Rabbit Hypophysis | 1920 Adrenal | 1935 Mammalian Hypophysis | 1926 Human Hypophysis | 1927 Hypophyseal fossa | 1932 Pineal Gland and Cysts | 1935 Hypophysis | 1937 Pineal | 1938 Parathyroid | 1940 Adrenal | 1941 Thyroid | 1950 Thyroid Parathyroid Thymus | 1957 Adrenal

Some Recent Findings

  • Review - Maternal hormonal milieu influence on fetal brain development[1]An adverse maternal hormonal environment during pregnancy can be associated with abnormal brain growth. Subtle changes in fetal brain development have been observed even for maternal hormone levels within the currently accepted physiologic ranges. In this review, we provide an update of the research data on maternal hormonal impact on fetal neurodevelopment, giving particular emphasis to thyroid hormones and glucocorticoids. Thyroid hormones are required for normal brain development. Despite serum TSH appearing to be the most accurate indicator of thyroid function in pregnancy, maternal serum free T4 levels in the first trimester of pregnancy are the major determinant of postnatal psychomotor development. Even a transient period of maternal hypothyroxinemia at the beginning of neurogenesis can confer a higher risk of expressive language and nonverbal cognitive delays in offspring. Nevertheless, most recent clinical guidelines advocate for targeted high-risk case finding during first trimester of pregnancy despite universal thyroid function screening. Corticosteroids are determinant in suppressing cell proliferation and stimulating terminal differentiation, a fundamental switch for the maturation of fetal organs. Not surprisingly, intrauterine exposure to stress or high levels of glucocorticoids, endogenous or synthetic, has a molecular and structural impact on brain development and appears to impair cognition and increase anxiety and reactivity to stress. Limbic regions, such as hippocampus and amygdala, are particularly sensitive. Repeated doses of prenatal corticosteroids seem to have short-term benefits of less respiratory distress and fewer serious health problems in offspring. Nevertheless, neurodevelopmental growth in later childhood and adulthood needs further clarification. Future studies should address the relevance of monitoring the level of thyroid hormones and corticosteroids during pregnancy in the risk stratification for impaired postnatal neurodevelopment." neural
  • Transplacental passage of antimicrobial paraben preservatives[2] "Parabens are widely used preservatives suspected of being endocrine disruptors, with implications for human growth and development. The most common paraben found in consumer products is methylparaben. To date, no study has examined whether these substances cross the human placenta. A total of 100 study subjects (50 mother-child pairs) were enrolled at two medical institutions, serving primarily African-American and Caucasian women, respectively. A maternal blood sample was drawn on admission and a paired cord blood sample was obtained at delivery. Of the 50 mothers, 47 (94%) showed methylparaben in their blood (mean level 20.41 ng/l), and 47 in cords bloods (mean level 36.54 ng/l). There were 45 mother-child pairs where methylparaben was found in both samples. Of these, the fetal level was higher than the maternal level in 23 (51%). For butylparaben, only 4 mothers (8%) showed detectable levels (mean 40.54 ng/l), whereas 8 cord blood samples (16%) were positive (mean 32.5 ng/l). African-American mothers and infants showed higher prevalence of detectable levels (P=0.017). Methylparaben and butylparaben demonstrate transplacental passage. Additional studies are needed to examine potential differences in exposure by geography and demographics, what products are used by pregnant women that contain these preservatives, as well as any potential long-term effects in the growth and development of exposed children."
  • Effect-directed identification of endocrine disruptors in plastic baby teethers[3] "Concerns have been raised regarding the human health effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), many of which are associated with and leaching from plastics. As infants are particularly vulnerable to EDCs, we have investigated whether plastic teethers for babies represent a relevant source of exposure. Applying effect-directed analysis, we use bioassays to screen teethers, toys used to soothe a baby's teething ache, for endocrine activity and chemical analysis to identify the causative compounds. We detected significant endocrine activity in two of 10 plastic teethers. Those samples leached estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activity as detected in the Yeast Estrogen Screen and Yeast Antiandrogen Screen. After sample fractionation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry non-target screening revealed that methyl-, ethyl- and propylparaben were responsible for the observed estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity in one product. The second product is likely to contain at least six different antiandrogenic compounds that remain so far unidentified. This study demonstrates that plastic teethers can be a source of infant exposure to well-established and unknown EDCs. Because of their limited value to the product, but potential toxicity, manufacturers should critically revisit the use of parabens in plastic teethers and further toys. Moreover, plastic teethers might leach EDCs that escape routine analysis and, thus, toxicological evaluation. The resulting uncertainty in product safety poses a problem to consumers, producers and regulators that remain to be resolved."
  • Rare diseases in clinical endocrinology: a taxonomic classification system[4] "Rare endocrine-metabolic diseases (REMD) represent an important area in the field of medicine and pharmacology. The rare diseases of interest to endocrinologists involve all fields of endocrinology, including rare diseases of the pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands, paraganglia, ovary and testis, disorders of bone and mineral metabolism, energy and lipid metabolism, water metabolism, and syndromes with possible involvement of multiple endocrine glands, and neuroendocrine tumors. Taking advantage of the constitution of a study group on REMD within the Italian Society of Endocrinology, consisting of basic and clinical scientists, a document on the taxonomy of REMD has been produced. METHODS AND RESULTS: This document has been designed to include mainly REMD manifesting or persisting into adulthood. The taxonomy of REMD of the adult comprises a total of 166 main disorders, 338 including all variants and subtypes, described into 11 tables. CONCLUSIONS: This report provides a complete taxonomy to classify REMD of the adult. In the future, the creation of registries of rare endocrine diseases to collect data on cohorts of patients and the development of common and standardized diagnostic and therapeutic pathways for each rare endocrine disease is advisable. This will help planning and performing intervention studies in larger groups of patients to prove the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of a specific treatment."
More recent papers  
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches


