Endocrine - Pancreas Development

From Embryology
Embryology - 19 Jan 2018    Facebook link Pinterest link Twitter link  Expand to Translate  
Google Translate - select your language from the list shown below (this will open a new external page)

العربية | català | 中文 | 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | اردو | ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt    These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. (More? About Translations)


Human Pancreatic Islets (Islets of Langerhans)[1]

The pancreas is a two-headed organ, not only in origin but also in function. In origin, the pancreas develops from two separate primordia. In function, the organ has both endocrine function in relation to regulating blood glucose (and also other hormone secretions) and gastrointestinal function as an exocrine (digestive) organ, see Gastrointestinal Tract - Pancreas Development.

In recent years there has been much research due to the increasing incidence of diabetes in humans and the potential for stem cell therapeutics. Much is now known about the epithelial/mesenchymal and molecular regulation of pancres development.

At the foregut/midgut junction the septum transversum generates 2 pancreatic buds (dorsal and ventral endoderm) which will fuse to form the pancreas. The dorsal bud arises first and generates most of the pancreas. The ventral bud arises beside the bile duct and forms only part of the head and uncinate process of the pancreas.

In the fetal period islet cell clusters (icc) differentiate from pancratic bud endoderm. These cell clusters form acini and ducts (exocrine). On the edge of these cell clusters pancreatic islets (endocrine) also form. Pancreatic hormonal function is to secrete insulin and glucagon which together regulate blood glucose levels and also somaostatin.

The pancreas exocrine function begins after birth, while the endocrine function (hormone release) can be measured from 10 to 15 weeks onward. At this stage, it is not clear what the exact roles of these hormones are in regulating fetal growth.

Pancreas adult
  • Functions - exocrine (amylase, alpha-fetoprotein), 99% by volume; endocrine (pancreatic islets) 1% by volume
  • Exocrine function - begins after birth
  • Endocrine function - from 10 to 15 weeks onward hormone release
    • exact roles of hormones in regulating fetal growth?

Links: Endocrine Pancreas | Exocrine Pancreas

Endocrine Links: Introduction | BGD Lecture | Science Lecture | Lecture Movie | Pineal | Hypothalamus‎ | Pituitary | Thyroid | Parathyroid | Thymus‎ | Pancreas‎ | Adrenal‎ | Gonad‎ | Placenta‎ | Other Tissues | Stage 22 | Abnormalities | Hormones | Category:Endocrine
Historic Embryology - Endocrine  
1903 Islets of Langerhans | 1904 interstitial Cells | 1908 Pancreas Different Species | 1908 Pituitary | 1908 Pituitary histology | 1911 Rathke's pouch | 1912 Suprarenal Bodies | 1914 Suprarenal Organs | 1915 Pharynx | 1916 Thyroid | 1918 Rabbit Hypophysis | 1920 Adrenal | 1935 Mammalian Hypophysis | 1926 Human Hypophysis | 1927 Hypophyseal fossa | 1935 Hypophysis | 1937 Pineal | 1938 Parathyroid | 1940 Adrenal | 1941 Thyroid | 1950 Thyroid Parathyroid Thymus | 1957 Adrenal

