Embryology History - Ronan O'Rahilly

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Introduction

Ronan O'Rahilly
Ronan O'Rahilly

Ronan O'Rahilly (1921 - 2018) was born September 13, 1921 in Cork, Ireland. A medical student, his first degrees were from the National University of Ireland. He was Chairman of Anatomy, St. Louis University, Missouri until 1969 when he became Director of the Carnegie Laboratories of Embryology in Baltimore, Maryland.


Published many key research articles along wth Fabiola Müller based upon studies of the Carnegie Collection of human embryos.


Note that where his name is shown within citations, as O'Rahilly R., it links directly to the same personal page.

  • School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.
  • Department of Anatomy, University College, Cork.


Ronan O'Rahilly and Fabiola Müller

Embryologists: William Hunter | Wilhelm Roux | Caspar Wolff | Wilhelm His | Julius Kollmann | Hans Spemann | Charles Minot | Ambrosius Hubrecht | Charles Bardeen | Franz Keibel | Franklin Mall | Florence Sabin | George Streeter | George Corner | James Hill | Jan Florian | Thomas Bryce | Thomas Morgan | Ernest Frazer | Francisco Orts-Llorca | José Doménech Mateu | Frederic Lewis | Arthur Meyer | Erich Blechschmidt | Klaus Hinrichsen | Hideo Nishimura | Arthur Hertig | John Rock | Viktor Hamburger | Mary Lyon | Nicole Le Douarin | Robert Winston | Fabiola Müller | Ronan O'Rahilly | Robert Edwards | John Gurdon | Shinya Yamanaka | Embryology History | Category:People
Related Histology Researchers  
Santiago Ramón y Cajal | Camillo Golgi

Career

  • 1943 Bachelor of Medicine, National University of Ireland.
  • 1946 Master of Science, National University of Ireland.
  • 1953 Doctor of Medicine, National University of Ireland.
  • 1989 Doctor of Science, National University of Ireland.
  • 1982 Doctor of Science (honorary), Université de Montpellier, France.

Academic

  • 1946-1948 Lecturer University Durham, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England.
  • 1948-1950 University Sheffield, England.
  • 1952-1962, 69-74 Professor Wayne State University, Detroit.
  • 1962-1969 St. Louis University, Missouri.
  • 1974-1990 University California, Davis.
  • 1991-2001 University Freiburg, Switzerland.

Obituary

Ronan O'Rahilly 1987
Ronan O'Rahilly (1987 Carnegie Labs)

Ronan O’Rahilly, Anatomist and Embryologist, Dies at 96

Ronan O’Rahilly, MD, human anatomist and embryologist, scholar, scientist, and academic whose research produced insights into our understanding of the developing human at all stages, died on June 24, 2018 in Villars-sur-Glâne, Switzerland. He was 96 and had formerly lived in Ireland, England, the United States and most recently in Fribourg, Switzerland. Professor O’Rahilly received the Bachelor of Medicine, Master of Science, Doctor of Medicine and Doctor of Science degrees from the National University of Ireland. In 1982 he was awarded a Doctor of Science degree (honorary) from the Université de Montpellier, France.


During his academic career he served as a Lecturer at the University Durham, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England, on the faculty at University Sheffield, England, as Professor at Wayne State University, Detroit on two occasions (1952-1962 and 1969-1974). During the time between these two appointments at Wayne State University, Dr. O’Rahilly served as chair of the Department of Anatomy at Saint Louis University School of Medicine. His tenure at Saint Louis University was marked by the recruitment and collaboration with a number of outstanding international scientists including Toby Arnold (South Africa), Jean Bossy (France), Werner Fischlschweiger (Austria), Turlough and Maeve FitzGerald (Ireland), MW Rana (Pakistan), Branislav Vidić (Serbia), Kee Wong (Korea), Witold Wozniak (Poland) and many others. The collaboration between Professors Vidić and O’Rahilly, for example, resulted in the publication of An Atlas of the Anatomy of the Ear. (Saunders, 1971)


Professor O’Rahilly left Saint Louis University in 1974 to head the Carnegie Laboratories of Embryology at the California Primate Research Center and the Departments of Human Anatomy and Neurology at the University of California in Davis where he remained until 1990. From 1991 to 2001 Dr. O’Rahilly held an academic appointment at the University in Fribourg, Switzerland. There were a great number of investigators in the field of embryology who visited Professor O’Rahilly and sought his expert advice at Wayne State, Saint Louis University, UC Davis and in Switzerland. His insight and knowledge of the content and significance of the Carnegie embryos that comprised the Carnegie Collection of Embryology attracted scientists from all over the world to seek his help and collaboration which he so generously provided.