Search term: Endocrine Developmental Abnormalities

Selmen Wannes, Monique Elmaleh-Bergès, Dominique Simon, Delphine Zénaty, Laetitia Martinerie, Caroline Storey, Georges Gelwane, Anne Paulsen, Emmanuel Ecosse, Nicolas De Roux, Jean Claude Carel, Juliane Léger High prevalence of syndromic disorders in patients with non-isolated central precocious puberty Eur. J. Endocrinol.: 2018; PubMed 30324796

C Peters, A S P van Trotsenburg, N Schoenmakers DIAGNOSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Congenital hypothyroidism: update and perspectives Eur. J. Endocrinol.: 2018; PubMed 30324792

Yanbin Li, Yonghua Zhao, Hongzhang Deng, Aixia Chen, Lihong Chai Endocrine disruption, oxidative stress and lipometabolic disturbance of Bufo gargarizans embryos exposed to hexavalent chromium. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.: 2018, 166;242-250 PubMed 30273847

Natario L Couser, Debra Keelean-Fuller, Marsha L Davenport, Eden Haverfield, Maheer M Masood, Mark Henin, Arthur S Aylsworth Cleft palate and hypopituitarism in a patient with Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair-1. Am. J. Med. Genet. A: 2018; PubMed 30240112

Afroza Akhter, Mostafizur Rahaman, Ryu-To Suzuki, Yuki Murono, Toshinobu Tokumoto Next-generation and further transgenerational effects of bisphenol A on zebrafish reproductive tissues. Heliyon: 2018, 4(9);e00788 PubMed 30225382


Monica Muratori, Christian De Geyter Chromatin condensation, fragmentation of DNA and differences in the epigenetic signature of infertile men. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.: 2018; PubMed 30420311

Heinz-Peter Gelbke, Marcy Banton, Christian Block, Gordon Dawkins, Ralf Eisert, Edgar Leibold, Mark Pemberton, Iris Maria Puijk, Atsunobu Sakoda, Atsushi Yasukawa Risk assessment for migration of styrene oligomers into food from polystyrene food containers. Food Chem. Toxicol.: 2018; PubMed 30419324

Yanelli Rodríguez-Carmona, Alejandra Cantoral, Belem Trejo-Valdivia, Martha M Téllez-Rojo, Katherine Svensson, Karen E Peterson, John D Meeker, Lourdes Schnaas, Maritsa Solano, Deborah J Watkins Phthalate exposure during pregnancy and long-term weight gain in women. Environ. Res.: 2018, 169;26-32 PubMed 30408750

Giacomo Russo, Francesco Barbato, Damiano Gustavo Mita, Lucia Grumetto Simultaneous determination of fifteen multiclass organic pollutants in human saliva and serum by liquid chromatography-tandem ultraviolet/fluorescence detection: a validated method. Biomed. Chromatogr.: 2018;e4427 PubMed 30408212

Michael Zhou, Breanna Ford, Douglas Lee, Gwen Tindula, Karen Huen, Vy Tran, Asa Bradman, Robert Gunier, Brenda Eskenazi, Daniel K Nomura, Nina Holland Metabolomic Markers of Phthalate Exposure in Plasma and Urine of Pregnant Women. Front Public Health: 2018, 6;298 PubMed 30406068

Pineal

  • Hypoplasia - associated with retinal disease.
  • Tumours - in children are associated with abnormal puberty development.