See also: Lecture - Gastrointestinal Development | Maternal Diabetes

Historic Embryology: 1912 Pancreas Development | 1930 Ventral Pancreas

Some Recent Findings

Molecular Development of Endocrine Pancreas Cells
Molecular Development of Endocrine Pancreas Cells[2] Molecular Pancreas
  • Gastrin: a distinct fate of neurogenin3 positive progenitor cells in the embryonic pancreas[2] "Neurogenin3(+) (Ngn3(+)) progenitor cells in the developing pancreas give rise to five endocrine cell types secreting insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide and ghrelin. Gastrin is a hormone produced primarily by G-cells in the stomach, where it functions to stimulate acid secretion by gastric parietal cells. Gastrin is expressed in the embryonic pancreas and is common in islet cell tumors, but the lineage and regulators of pancreatic gastrin(+) cells are not known. We report that gastrin is abundantly expressed in the embryonic pancreas and disappears soon after birth."
  • Chemical screen identifies FDA-approved drugs and target pathways that induce precocious pancreatic endocrine differentiation[3] "Pancreatic β-cells are an essential source of insulin and their destruction because of autoimmunity causes type I diabetes. We conducted a chemical screen to identify compounds that would induce the differentiation of insulin-producing β-cells in vivo. To do this screen, we brought together the use of transgenic zebrafish as a model of β-cell differentiation, a unique multiwell plate that allows easy visualization of lateral views of swimming larval fish and a library of clinical drugs. We identified six hits that can induce precocious differentiation of secondary islets in larval zebrafish. Three of these six hits were known drugs with a considerable background of published data on mechanism of action. Using pharmacological approaches, we have identified and characterized two unique pathways in β-cell differentiation in the zebrafish, including down-regulation of GTP production and retinoic acid biosynthesis."
  • Pancreatic mesenchyme regulates epithelial organogenesis throughout development[4] "The developing pancreatic epithelium gives rise to all endocrine and exocrine cells of the mature organ. During organogenesis, the epithelial cells receive essential signals from the overlying mesenchyme. ...Our results demonstrate that mesenchymal cells regulate pancreatic growth and branching at both early and late developmental stages by supporting proliferation of precursors and differentiated cells, respectively."
  • Relative roles of the different Pax6 domains for pancreatic alpha cell development.[5] "The transcription factor Pax6 functions in the specification and maintenance of the differentiated cell lineages in the endocrine pancreas. It has two DNA binding domains, the paired domain and the homeodomain, in addition to a C-terminal transactivation domain. The phenotype of Pax6-/- knockout mice suggests non-redundant functions of the transcription factor in the development of glucagon-expressing alpha-cells as this cell type is absent in the mutants."
More recent papers  
Mark Hill.jpg
PubMed logo.gif

This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches

Search term: Pancreas Embryology

Hao Yuan, Pengfei Wu, Jianmin Chen, Zipeng Lu, Lei Chen, Jishu Wei, Feng Guo, Baobao Cai, Jie Yin, Dong Xu, Kuirong Jiang, Yi Miao Radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy for adenocarcinomaof the body of the pancreas in a patient with portal annular pancreas, aberrant hepatic artery, and absence of the celiac trunk: A case report. Medicine (Baltimore): 2017, 96(48);e8738 PubMed 29310347

Judit Márton, Tamás Fodor, Lilla Nagy, András Vida, Gréta Kis, Attila Brunyánszki, Miklós Antal, Bernhard Lüscher, Péter Bai PARP10 (ARTD10) modulates mitochondrial function. PLoS ONE: 2018, 13(1);e0187789 PubMed 29293500

Spyridon Pagkratis, Sara Kryeziu, Miranda Lin, Samah Hoque, Juan Carlos Bucobo, Jonathan M Buscaglia, Georgios V Georgakis, Aaron R Sasson, Joseph Kim Case report of intestinal non-rotation, heterotaxy, and polysplenia in a patient with pancreatic cancer. Medicine (Baltimore): 2017, 96(49);e8599 PubMed 29245220

Shuai Yin, Tim Bleul, Yifan Zhu, Orkhan Isayev, Jens Werner, Alexandr V Bazhin MiRNAs are Unlikely to be Involved in Retinoid Receptor Gene Regulation in Pancreatic Cancer Cells. Cell. Physiol. Biochem.: 2017, 44(2);644-656 PubMed 29169171

Magdalena Kowalska, Weronika Rupik Ultrastructure of endocrine pancreatic granules during pancreatic differentiation in the grass snake, Natrix natrix L. (Lepidosauria, Serpentes). J. Morphol.: 2017; PubMed 29148072