While the staging of human embryos was first introduced by His and Mall, it was Streeter (1942, 1945, 1948, 1951), O’Rahilly (1973) and O’Rahilly and Müller (1987) who were the main contributors to this method of studying human differentiation. Streeter placed embryos in Horizons and titled each of them with Roman numerals. Later, O’Rahilly changed Horizon to Stage and titled each with Arabic numbers that are used today and are known as the Carnegie stages. Stage 1 (Horizon I) was defined as fertilization and Stage 23 (Horizon XXIII) was defined as the end of the embryonic period when the embryo is approximately eight weeks post fertilization age, has a greatest length of approximately 30 mm, and possesses about 4,000 definitive, permanent structures. Stages 11 through 9 were defined and described by O’Rahilly (1973) who subdivided some of the early stages Subsequently O’Rahilly and Müller (2001) revised the estimated ages using data from in vitro fertilizations (e.g., Sathananthan, 1984) and ultrasound (Dickey and Gasser, 1993). (modified from Gasser et al., 2014).


During his academic career Professor O’Rahilly wrote or contributed to some 44 books on human anatomy and human embryology. Many of these books were written with his wife and colleague, Dr. Fabiola Müller. Professor O’Rahilly published four editions of Anatomy: A Regional Study of Human Structure with ED Gardner, DJ Gray and with Fabiola Müller on the fifth edition only. One reviewer described this new textbook as “a landmark in American anatomical literature… upholding a scholarly tradition in anatomical teaching...providing convincing evidence that anatomy as a whole, both gross and microscopic, remains 'a living discipline in which research plays an active and significant role' as well as one of the foundations upon which the clinical sciences are built” (CH Barnett in J Anatomy, 1961). The classic text Basic Human Anatomy which was published by O’Rahilly and Müller in 1983 continues to be available online https://www.dartmouth.edu/~humananatomy/


Professor O’Rahilly also published some 151 research articles. Again, many of these papers were written with his wife and colleague, Dr. Fabiola Müller. Their papers were characteristically comprehensive, thoughtful, meticulously prepared, extensively referenced, and beautifully illustrated. The total body of their research studies – past as well as ongoing embryological investigations formed the foundation for two scholarly books on human embryology. Human Embryology and Teratology appeared in its first edition in 1990 and was updated again in 1996 and 2001. The Embryonic Human Brain: An Atlas of Developmental Stages appeared in its first edition in 1992 and was updated in 1999 and again in 2006. Like the five editions of Gardner, Gray and O’Rahilly Anatomy textbook, these two human embryology books are exceptional and essential reference texts on normal and abnormal human prenatal development. They are landmarks in the embryological literature undergirded by the scholarly efforts of Dr. O’Rahilly and Dr. Müller examining the Carnegie Collection of human embryos.


In addition to Professor O'Rahilly's own contributions to the anatomical sciences and the field of human embryology he made numerous personal contributions to the careers of the many international researchers he recruited to the various institutions in which he served. His contributions to the careers of others encompassed almost every aspect of their teaching, research and service activities including helping them adjust to academic life in the United States, learn another language, write research papers and reports, prepare for presentations at national and international meetings, seek grant support, and the like. Professor O’Rahilly’s influence has been far reaching and will continue to be so for many years to come through his scientific publications, books and personal investment in the lives of many others.


Dr. O’Rahilly is survived by his wife and research colleague, Dr. Fabiola Müller.


By - Dr. Paul Young, Dr. Branislav Vidic, and Dr. Jim Augustine


References

Books

O'Rahilly R. Müller F. Carpenter S. and Swenson R.Basic Human Anatomy - A Regional Study of Anatomy. (1983).

Basic Human Anatomy which was published by O’Rahilly and Müller in 1983 continues to be available online https://www.dartmouth.edu/~humananatomy/

Gardner E. O'Rahilly R. Müller F. and Gardner ED. Anatomy: A regional study of human structure. (1986) Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa.

O'Rahilly R. and Müller F. Developmental Stages in Human Embryos. Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. 637 (1987).