Links: Endocrine - Pineal Development‎ | PubMed - Pineal Hypoplasia

Pituitary

  • craniopharyngeal canal - Rathke's pouch abnormality, from the anterior part of the fossa hypophyseos of the sphenoid bone to the under surface of the skull.
  • pituitary tumours (adenomas) - several abnormalities associated with abnormal levels of the hormonal output of the pituitary.
    • Growth hormone (GH) adenomas - benign pituitary tumors lead to chronic high GH output levels, that may lead to acromegaly.
  • Cushing's disease - caused either by a pituitary adenoma produces excess adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, corticotropin) or due to ectopic tumors secreting ACTH or corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).


Links: pituitary

Thyroid

Thyroid pyramidal lobe
Thyroid uptake scans
  • Pyramidal lobe - from isthmus (50% of people) attached to hyoid bone distal end of thryoglossal duct.
  • Congenital hypothyroidism - approximately 1 in 3000 births, associated with neurological abnormalities.
  • Lingual thyroid gland - failure of thyroid descent.
  • Thyroglossal cyst - persistance of thyroglossal duct. Image - thyroglossal duct
  • Thyroglossal fistula - partial degeneration of the thyroglossal duct.
  • Abnormal development of the thyroid - incomplete or excessive descent.
  • Childhood hypothyroidism delays ossification and bone mineralization.

Iodine Deficiency

  • A teaspoon of iodine, total lifetime requirement, cannot be stored for long periods by our body, tiny amounts are needed regularly
  • Areas of endemic iodine deficiency, where soil and therefore crops and grazing animals do not provide sufficient dietary iodine to the populace
  • food fortification and supplementation - Iodized salt programs and iodized oil supplements are the most common tools in fight against IDD

Thyroid Disruptors

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) - 5, 7

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) - 5, 6, 7, 8

Pesticides - 4, 5, 7

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) - 5, 6; NIS: 3

Bisphenol A (BPA) - 2, 7

Phthalates - 1, 2, 5, 8.

Thyroid signaling - endocrine-disrupting chemicals.jpg

Thyroid Endocrine disrupting chemicals[5]

Links: thyroid

Parathyroid

  • Usually four glands are present (2 on each side), but three to six glands have been found in human.
  • Lower parathyroid glands arise from the third pharyngeal pouch and descend with the thymus. Variable descent can lead to a range of adult locations, from just beneath the mandible to the anterior mediastinum.


Links: parathyroid

Pancreas

  • Type 1 Diabetes - juvenile onset diabetes, more severe form of illness, increases risk of blindness, heart disease, kidney failure, neurological disease, T-lymphocyte-dependent autoimmune disease, infiltration and destruction of the islets of Langerhans, Approx 16 million Americans
  • Type 2 Diabetes - loosely defined as "adult onset" diabetes, becoming more common cases of type 2 diabetes seen in younger people
  • Risk of developing diabetes - environmental factors (food intake and exercise play an important role, either overweight or obese), Inherited factors (genes involved remain poorly defined)
  • Persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy - (PHHI, nesidioblastosis, congenital hyperinsulinism of infancy) a rare condition associated with persistently elevated levels of circulating insulin caused by hypersecretion by pancreatic β-cells and an absence of ketone production.


Links: pancreas | maternal diabetes

Adrenal

  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) - family of inherited disorders of adrenal steroidogenesis enzymes which impairs cortisol production by the adrenal cortex. Androgen excess leads newborn females with external genital ambiguity and postnatal progressive virilization in both sexes.
    • Enzymes most commonly affected: 21-hydroxylase (21-OH), 11beta-hydroxylase, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.
    • Enzymes less commonly affected: 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase and cholesterol desmolase.
  • Pheochromocytomas (PCC) - Catecholamine-producing (neuro)endocrine tumor located in the adrenal medulla. Similar catecholamine-producing tumors outside the adrenal gland are called paragangliomas (PGL).


Links: congenital adrenal hyperplasia | adrenal

Endocrine Disruptors

Exogenous chemicals that interfere with the function of hormones are described as endocrine disruptors. There are 3 main mechanisms: mimic, block or interfere.