Pancreas Development

Pancreatic buds and duct developing
  • Pancreatic buds - duodenal level endoderm, splanchnic mesoderm forms dorsal and ventral mesentery, dorsal bud (larger, first), ventral bud (smaller, later)
  • Pancreas Endoderm - pancreas may be opposite of liver
    • Heart cells promote/notochord prevents liver formation
    • Notochord may promote pancreas formation
    • Heart may block pancreas formation
  • Duodenum growth/rotation - brings ventral and dorsal buds together, fusion of buds
  • Pancreatic duct - ventral bud duct and distal part of dorsal bud, exocrine function
  • Islet cells - cords of endodermal cells form ducts, from which cells bud off to form islets

PMID 18508724

Human Pancreas Timeline

Human (week 4) pancreatic buds
Human (week 8, Stage 22) pancreas
  • Week 7 to 20 - pancreatic hormones secretion increases, small amount maternal insulin
  • Week 10 - glucagon (alpha) differentiate first, somatostatin (delta), insulin (beta) cells differentiate, insulin secretion begins
  • Week 15 - glucagon detectable in fetal plasma

Mouse-pancreas duct formation.jpg

Mouse pancreas duct development cartoon

Bailey273.jpg Bailey274.jpg Bailey275.jpg Bailey278 279.jpg


Pig embryo (14 mm CRL) (ventral and dorsal)

Fetal Pancreas

Human fetal pancreas anatomy cartoon.jpg

Fetal topographical anatomy of the pancreatic head and duodenum with special reference to courses of the pancreaticoduodenal arteries.[6]

A diagram showing joining processes between the dorsal and ventral primordia of the pancreas as well as the hypothetical rotation of the duodenum along a left-right axis. Viewed from the posterosuperior side of the body. A horizontal plane including most parts of the duodenum is shown to emphasize, in contrast to adults, the course of the second portion (D2) directing posteriorly rather than inferiorly.

Developing Pancreatic Islets

Model of endocrine cell and vessel organization in human islets[7]

Model of human pancreatic islet.jpg

A α-Cells (green) and β-cells (red) are organized into a thick folded plate lined at both sides with vessels (blue).
  • α-Cells are mostly at the periphery of the plate and in close contact with vessels.
  • β-Cells occupy a more central part of the plate and most of them develop cytoplasmic extension that runs between α-cells and reaches the surface of vessels.

B The plate with adjacent vessels is folded so that it forms an islet.

(Text based on original reference legend)

Adult Pancreatic Islets

Human pancreatic islet in 3D[7]
Pancreas islet structure human and rat

The adult pancreatic islets (Islets of Langerhans) contain four distinct endocrine cell types.

Alpha Cells

Human- pancreatic adult islet-glucagon.jpg

  • glucagon, mobilizes lipid

Beta Cells

Human- pancreatic adult islet-insulin.jpg pancreas structure

  • insulin, increase glucose uptake
  • stimulate fetal growth, continue to proliferate to postnatal, in infancy most abundant

Molecular - Nkx6.1 - NK2 Homeobox 6.1

  • homeobox (Hox) containing transcription factor contain a 60-amino acid evolutionarily conserved DNA-binding homeodomain.
  • required for beta cells development and is completely conserved between rat, mouse, and human.

Links: Maternal Diabetes | Nkx6.1 OMIM 602563

Delta Cells

  • somatostatin, inhibits glucagon, insulin secretion


  • pancreatic polypeptide

Rat- pancreatic islet development

Rat - pancreatic islet development[8]

Islet size for Different Species

The following species comparison table has been slightly modified from Table 1 data in a recent paper by Kim etal., 2009.[9]