O'Rahilly R. and Müller F. Human Embryology and Teratology. (1990) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

O'Rahilly R. and Müller F. The Embryonic Human Brain: An Atlas Of Developmental Stages. (2006) John Wiley & Sons.

Research Papers

O'Rahilly R. The early development of the otic vesicle in staged human embryos. (1963) J Embryol Exp Morphol., 11: 741-55 PMID 14081992

O'Rahilly R. The optic, vestibulocochlear, and terminal-vomeronasal neural crest in staged human embryos. (1965) In Rohen J. W. (ed.) Second Symposium on Eye Structure. Schattauer, Stuttgart.

O'Rahilly R. The early development of the eye in staged human embryos. (1966) Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 625, Contrib. Embryol., 38: 1-42.

O'Rahilly R. The development of the epiphysis cerebri and the subcommissural complex in staged human embryos. (1968) Anat. Rec., 160: 488-489.

Gardner E. and O'Rahilly R. The early development of the knee joint in staged human embryos. (1968) J. Anat., 102(2): 289-99. PMID 5643844

O'Rahilly R. The manifestation of the axes of the human embryo. (1970) Z. Anat. Entw., 132, 50-57.

O'Rahilly R. The timing and sequence of events in human cardiogenesis. (1971) Acta anat., 79: 70-75.

O'Rahilly R. Developmental Stages in Human Embryos, Including a Survey of the Carnegie Collection. Part A: Embryos of the First Three Weeks (Stages 1 to 9). (1973) Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 631. Washington, D.C.

O'Rahilly R. 1979. Early human development and the chief sources of information on staged human embryos. Europ. J. Obstet. Gynec. Reprod. Biol., 9, 273-280. PMID 400868

O'Rahilly R. The timing and sequence of events in the development of the human endocrine system during the embryonic period proper. (1983) Anat. Embryol., 166: 439-451. PMID 6869855

O'Rahilly R. The timing and sequence of events in the development of the human eye and ear during the embryonic period proper. (1983) Anat. Embryol, 168: 419-432.

O'Rahilly R. and Boyden EA. The timing and sequence of events in the development of the human respiratory system during the embryonic period proper. (1973) Z. Anat. Entw., 141: 237-250.

O'Rahilly R. and Gardner E. The timing and sequence erf events in the development of the human nervous system during the embryonic period proper. (1971) Z Anat. Entw., 134: 1-12.

O'Rahilly R. and Gardner E. The initial appearance of ossification in staged human embryos. (1972) Amer. J. Anat., 7

O'Rahilly R. Gardner E . The initial appearance of ossification in staged human embryos. (1972) Am. J. Anat., 134(3): 291-301 PMID 5042780

O'Rahilly R. and Gardner E. The initial development of the human brain. (1979) Acta anat, 104: 123-133.

O'Rahilly R. and Muller F. The first appearance of the human nervous system at stage 8. (1981) Anat. Embryol, 163, 1-13.

O'Rahilly R. and Muller F. Embryonic length and cerebral landmarks in staged human embryos. (1984) Anat. Rec., 209: 265-271.

O'Rahilly R. and Muller F. The early development of the hypoglossal nerve and occipital somites in staged human embryos. (1984) Amer.J. Anat, 169: 237-257.

O'Rahilly R. and Muller F. Respiratory and alimentary relations in staged human embryos. New embryological data and congenital anomalies. (1984) Ann. Otol Rhinol. Laryngol, 93: 421-429.

O'Rahilly R. and Muller F. The origin of the ectodermal ring in staged human embryos of the first 5 weeks. (1985) Acta Anat., 122: 145-157.

Template:Ref-O'Rahilly1985b

O'Rahilly R. and Muller F. Human growth during the embryonic period proper. (1986) In Falkner, F., and Tanner, J. M. (ed.). Human Growth. Vol. 1, 2nd ed. Plenum, New York. Ch.15: 245-253.

O'Rahilly R. and Muller F. The meninges in human development. (1986) J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol, 45, 588-608.

O'Rahilly R. and Muller F. Stages in early human development. In Feichtinger, W., and Kemeter, P. (ed.). Future Aspects in Human in vitro Fertilization. (1987) Springer, Berlin.

Müller F. and O'Rahilly R. The development of the human brain, the closure of the caudal neuropore, and the beginning of secondary neurulation at stage 12. (1987) Anat Embryol (Berl). 176(4): 413-430. PMID 3688450

O'Rahilly R. Muller F. and Bossy J. Atlas des stades du developpement du systeme nerveux chez l'embryon humain intact. (1982) Arch. Anat. Histol Embryol, 65, 57-76.