Mimic

Replicate the effects of natural hormones by binding receptors.

Diethylstilbestrol
Diethylstilbestrol.jpg (DES or diethylstilbetrol) a drug prescribed to women from 1938-1971 to prevent miscarriage in high-risk pregnancies. Acts as a potent estrogen (mimics natural hormone) and therefore a potential endocrine disruptor.

Female fetus, increased risk abnormal reproductive tract and cancer. Male fetus, abnormal genitalia. Banned by USA FDA in 1979 as a teratogen, previously used as livestock growth promoter.

DES induces vaginal abnormalities (vaginal adenosis) by inhibiting the BMP4/Activin A-regulated vaginal cell fate decision through a downregulation of RUNX1.[6]

Block

Inhibit the binding of a hormone to receptor or hormone synthesis.

Finasteride Vinclozolin
Finasteride.jpg Vinclozoline.jpg
Chemical used to prevent male pattern baldness and enlargement of prostate glands. An anti-androgen (blocks synthesis of dihydrotestosterone) and therefore a potential endocrine disruptor, exposed pregnant women can impact on male fetus genetial development. Dicarboximide fungicide, perinatal exposure in rats inhibits morphological sex differentiation. In adult rats, shown to cause gonad tumours (Leydig cell) and atrophy. Chemical has androgen-antagonist (antiandrogenic) activity, metabolies compete with natural androgen

Interfere

Compromise with the hormone transport or elimination.

Polychlorinated biphenyl pollutants - (PCBs) Rats exposed to PCBs have low levels of thyroid hormone. Compete for binding sites of thyroid hormone transport protein. Without being bound to this protein, thyroid hormones are excreted from the body (McKinney et al. 1985; Morse et al. 1996)


Ziram - (zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate) agricultural fungicide acts as an endocrine disruptor and may cause birth abnormality of the male reproductive system.


International Classification of Diseases

XVI Perinatal Period

Transitory endocrine and metabolic disorders specific to fetus and newborn (P70-P74)

Incl.: transitory endocrine and metabolic disturbances caused by the infant's response to maternal endocrine and metabolic factors, or its adjustment to extrauterine existence

P70 Transitory disorders of carbohydrate metabolism specific to fetus and newborn

  • P70.0 Syndrome of infant of mother with gestational diabetes Fetus or newborn (with hypoglycaemia) affected by maternal gestational diabetes
  • P70.1 Syndrome of infant of a diabetic mother Fetus or newborn (with hypoglycemia) affected by maternal diabetes mellitus (pre-existing)
  • P70.2 Neonatal diabetes mellitus
  • P70.3 Iatrogenic neonatal hypoglycaemia
  • P70.4 Other neonatal hypoglycaemia Transitory neonatal hypoglycaemia
  • P70.8 Other transitory disorders of carbohydrate metabolism of fetus and newborn
  • P70.9 Transitory disorder of carbohydrate metabolism of fetus and newborn, unspecified

P71 Transitory neonatal disorders of calcium and magnesium metabolism

  • P71.0 Cow's milk hypocalcaemia in newborn
  • P71.1 Other neonatal hypocalcaemia Excl.: neonatal hypoparathyroidism (P71.4)
  • P71.2 Neonatal hypomagnesaemia
  • P71.3 Neonatal tetany without calcium or magnesium deficiency Neonatal tetany NOS
  • P71.4 Transitory neonatal hypoparathyroidism
  • P71.8 Other transitory neonatal disorders of calcium and magnesium metabolism
  • P71.9 Transitory neonatal disorder of calcium and magnesium metabolism, unspecified

P72 Other transitory neonatal endocrine disorders Excl.: congenital hypothyroidism with or without goitre (E03.0-E03.1) dyshormogenetic goitre (E07.1) Pendred's syndrome (E07.1)

  • P72.0 Neonatal goitre, not elsewhere classified Transitory congenital goitre with normal function
  • P72.1 Transitory neonatal hyperthyroidism Neonatal thyrotoxicosis
  • P72.2 Other transitory neonatal disorders of thyroid function, not elsewhere classified Transitory neonatal hypothyroidism
  • P72.8 Other specified transitory neonatal endocrine disorders
  • P72.9 Transitory neonatal endocrine disorder, unspecified