  • Islet size is described as an effective diameter of a circle, which depicts the same area as a measured islet area.
  • β-cell ratio is the area ratio of β-cells in an islet.
  • Both data sets are expressed as the mean value with its standard deviation.
Species Age Islet size (μm) β-cell ratio
Human 39 years (adult) 50 ± 29 0.64 ± 0.21
Monkey 1 year 67 ± 38* 0.79 ± 0.14*
Pig 6 month 49 ± 15a 0.89 ± 0.11*
Rabbit 6 month 64 ± 28* 0.79 ± 0.17*
Bird 40 day 24 ± 6* 0.46 ± 0.24*
Wild-type mouse 6 month 116 ± 80* 0.85 ± 0.14*
Pregnant mouse 3 month 112 ± 94* 0.84 ± 0.22*
ob/ob mouse 15 week 86 ± 76* 0.92 ± 0.11*
db/db mouse 15 week 47 ± 24b 0.53 ± 0.24c

*p < 0.0001 ap = 0.65 bp = 0.42 cp = 0.0004 compared with human.



  • Source - synthesized by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans.
  • Protein
    • 2 dissimilar polypeptide chains, A and B, which are linked by 2 disulphide bonds.
    • both chains are derived from a 1-chain precursor, proinsulin.
    • proinsulin - converted to insulin by the enzymatic removal of a segment that connects the amino end of the A chain to the carboxyl end of the B chain.

Links: OMIM


  • Source - synthesized by the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans.
  • Protein
    • 29-amino acid hormone
    • human, rabbit, rat, pig, and cow proteins are identical.
    • member of a multigene family that includes - secretin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, gastric inhibitory peptide, glicentin, and others.
  • Function
    • counteracts the glucose-lowering action of insulin
    • stimulates glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis.

Links: OMIM


Mouse Pancreas Cell Lineage

In this study[10] mouse cell types were collected at different ages E11 and E15 pancreatic progenitors, E15 acinar cells, E15 endocrine progenitors (EP), E15, E17, P1, P15, 8–12 week beta cells, P1 and 8–12 week alpha cells, and adult duct cells. The following markers were used in determining the lineages, not both endocrine and exocrine cells derive from a common precursor.

  • Neurog3 - Neurogenin-3 (Ngn3) protein encoded in humans by the NEUROG3 gene. A basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor expressed in pancreas endocrine progenitor cells. This factor family involved in neural precursor cell determination in the neuroectoderm. OMIM 604882
  • CD133 - Prominin-1 a glycoprotein encoded in humans by the PROM1 gene.
  • CD24 - Cluster of differentiation 24 or heat stable antigen CD24 (HSA) a protein encoded in humans by the CD24 gene. CD24 is a cell adhesion molecule.
  • CD49f - Integrin alpha-6 (ITGA6) protein encoded in humans by the ITGA6 gene. Associates with a beta protein to form a laminin-binding heterodimers involved in adhesion.

Mouse pancreas cell lineage.jpg

Identification of pancreas cell lineages[10]

Developmental Factors
  • Pdx1 - Pancreas/Duodenum Homeobox Protein 1 OMIM 600733
    • transcription (transactivator) factor binds the TAAT element in the promoter region of target genes, mainly those involved in pancreas development.
  • Ngn3 - Neurogenin3 OMIM 604882
    • basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor involved in the determination of neural precursor cells in the neuroectoderm.
  • NeuroD1 - Neurogenic Differentiation 1 OMIM 601724
    • a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein that acts as a transcription factors involved in determining cell type during development.
  • Arx - Aristaless-Related Homeobox, X-Linked OMIM 300382
    • homeobox protein that belongs to the Aristaless-related subset of the paired (Prd) class of homeodomain proteins.
  • Pax4 - Paired Box Gene 4 OMIM 167413
    • transcription factor containing a paired box domain.
  • Pax6 Paired Box Gene 6 OMIM 607108
    • transcription factor containing a paired box domain.
  • Nkx2.2 - NK2 Homeobox 2 OMIM 604612
    • homeobox (Hox) containing transcription factor contain a 60-amino acid evolutionarily conserved DNA-binding homeodomain.
  • Nkx6.1 - NK2 Homeobox 6.1 OMIM 602563
    • homeobox (Hox) containing transcription factor contain a 60-amino acid evolutionarily conserved DNA-binding homeodomain.
    • required for beta cells development and is completely conserved between rat, mouse, and human.
Molecular Development of Endocrine Pancreas Cells