O'Rahilly R. Muller F. Hutchins GM. and Moore GW. Computer ranking of the sequence of appearance of 100 features of the brain and related struaures in staged human embryos during the first 5 weeks of development. (1984) Amer. J. Anat., 171, 243-257.

O'Rahilly R. Muller F. and Meyer DB. The human vertebral column at the end of the embryonic period proper. 1. The column as a whole. (1980) J. Anat., 131, 567-575.

O'Rahilly R. Muller F. and Meyer DB. The human vertebral column at the end of the embryonic period proper. 2. The occipitocervical region. (1983) J. Anat., 136, 181-195.

O'Rahilly R. and Tucker JA. The early development of the larynx in staged human embryos. (1973) Ann. Otol Rhinol Laryngol, 82, Suppl. 7: 1-27.

O'Rahilly R. and Müller F. The longitudinal growth of the neuromeres and the resulting brain in the human embryo. (2013) Cells Tissues Organs. 197(3):178-95. doi: 10.1159/000343170. PMID 23183269.


Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (2011). The initial appearance of the cranial nerves and related neuronal migration in staged human embryos. Cells Tissues Organs (Print) , 193, 215-38. PMID: 20980719 DOI.

O'Rahilly R & Müller F. (2010). Developmental stages in human embryos: revised and new measurements. Cells Tissues Organs (Print) , 192, 73-84. PMID: 20185898 DOI.

O'Rahilly R. and Müller F. Significant features in the early prenatal development of the human brain. (2008) Ann. Anat. 190(2);105-18 (Review) PMID 18356030.

O'Rahilly R & Müller F. (2008). Significant features in the early prenatal development of the human brain. Ann. Anat. , 190, 105-18. PMID: 18356030 DOI.

O'Rahilly R & Müller F. (2007). The development of the neural crest in the human. J. Anat. , 211, 335-51. PMID: 17848161 DOI.

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (2006). The amygdaloid complex and the medial and lateral ventricular eminences in staged human embryos. J. Anat. , 208, 547-64. PMID: 16637878 DOI.

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (2004). Olfactory structures in staged human embryos. Cells Tissues Organs (Print) , 178, 93-116. PMID: 15604533 DOI.

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (2004). The primitive streak, the caudal eminence and related structures in staged human embryos. Cells Tissues Organs (Print) , 177, 2-20. PMID: 15237191 DOI.

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (2003). Segmentation in staged human embryos: the occipitocervical region revisited. J. Anat. , 203, 297-315. PMID: 14529047

O'Rahilly R & Müller F. (2003). Spina bifida, somitic count and carnegie stage twelve. Pediatr Neurosurg , 38, 165. PMID: 12601244 DOI.

O'Rahilly R & Müller F. (2003). Somites, spinal Ganglia, and centra. Enumeration and interrelationships in staged human embryos, and implications for neural tube defects. Cells Tissues Organs (Print) , 173, 75-92. PMID: 12649586 DOI.

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (2003). The prechordal plate, the rostral end of the notochord and nearby median features in staged human embryos. Cells Tissues Organs (Print) , 173, 1-20. PMID: 12566624 DOI.

O'Rahilly R & Müller F. (2002). The two sites of fusion of the neural folds and the two neuropores in the human embryo. Teratology , 65, 162-70. PMID: 11948562 DOI.

O'Rahilly R & Müller F. (2000). Prenatal ages and stages-measures and errors. Teratology , 61, 382-4. PMID: 10777834 <382::AID-TERA10>3.0.CO;2-5 DOI.

O'Rahilly R & Müller F. (1999). Minireview: summary of the initial development of the human nervous system. Teratology , 60, 39-41. PMID: 10413339 <39::AID-TERA11>3.0.CO;2-I DOI.

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (1997). The timing and sequence of appearance of neuromeres and their derivatives in staged human embryos. Acta Anat (Basel) , 158, 83-99. PMID: 9311417

O'Rahilly R. (1997). "Gestational age"?. Clin Anat , 10, 367. PMID: 9283739 <367::AID-CA18>3.0.CO;2-I DOI.

O'Rahilly R. (1997). Philatelic introduction to the history of anatomy. Clin Anat , 10, 337-40. PMID: 9283733 <337::AID-CA9>3.0.CO;2-N DOI.