P74 Other transitory neonatal electrolyte and metabolic disturbances

  • P74.0 Late metabolic acidosis of newborn
  • P74.1 Dehydration of newborn
  • P74.2 Disturbances of sodium balance of newborn
  • P74.3 Disturbances of potassium balance of newborn
  • P74.4 Other transitory electrolyte disturbances of newborn
  • P74.5 Transitory tyrosinaemia of newborn
  • P74.8 Other transitory metabolic disturbances of newborn
  • P74.9 Transitory metabolic disturbance of newborn, unspecified


Links: ICD - XVI Perinatal Period | Neonatal Development

References

  1. Miranda A & Sousa N. (2018). Maternal hormonal milieu influence on fetal brain development. Brain Behav , 8, e00920. PMID: 29484271 DOI.
  2. Towers CV, Terry PD, Lewis D, Howard B, Chambers W, Armistead C, Weitz B, Porter S, Borman CJ, Kennedy RC & Chen J. (2015). Transplacental passage of antimicrobial paraben preservatives. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol , 25, 604-7. PMID: 25944699 DOI.
  3. Berger E, Potouridis T, Haeger A, Püttmann W & Wagner M. (2015). Effect-directed identification of endocrine disruptors in plastic baby teethers. J Appl Toxicol , 35, 1254-61. PMID: 25988240 DOI.
  4. Marcucci G, Cianferotti L, Beck-Peccoz P, Capezzone M, Cetani F, Colao A, Davì MV, degli Uberti E, Del Prato S, Elisei R, Faggiano A, Ferone D, Foresta C, Fugazzola L, Ghigo E, Giacchetti G, Giorgino F, Lenzi A, Malandrino P, Mannelli M, Marcocci C, Masi L, Pacini F, Opocher G, Radicioni A, Tonacchera M, Vigneri R, Zatelli MC & Brandi ML. (2015). Rare diseases in clinical endocrinology: a taxonomic classification system. J. Endocrinol. Invest. , 38, 193-259. PMID: 25376364 DOI.
  5. Ghassabian A & Trasande L. (2018). Disruption in Thyroid Signaling Pathway: A Mechanism for the Effect of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals on Child Neurodevelopment. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) , 9, 204. PMID: 29760680 DOI.
  6. Laronda MM, Unno K, Ishi K, Serna VA, Butler LM, Mills AA, Orvis GD, Behringer RR, Deng C, Sinha S & Kurita T. (2013). Diethylstilbestrol induces vaginal adenosis by disrupting SMAD/RUNX1-mediated cell fate decision in the Müllerian duct epithelium. Dev. Biol. , 381, 5-16. PMID: 23830984 DOI.