Molecular Development of Endocrine Pancreas Cells[2]

Links: Molecular Development

Pancreas Histology

Pancreas Histology Links: overview (label) | exocrine (label) | endocrine (label) | blood vessels (label) | insulin (label) | overview | exocrine | endocrine | blood vessels | insulin | Islet labeled for insulin and Glucagon | Insulin (Fl) | Glucagon (Fl) | GIT Histology


Australian trends diabetes prevalence 19990-2008.jpg

Diabetes is a condition where pancreatic insulin is no longer produced in sufficient required amounts (or at all) meaning that glucose cannot be converted into energy, resulting in health issues related to blood sugar levels. There are two main types:

  1. Type 1 diabetes - (10% of all cases) most common chronic childhood condition. An auto-immune condition, where the immune system is activated to destroy the beta cells in the pancreas which produce insulin. Type 1 diabetes is not linked to modifiable lifestyle factors.
  2. Type 2 diabetes - (85–90% of all cases) most common in adults. A progressive condition in which the body becomes resistant to the normal effects of insulin and/or gradually loses the capacity to produce enough insulin in the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is associated with modifiable lifestyle risk factors and has strong genetic and family related risk factors.

Secondary Health Issues:

  • Diabetic retinopathy - is a leading cause of preventable blindness.
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurs among children and young people with type 1 diabetes and is 1.4 times higher in females.

Links: Maternal Diabetes | External Links


Listed below are a number of pancreatic developmental abnormalities, see also the 2003 article "Lifetime consequences of abnormal fetal pancreatic development"[11].

Accessory Pancreatic Tissue - pancreatic tissue located in associated gastrointestinal tract tissues/organs such as the wall of the stomach, duodenum, jejunum or Meckel's diverticulum.

Annular Pancreas - (1 in 7,000 people) pancreas forms as a "ring" of tissue surrounding the duodenum which is subsequently narrowed.

Diabetes Mellitus - Maternal diabetes (and hyperglycaemia) have been shown to lead to increased fetal islet hyperplasia of the insulin producing beta cells and insulin secretion.

Intrauterine growth restriction - can lead to a delayed development of the insulin producing beta cells and low insulin secretion.

Tumours - Serous Cystadenoma (endocrine tumour), Somatostatinoma (tumour of delta cell origin), intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurs among children and young people with type 1 diabetes and is 1.4 times higher in females.

Links: NIH Genes and Disease Chapter 41 - Endocrine | Medline Plus - Annular Pancreas |