O'Rahilly R. (1997). Making planes plain. Clin Anat , 10, 128-9. PMID: 9058021 <128::AID-CA10>3.0.CO;2-M DOI.

O'Rahilly R. (1996). Aide-mémoire in anatomy. Clin Anat , 9, 424. PMID: 8915625 <424::AID-CA14>3.0.CO;2-T DOI.

Waring GO & O'Rahilly R. (1996). A laboratory exercise in the study of the gross structure of the eye. Clin Anat , 9, 46-9. PMID: 8838280 <46::AID-CA9>3.0.CO;2-Y DOI.

O'Rahilly R. (1995). One hundred years of anatomical terminology. Acta Anat (Basel) , 154, 167-8. PMID: 8722517

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (1994). Occipitocervical segmentation in staged human embryos. J. Anat. , 185 ( Pt 2), 251-8. PMID: 7961131

O'Rahilly R & Müller F. (1994). Neurulation in the normal human embryo. Ciba Found. Symp. , 181, 70-82; discussion 82-9. PMID: 8005032

O'Rahilly R. (1993). Commemorating the Fabrica of Vesalius. Acta Anat (Basel) , 148, 228-30. PMID: 8116336

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (1991). Development of anencephaly and its variants. Am. J. Anat. , 190, 193-218. PMID: 2048550 DOI.

O'Rahilly R. and Müller F. Ventricular system and choroid plexuses of the human brain during the embryonic period proper. (1990) Amer. J Anat.189(4); 285-302 PMID 2285038

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (1990). The human rhombencephalon at the end of the embryonic period proper. Am. J. Anat. , 189, 127-45. PMID: 2244584 DOI.

Tarantal AF, Hendrickx AG & O'Rahilly R. (1990). First trimester conceptus. J Ultrasound Med , 9, 614-5. PMID: 2231863

O'Rahilly R, Müller F & Meyer DB. (1990). The human vertebral column at the end of the embryonic period proper. 3. The thoracicolumbar region. J. Anat. , 168, 81-93. PMID: 2323997

O'Rahilly R, Müller F & Meyer DB. (1990). The human vertebral column at the end of the embryonic period proper. 4. The sacrococcygeal region. J. Anat. , 168, 95-111. PMID: 2182589

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (1990). The human brain at stages 18-20, including the choroid plexuses and the amygdaloid and septal nuclei. Anat. Embryol. , 182, 285-306. PMID: 2268071

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (1990). The human brain at stages 21-23, with particular reference to the cerebral cortical plate and to the development of the cerebellum. Anat. Embryol. , 182, 375-400. PMID: 2252222

O'Rahilly R & Müller F. (1989). Interpretation of some median anomalies as illustrated by cyclopia and symmelia. Teratology , 40, 409-21. PMID: 2623629 DOI.

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (1989). Mediobasal prosencephalic defects, including holoprosencephaly and cyclopia, in relation to the development of the human forebrain. Am. J. Anat. , 185, 391-414. PMID: 2506752 DOI.

O'Rahilly R & Müller F. (1989). Bidirectional closure of the rostral neuropore in the human embryo. Am. J. Anat. , 184, 259-68. PMID: 2756902 DOI.

O'Rahilly R. (1989). Anatomical terminology, then and now. Acta Anat (Basel) , 134, 291-300. PMID: 2662697

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (1989). The human brain at stage 17, including the appearance of the future olfactory bulb and the first amygdaloid nuclei. Anat. Embryol. , 180, 353-69. PMID: 2802187

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (1989). The human brain at stage 16, including the initial evagination of the neurohypophysis. Anat. Embryol. , 179, 551-69. PMID: 2751117

O'Rahilly R, Müller F & Bossy J. (1989). [Atlas of stages of development of the human embryonic brain with graphic reconstructions of the median plane]. Arch Anat Histol Embryol , 72, 3-34. PMID: 2488067

Enders AC & O'Rahilly R. (1988). Early human pregnancy in vitro. Fertil. Steril. , 50, 1000-2. PMID: 3203747

O'Rahilly R, Müller F, Hutchins GM & Moore GW. (1988). Computer ranking of the sequence of appearance of 40 features of the brain and related structures in staged human embryos during the seventh week of development. Am. J. Anat. , 182, 295-317. PMID: 3189193 DOI.