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Terms

Endocrine Terms (expand to view) 
  • adenohypophysis - (anterior pituitary, pars distalis) anterior part of pituitary embryonic development from surface ectoderm adenohypophyseal placode. Placode folds inward on the roof of the pharynx forming a transient structure Rathke's pouch.
  • adrenocorticotropin - (ACTH or corticotropin) anterior pituitary, peptide hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce corticosteroid hormones — primarily cortisol — as well as small amounts of female and male sex hormones.
  • androstenedione - hormone precursor of testosterone and other steroidal androgens.
  • atrial natriuretic peptide - (ANP) heart, peptide hormone regulates blood pressure. A study suggests that its activating enzyme corin, and ANP together, have a role in placentation, by promoting trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodelling. (PMID 22437503)
  • basophil cell - pituitary named by histological staining (deep blue, purple) different types produce different hormones: corticotrophs (ACTH, CRH), gonadotrophs (FSH, LH, GnRH), and thyrotrophs (TSH, TRH). See acidophil and chromophore cells.
  • C cells - parafollicular cells of the thyroid.
  • calcitonin - (CT) C cells of thyroid, peptide hormone thyroid
  • corpus luteum - ovarian endocrine organ from ovulating follicle, stimulated by hCG and supports early pregnancy by secreting progesterone, 17β-progesterone, estradiol and androstenedione.
  • corticosteroid binding globulin - (CBG) binds and transports glucocorticoids in the plasma. Globin is synthesised in the liver. adrenal
  • dihydrotestosterone - (DHT) steroidal hormone made locally by 5-alpha reductase conversion of testosterone into a more active form in genital effects.
  • dehydroepiandrosterone - (DHEA, androstenolone) adrenal cortex, gonads and brain make this steroid intermediate that may also have adult hormonal functions.
  • dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate - (DHEAS, DHEA-S) fetal adrenal cortex makes this inactive precursor of a steroid hormone.
  • dydrogesterone - clinical oral retrosteroid structurally related to progesterone, with a greater bioavailability and selectivity for the progesterone receptor.
  • estrogen (oestrogen) family of female steroidal hormones - estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and estetrol (E4) synthesised from testosterone and androstenedione, by aromatase. Also produced in male testis, and required for genital development (PMID 29438493)
  • estrone (E1) - steroid hormone with weak estrogenic activity.
  • estradiol (E2) - (oestradiol) estrogen steroid hormone with main estrogenic female activity.
  • estriol (E3) - (oestriol) steroid hormone with weak estrogenic activity.
  • estetrol (E4) (oestetrol) steroid hormone with weak estrogenic activity produced only during pregnancy.
  • follicle stimulating hormone - (FSH) pituitary glycoprotein hormone secreted by gonadotrophs (basophilic cell subgroup) acts on gametogenesis and other systems in both males and females. Females, acts on the ovary to stimulate follicle development. Negative feedback by inhibin from the developing follicle decreases FSH secretion. Males, acts on the testis Sertoli cells to increase androgen-binding protein (ABP) that binds androgens and has a role in spermatogenesis.
  • growth hormone - (GH) pituitary, peptide hormone that stimulates tissue and skeletal growth. In the ovary, growth hormone also increases granulosa cell FSH-dependent E2 production.
  • growth hormone releasing hormone - (GHRH) hypothalamus‎, protein that activates growth hormone synthesis and release from the anterior pituitary.
  • human chorionic gonadotropin - (hCG) glycoprotein hormone with 2 subunits (alpha and beta joined non covalently). Similar in structure to luteinizing hormone (LH), hCG exists in multiple hormonal and non-endocrine agents (regular hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG and the free beta-subunit of hyperglycosylated hCG). PMID 19171054
  • human chorionic somatommotropin - (hCS, CSH, placental lactogen) Placental hormone is structurally similar to both growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL} and binds strongly to PRL receptors but weakly to GH receptors. Role in stimulating maternal mammary gland development. endocrine placenta
  • interstitial cell - (Leydig cell) Male testis cell secrete the androgen testosterone, required for fetal male genital tract differentiation and masculinisation after puberty.
  • Leydig cell - (interstitial cell) Male testis cell secrete the androgen testosterone, beginning in the fetus. These cells are named after Franz von Leydig (1821 - 1908) a German scientist who histologically described these cells.
  • lutenizing hormone - (LH, gonadotropin, lutropin, Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone, ICSH) pituitary, glycoprotein hormone acts on the gonad and has a role in male and female reproduction. Female, increase in concentration during the menstrual cycle triggers ovulation. Male, stimulates testis interstital cell production of testosterone. Gonadotrophins have been used clinically in humans for the treatment of female infertility.
  • melaocyte stimulating hormone - (MSH) pituitary, peptide hormone pituitary
  • melatonin - (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) pineal amino acid amino (precursor tryptophan) hormone involved with the diurnal cycle, melatoinin levels are high in dark, low in daylight. Also acts as an antioxidant, free radical scavenger, and anti-inflammatory molecule.
  • prolactin - (PRL) pituitary, peptide hormone pituitary
  • parathyroid - endocrine gland through parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates calcium and phosphate levels in conjunction with parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland (calcitonin) and Vitamin D, dietary or synthesized in the skin. Develops from pharyngeal endoderm, in this case the 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches.
  • parathyroid hormone - (PTH) parathyroid, peptide hormone parathyroid
  • synthetic ACTH test = (synacthen test) A diagnostic test to both measure the amount of cortisol in the body and to determine the ability to produce cortisol.
  • testosterone - testis ovary steroidal hormone. In males is the androgen which regulates genital (gonadal and tract), secondary sex characteristics and neural development. The steroid is converted to the active metabolite dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by the enzyme 5-alpha reductase for the genital effects and estradiol by the enzyme aromatase for the neural effects.
  • thyroid - endocrine gland located in the neck with a developmental role in neurological development and metabolism.
  • thyroid diverticulum - the primordium of the thyroid gland, beginning as an median endodermal thickening in the floor of pharynx between the pharyngeal pouch 1 and 2.
  • thyroid hormone - (TH) thyroid amino acid derivative with two main forms (T3, T4) regulates tissue metabolic activity.
  • thyroid stimulating hormone - (TSH) pituitary protein hormone
  • ultimobranchial body - historic term for the embryonic structure that forms the parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, November 14) Embryology Endocrine System - Abnormalities. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Endocrine_System_-_Abnormalities

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