  1. Raphaël Scharfmann, Xiangwei Xiao, Harry Heimberg, Jacques Mallet, Philippe Ravassard Beta cells within single human islets originate from multiple progenitors. PLoS ONE: 2008, 3(10);e3559 PubMed 18958289 | PLoS ONE
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Yaron Suissa, Judith Magenheim, Miri Stolovich-Rain, Ayat Hija, Patrick Collombat, Ahmed Mansouri, Lori Sussel, Beatriz Sosa-Pineda, Kyle McCracken, James M Wells, R Scott Heller, Yuval Dor, Benjamin Glaser Gastrin: a distinct fate of neurogenin3 positive progenitor cells in the embryonic pancreas. PLoS ONE: 2013, 8(8);e70397 PubMed 23940571 | PLoS One.
  3. Meritxell Rovira, Wei Huang, Shamila Yusuff, Joong Sup Shim, Anthony A Ferrante, Jun O Liu, Michael J Parsons Chemical screen identifies FDA-approved drugs and target pathways that induce precocious pancreatic endocrine differentiation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2011, 108(48);19264-9 PubMed 22084084 | Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.
  4. Limor Landsman, Amar Nijagal, Theresa J Whitchurch, Renee L Vanderlaan, Warren E Zimmer, Tippi C Mackenzie, Matthias Hebrok Pancreatic mesenchyme regulates epithelial organogenesis throughout development. PLoS Biol.: 2011, 9(9);e1001143 PubMed 21909240 | PLoS Biol.
  5. Petra Dames, Ramona Puff, Michaela Weise, Klaus G Parhofer, Burkhard Göke, Magdalena Götz, Jochen Graw, Jack Favor, Andreas Lechner Relative roles of the different Pax6 domains for pancreatic alpha cell development. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2010, 10;39 PubMed 20377917
  6. Zhe Wu Jin, Hee Chul Yu, Baik Hwan Cho, Hyoung Tae Kim, Wataru Kimura, Mineko Fujimiya, Gen Murakami Fetal topographical anatomy of the pancreatic head and duodenum with special reference to courses of the pancreaticoduodenal arteries. Yonsei Med. J.: 2010, 51(3);398-406 PubMed 20376893 | Yonsei Med J.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Domenico Bosco, Mathieu Armanet, Philippe Morel, Nadja Niclauss, Antonino Sgroi, Yannick D Muller, Laurianne Giovannoni, Géraldine Parnaud, Thierry Berney Unique arrangement of alpha- and beta-cells in human islets of Langerhans. Diabetes: 2010, 59(5);1202-10 PubMed 20185817 | PMC2857900 | Diabetes.
  8. Siraam Cabrera-Vásquez, Víctor Navarro-Tableros, Carmen Sánchez-Soto, Gabriel Gutiérrez-Ospina, Marcia Hiriart Remodelling sympathetic innervation in rat pancreatic islets ontogeny. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2009, 9;34 PubMed 19534767
  9. Abraham Kim, Kevin Miller, Junghyo Jo, German Kilimnik, Pawel Wojcik, Manami Hara Islet architecture: A comparative study. Islets: 2010, 1(2);129-36 PubMed 20606719
  10. 10.0 10.1 Cecil M Benitez, Kun Qu, Takuya Sugiyama, Philip T Pauerstein, Yinghua Liu, Jennifer Tsai, Xueying Gu, Amar Ghodasara, H Efsun Arda, Jiajing Zhang, Joseph D Dekker, Haley O Tucker, Howard Y Chang, Seung K Kim An integrated cell purification and genomics strategy reveals multiple regulators of pancreas development. PLoS Genet.: 2014, 10(10);e1004645 PubMed 25330008
  11. K Holemans, L Aerts, F A Van Assche Lifetime consequences of abnormal fetal pancreatic development. J. Physiol. (Lond.): 2003, 547(Pt 1);11-20 PubMed 12562919


Online Textbooks

Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach Nussey, S.S. and Whitehead, S.A. Oxford, UK: BIOS Scientific Publishers, Ltd; 2001. table of Contents

NIH Genes & Disease Chapter 41 - Endocrine

Pathophysiology of the Endocrine System The Endocrine Pancreas

Developmental Biology (6th ed) Gilbert, Scott F. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates, Inc.; c2000.

Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th Edn) Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, Alexander; Lewis, Julian; Raff, Martin; Roberts, Keith; Walter, Peter. New York: Garland Publishing; 2002. table 15-1. Some Hormone-induced Cell Responses Mediated by Cyclic AMP

Health Services/Technology Assessment Text (HSTAT) Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), 2003 Oct.