O'Rahilly R & Müller F. (1988). "Neuroschisis" in human embryos. Teratology , 38, 189. PMID: 3175954 DOI.

O'Rahilly R. (1988). On counting cranial nerves. Acta Anat (Basel) , 133, 3-4. PMID: 3063049

O'Rahilly R & Müller F. (1988). [The Vesalius of human embryology]. Anat Anz , 166, 245-7. PMID: 3056108

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (1988). The first appearance of the future cerebral hemispheres in the human embryo at stage 14. Anat. Embryol. , 177, 495-511. PMID: 3377191

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (1988). The development of the human brain from a closed neural tube at stage 13. Anat. Embryol. , 177, 203-24. PMID: 3354839

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (1988). The development of the human brain, including the longitudinal zoning in the diencephalon at stage 15. Anat. Embryol. , 179, 55-71. PMID: 3213956

O'Rahilly R. (1987). Human embryo. Nature , 329, 385. PMID: 3657957 DOI.

O'Rahilly R, Müller F, Hutchins GM & Moore GW. (1987). Computer ranking of the sequence of appearance of 73 features of the brain and related structures in staged human embryos during the sixth week of development. Am. J. Anat. , 180, 69-86. PMID: 3661464 DOI.

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (1987). The development of the human brain, the closure of the caudal neuropore, and the beginning of secondary neurulation at stage 12. Anat. Embryol. , 176, 413-30. PMID: 3688450

Müller F, O'Rahilly R & Benson DR. (1986). The early origin of vertebral anomalies, as illustrated by a 'butterfly vertebra'. J. Anat. , 149, 157-69. PMID: 3693103

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (1986). Somitic-vertebral correlation and vertebral levels in the human embryo. Am. J. Anat. , 177, 3-19. PMID: 3535481 DOI.

O'Rahilly R & Müller F. (1986). The meninges in human development. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. , 45, 588-608. PMID: 3746345

O'Rahilly R. (1986). The embryonic period. Teratology , 34, 119. PMID: 3764772 DOI.

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (1986). [Wilhelm His and 100 years of human embryology]. Acta Anat (Basel) , 125, 73-5. PMID: 3513474

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (1986). The development of the human brain and the closure of the rostral neuropore at stage 11. Anat. Embryol. , 175, 205-22. PMID: 3826651

O'Rahilly R, Müller F & Bossy J. (1986). [Atlas of the stages of development of the external forms of the brain in the human embryo]. Arch Anat Histol Embryol , 69, 3-39. PMID: 3153558

Müller F, O'Rahilly R & Tucker JA. (1985). The human larynx at the end of the embryonic period proper. 2. The laryngeal cavity and the innervation of its lining. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. , 94, 607-17. PMID: 4073740 DOI.

O'Rahilly R & Müller F. (1985). The origin of the ectodermal ring in staged human embryos of the first 5 weeks. Acta Anat (Basel) , 122, 145-57. PMID: 4013649

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (1985). The first appearance of the neural tube and optic primordium in the human embryo at stage 10. Anat. Embryol. , 172, 157-69. PMID: 4051192

O'Rahilly R. (1985). The development and classification of anomalies of the limbs in the human. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. , 163C, 85-90. PMID: 3991662

O'Rahilly R, Müller F, Hutchins GM & Moore GW. (1984). Computer ranking of the sequence of appearance of 100 features of the brain and related structures in staged human embryos during the first 5 weeks of development. Am. J. Anat. , 171, 243-57. PMID: 6517029 DOI.

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (1984). Cerebral dysraphia (future anencephaly) in a human twin embryo at stage 13. Teratology , 30, 167-77. PMID: 6388010 DOI.

O'Rahilly R & Müller F. (1984). Chevalier Jackson lecture. Respiratory and alimentary relations in staged human embryos. New embryological data and congenital anomalies. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. , 93, 421-9. PMID: 6497234 DOI.

O'Rahilly R & Müller F. (1984). Embryonic length and cerebral landmarks in staged human embryos. Anat. Rec. , 209, 265-71. PMID: 6465535 DOI.

O'Rahilly R & Müller F. (1984). The early development of the hypoglossal nerve and occipital somites in staged human embryos. Am. J. Anat. , 169, 237-57. PMID: 6720613 DOI.

