Embryology History - Shinya Yamanaka
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Research History
- 4 Key Paper
- 5 Yamanaka Factors
- 6 Historic Embryologists
- 7 References
- 8 Terms
- 9 External Links
- 10 Glossary Links
Professor Yamanaka has had a key role to play in identifying the specific 4 factors required alone to transform a cell from adult tissues into a stem cell. These 4 factors have also been called "Yamanaka Factors" and the stem cells formed, by their introduction or expression, are called "induced Pluriopotential Stem Cells" (iPS). This finding has been the basis of many recent stem cell papers. These "Yamanaka Factors" are transcription factors, that also have other developmental roles, and can regulate the expression of a range of other nuclear genes.
- Oct3/4 - Octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4
- Sox2 - Sry-related HMG-box gene 2
- Klf4 - Kruppel-like factor 4
- c-Myc - MYC protooncogene
|Stem Cell Links: Introduction | Timeline | Placental Cord Blood | Adult | Induced | Yamanaka Factors | Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer | Ethics | Category:Stem Cell|
Some Recent Findings
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012 was awarded jointly to Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka
- 1987 - M.D. at Kobe University, worked as a resident in orthopedic surgery at National Osaka Hospital for two years.
- 1993 - Ph.D. in medicine at Osaka City University and moved to the United States as a postdoctoral fellow at the Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, in San Francisco, CA.
- 1996 - Assistant professor at Osaka City University School of Medicine.
- 1999 - Associate professor at the Nara Institute of Science and Technology.
- 2004 - Professor at Kyoto University.
- 2010 - Director of Center for iPS Cell Research and Application at Kyoto University. Kyoto Prize in Advanced Technology | Lecture text PDF
- 2012 - The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012 awarded jointly with Sir John B. Gurdon "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent".
Development - 2016 Interview with Shinya Yamanaka (inducible Stem Cells)
Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors
Cell. 2006 Aug 25;126(4):663-76. Epub 2006 Aug 10.
Takahashi K, Yamanaka S.
Department of Stem Cell Biology, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan.
Differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to an embryonic-like state by transfer of nuclear contents into oocytes or by fusion with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Little is known about factors that induce this reprogramming. Here, we demonstrate induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic or adult fibroblasts by introducing four factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4, under ES cell culture conditions. Unexpectedly, Nanog was dispensable. These cells, which we designated iPS (induced pluripotent stem) cells, exhibit the morphology and growth properties of ES cells and express ES cell marker genes. Subcutaneous transplantation of iPS cells into nude mice resulted in tumors containing a variety of tissues from all three germ layers. Following injection into blastocysts, iPS cells contributed to mouse embryonic development. These data demonstrate that pluripotent stem cells can be directly generated from fibroblast cultures by the addition of only a few defined factors.
Yamanaka Factors Are a set of 4 transcription factors when introduced into cells induces stem cell formation. These four transcription factors can be expressed from doxycycline (dox)-inducible lentiviral vectors.
- Transcription factors containing the POU homeodomain
- Links: OMIM - OCT4
- Sry-related HMG-Box gene 2
- Kruppel-like factor 4, zinc finger protein, transcription factor which acts as both an activator and repressor.
- Links: OMIM - KLF4
- The MYC protooncogene encodes a DNA-binding factor that can activate and repress transcription.
- Ectopic expression of c-Myc can also cause tumorigenicity in offspring.
- Links: OMIM - MYC
- More recently shown that Oct4 together with either Klf4 or c-Myc is sufficient to generate iPS cells from neural stem cells.
- Tbx3 transcription factor significantly improves the quality of iPS cells.
|Embryologists: William Hunter | Wilhelm Roux | Wilhelm His | Julius Kollmann | Hans Spemann | Charles Minot | Ambrosius Hubrecht | Charles Bardeen | Franz Keibel | Franklin Mall | Florence Sabin | George Streeter | George Corner | James Hill | Jan Florian | Thomas Bryce | Thomas Morgan | Ernest Frazer | Francisco Orts-Llorca | José Doménech Mateu | Frederic Lewis | Arthur Meyer | Erich Blechschmidt | Klaus Hinrichsen | Hideo Nishimura | Arthur Hertig | John Rock | Mary Lyon | Nicole Le Douarin | Robert Winston | Fabiola Müller | Ronan O'Rahilly | Robert Edwards | John Gurdon | Shinya Yamanaka | Embryology History | Category:People|
Shinya Yamanaka, Helen M Blau Nuclear reprogramming to a pluripotent state by three approaches. Nature: 2010, 465(7299);704-12 PubMed 20535199
Kazutoshi Takahashi, Koji Tanabe, Mari Ohnuki, Megumi Narita, Tomoko Ichisaka, Kiichiro Tomoda, Shinya Yamanaka Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors. Cell: 2007, 131(5);861-72 PubMed 18035408
Kazutoshi Takahashi, Shinya Yamanaka Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors. Cell: 2006, 126(4);663-76 PubMed 16904174
Journal of Visualized Experiments - Generating iPS Cells from MEFS through Forced Expression of Sox-2, Oct-4, c-Myc, and Klf4
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Embryology History - Shinya Yamanaka. Retrieved December 18, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Embryology_History_-_Shinya_Yamanaka