Search NLM Online Textbooks- "pancreas development" : Endocrinology | Molecular Biology of the Cell | The Cell- A molecular Approach

Search Bookshelf Pancreas Development


Amaresh K Ranjan, Mugdha V Joglekar, Anandwardhan A Hardikar Endothelial cells in pancreatic islet development and function. Islets: 2010, 1(1);2-9 PubMed 21084843

Mary D Kinkel, Victoria E Prince On the diabetic menu: zebrafish as a model for pancreas development and function. Bioessays: 2009, 31(2);139-52 PubMed 19204986

George K Gittes Developmental biology of the pancreas: a comprehensive review. Dev. Biol.: 2009, 326(1);4-35 PubMed 19013144

Claire Bonal, Pedro L Herrera Genes controlling pancreas ontogeny. Int. J. Dev. Biol.: 2008, 52(7);823-35 PubMed 18956314

Jennifer M Oliver-Krasinski, Doris A Stoffers On the origin of the beta cell. Genes Dev.: 2008, 22(15);1998-2021 PubMed 18676806


Bernard Portha, Audrey Chavey, Jamileh Movassat Early-life origins of type 2 diabetes: fetal programming of the beta-cell mass. Exp Diabetes Res: 2011, 2011;105076 PubMed 22110471

M J Riedel, A Asadi, R Wang, Z Ao, G L Warnock, T J Kieffer Immunohistochemical characterisation of cells co-producing insulin and glucagon in the developing human pancreas. Diabetologia: 2012, 55(2);372-81 PubMed 22038519

Fengxia Ma, Cécile Haumaitre, Fang Chen, Zhongchao Han Comparison of murine embryonic pancreatic development in vitro and in vivo. Pancreas: 2011, 40(7);1012-7 PubMed 21926540

Erin McDonald, Jinming Li, Mansa Krishnamurthy, George F Fellows, Cynthia G Goodyer, Rennian Wang SOX9 regulates endocrine cell differentiation during human fetal pancreas development. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.: 2012, 44(1);72-83 PubMed 21983268

Kai-Ming Yang, Wang Yong, Ai-Dong Li, Hui-Jun Yang Insulin-producing cells are bi-potential and differentiatorsprior to proliferation in early human development. World J Diabetes: 2011, 2(4);54-8 PubMed 21537461

Juris J Meier, Christina U Köhler, Bacel Alkhatib, Consolato Sergi, Theresa Junker, Harald H Klein, Wolfgang E Schmidt, Helga Fritsch Beta-cell development and turnover during prenatal life in humans. Eur. J. Endocrinol.: 2010, 162(3);559-68 PubMed 20022941

Jongmin Jeon, Mayrin Correa-Medina, Camillo Ricordi, Helena Edlund, Juan A Diez Endocrine cell clustering during human pancreas development. J. Histochem. Cytochem.: 2009, 57(9);811-24 PubMed 19365093

Jennifer M Oliver-Krasinski, Margaret T Kasner, Juxiang Yang, Michael F Crutchlow, Anil K Rustgi, Klaus H Kaestner, Doris A Stoffers The diabetes gene Pdx1 regulates the transcriptional network of pancreatic endocrine progenitor cells in mice. J. Clin. Invest.: 2009, 119(7);1888-98 PubMed 19487809

D Eberhard, D Tosh, J M W Slack Origin of pancreatic endocrine cells from biliary duct epithelium. Cell. Mol. Life Sci.: 2008, 65(21);3467-80 PubMed 18810318

Raphaël Scharfmann, Xiangwei Xiao, Harry Heimberg, Jacques Mallet, Philippe Ravassard Beta cells within single human islets originate from multiple progenitors. PLoS ONE: 2008, 3(10);e3559 PubMed 18958289

K Piper, S Brickwood, L W Turnpenny, I T Cameron, S G Ball, D I Wilson, N A Hanley Beta cell differentiation during early human pancreas development. J. Endocrinol.: 2004, 181(1);11-23 PubMed 15072563

| J Endocrinol.

Search Pubmed

Search April 2010

  • Endocrine Development - All (14277) Review (4620) Free Full Text (3140)

Search Pubmed: pancreas development

Additional Images

Historic Images

External Links

External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.

Glossary Links

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2018 Embryology Endocrine - Pancreas Development. Retrieved January 19, 2018, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Endocrine_-_Pancreas_Development

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G