O'Rahilly R. (1983). The timing and sequence of events in the development of the human endocrine system during the embryonic period proper. Anat. Embryol. , 166, 439-51. PMID: 6869855

O'Rahilly R. (1983). The timing and sequence of events in the development of the human reproductive system during the embryonic period proper. Anat. Embryol. , 166, 247-61. PMID: 6846859

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (1983). The first appearance of the major divisions of the human brain at stage 9. Anat. Embryol. , 168, 419-32. PMID: 6673613

O'Rahilly R. (1983). The timing and sequence of events in the development of the human eye and ear during the embryonic period proper. Anat. Embryol. , 168, 87-99. PMID: 6650859

O'Rahilly R, Müller F & Meyer DB. (1983). The human vertebral column at the end of the embryonic period proper. 2. The occipitocervical region. J. Anat. , 136, 181-95. PMID: 6833119

Woźniak W, O'Rahilly R & Bruska M. (1982). Myelination of the human fetal phrenic nerve. Acta Anat (Basel) , 112, 281-96. PMID: 7113635

O'Rahilly R, Muller F & Bossy J. (1982). [Atlas of the stages of development of the nervous system in the intact human embryo]. Arch Anat Histol Embryol , 65, 57-76. PMID: 6764349

Wózniak W & O'Rahilly R. (1982). An electron microscopic study of myelination of pyramidal fibres at the level of the pyramidal decussation in the human fetus. J Hirnforsch , 23, 331-42. PMID: 7130683

O'Rahilly R, Bossy J & Müller F. (1981). [Introduction to the study of embryonic stages in man]. Bull Assoc Anat (Nancy) , 65, 141-236. PMID: 7030433

Müller F, O'Rahilly R & Tucker JA. (1981). The human larynx at the end of the embryonic period proper. I. The laryngeal and infrahyoid muscles and their innervation. Acta Otolaryngol. , 91, 323-36. PMID: 7270109

O'Rahilly R. (1981). Plain words on planes and sections. Radiol Technol , 52, 615-7. PMID: 7038758

Moore GW, Hutchins GM & O'Rahilly R. (1981). The estimated age of staged human embryos and early fetuses. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. , 139, 500-6. PMID: 7468716

Woźniak W & O'Rahilly R. (1981). Fine structure and myelination of the developing human vagus nerve. Acta Anat (Basel) , 109, 218-30. PMID: 7257721

O'Rahilly R & Müller F. (1981). The first appearance of the human nervous system at stage 8. Anat. Embryol. , 163, 1-13. PMID: 7316219

Desmond ME & O'Rahilly R. (1981). The growth of the human brain during the embryonic period proper. 1. Linear axes. Anat. Embryol. , 162, 137-51. PMID: 7283177

O'Rahilly R & Gardner E. (1981). Initial development of the human brain. Bibl Anat , , 140-1. PMID: 7225061

O'Rahilly R, Muller F & Meyer DB. (1980). The human vertebral column at the end of the embryonic period proper. 1. The column as a whole. J. Anat. , 131, 565-75. PMID: 7216919

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (1980). The early development of the nervous system in staged insectivore and primate embryos. J. Comp. Neurol. , 193, 741-51. PMID: 7440789 DOI.

Müller F & O'Rahilly R. (1980). The human chondrocranium at the end of the embryonic period, proper, with particular reference to the nervous system. Am. J. Anat. , 159, 33-58. PMID: 7446441 DOI.

Wozniak W, O'Rahilly R & Olszewska B. (1980). The fine structure of the spinal cord in human embryos and early fetuses. J Hirnforsch , 21, 101-24. PMID: 7381194

O'Rahilly R & Meyer DB. (1979). The timing and sequence of events in the development of the human vertebral column during the embryonic period proper. Anat. Embryol. , 157, 167-76. PMID: 517765

O'Rahilly R. (1979). Early human development and the chief sources of information on staged human embryos. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. , 9, 273-80. PMID: 400868

O'Rahilly R & Gardner E. (1979). The initial development of the human brain. Acta Anat (Basel) , 104, 123-33. PMID: 442966

Olszewska B, Woźniak W, Gardner E & O'Rahilly R. (1979). Types of neural cells in the spinal ganglia of human embryos and early fetuses. Z Mikrosk Anat Forsch , 93, 1182-99. PMID: 547561

O'Rahilly R. (1978). The timing and sequence of events in the development of the human digestive system and associated structures during the embryonic period proper. Anat. Embryol. , 153, 123-36. PMID: 677467

O'Rahilly R & Müller F. (1978). A model of the pancreas to illustrate its development. Acta Anat (Basel) , 100, 380-5. PMID: 636814

Drumm JE & O'Rahilly R. (1977). The assessment of prenatal age from the crown-rump length determined ultrasonically. Am. J. Anat. , 148, 555-60. PMID: 868776 DOI.

O'Rahilly R. (1977). The development of the vagina in the human. Birth Defects Orig. Artic. Ser. , 13, 123-36. PMID: 361096

Meyer DB & O'Rahilly R. (1976). The onset of ossification in the human calcaneus. Anat. Embryol. , 150, 19-33. PMID: 1015627

Gardner E & O'Rahilly R. (1976). The nerve supply and conducting system of the human heart at the end of the embryonic period proper. J. Anat. , 121, 571-87. PMID: 1018009

Gardner E & O'Rahilly R. (1976). Letter: Neural crest, limb development, and thalidomide embryopathy. Lancet , 1, 635-7. PMID: 55906

O'Rahilly R & Gardner E. (1975). The timing and sequence of events in the development of the limbs in the human embryo. Anat. Embryol. , 148, 1-23. PMID: 1202989

O'Rahilly R. (1975). The prenatal development of the human eye. Exp. Eye Res. , 21, 93-112. PMID: 1100417

Gardner E, O'Rahilly R & Prolo D. (1975). The Dandy-Walker and Arnold-Chiari malformations. Clinical, developmental, and teratological considerations. Arch. Neurol. , 32, 393-407. PMID: 1131073

O'Rahilly R & Tucker JA. (1973). The early development of the larynx in staged human embryos. I. Embryos of the first five weeks (to stage 15). Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. , 82, 1-27. PMID: 4746614 DOI.

O'Rahilly R & Boyden EA. (1973). The timing and sequence of events in the development of the human respiratory system during the embryonic period proper. Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch , 141, 237-50. PMID: 4767583

Tucker JA & O'Rahilly R. (1972). Observations on the embryology of the human larynx. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. , 81, 520-3. PMID: 5055083 DOI.

O'Rahilly R & Gardner E. (1972). The initial appearance of ossification in staged human embryos. Am. J. Anat. , 134, 291-301. PMID: 5042780 DOI.

O'Rahilly R. (1972). Guide to the staging of human embryos. Anat Anz , 130, 556-9. PMID: 5048213

O'Rahilly R & Muecke EC. (1972). The timing and sequence of events in the development of the human urinary system during the embryonic period proper. Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch , 138, 99-109. PMID: 4638679

Frantz DH & O'Rahilly R. (1971). Ulnar hemimelia. Artif Limbs , 15, 25-35. PMID: 5135223

Cooper MH & O'Rahilly R. (1971). The human heart at seven postovulatory weeks. Acta Anat (Basel) , 79, 280-99. PMID: 5165416

O'Rahilly R. (1971). The timing and sequence of events in human cardiogenesis. Acta Anat (Basel) , 79, 70-5. PMID: 5131683

O'Rahilly R & Gardner E. (1971). The timing and sequence of events in the development of the human nervous system during the embryonic period proper. Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch , 134, 1-12. PMID: 5088332

Bossy J & O'Rahilly R. (1970). [A few points on neuroanatomic and neuro-embryologic nomenclature]. C R Assoc Anat , 147, 156-61. PMID: 5525428

O'Rahilly R. (1970). The manifestation of the axes of the human embryo. Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch , 132, 50-7. PMID: 5477129

Gardner E & O'Rahilly R. (1968). The early development of the knee joint in staged human embryos. J. Anat. , 102, 289-99. PMID: 5643844

Fischlschweiger W & O'Rahilly R. (1968). The ultrastructure of the pecten oculi in the chick. II. Observations on the bridge and its relation to the vitreous body. Z Zellforsch Mikrosk Anat , 92, 313-24. PMID: 4895922

Fischlschweiger W & O'Rahilly R. (1966). The ultrastructure of the pecten oculi in the chick. Acta Anat (Basel) , 65, 561-78. PMID: 5970224

O'RAHILLY R. (1963). THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF THE OTIC VESICLE IN STAGED HUMAN EMBRYOS. J Embryol Exp Morphol , 11, 741-55. PMID: 14081992

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, January 20) Embryology Embryology History - Ronan O'Rahilly. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Embryology_History_-_Ronan_O%27Rahilly

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