Developmental Mechanism - Axes Formation
|Embryology - 2 Jun 2020 Expand to Translate|
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|A personal message from Dr Mark Hill (May 2020)|
|contributors to the site. The good news is Embryology will remain online and I will continue my association with UNSW Australia. I look forward to updating and including the many exciting new discoveries in Embryology!|
|Anatomical axes comparison||Human-anatomical-planes|
Note there is some confusion arising in the terminology when comparing animal developmental axes and those of human anatomical axes.
How do you establish the anatomical axes of the embryo? Another well studied model of axis patterning is the establishment of limb axes, in particular this system historically was studied by grafting and rotating parts of the early developing limb.
- left-right axis - Nodal induces its own expression and that of Lefty, a Nodal feedback inhibitor with a longer diffusion range.
- rostro-caudal axis - (Anteroposterior, Craniocaudal, Cephalocaudal) from the head end to opposite end of body or tail.
- dorso-ventral axis - from the spinal column (back) to belly (front).
- Proximodistal - limb axis from the tip of an appendage (distal) to where it joins the body (proximal).
|Axes Formation: left-right axis | dorso-ventral axis | rostro-caudal axis | limb axis | Coronal | Sagittal | Transverse|
|Factor Links: AMH | hCG | BMP | sonic hedgehog | bHLH | HOX | FGF | FOX | Hippo | LIM | Nanog | NGF | Nodal | Notch | PAX | retinoic acid | SIX | Slit2/Robo1 | SOX | TBX | TGF-beta | VEGF | WNT | Category:Molecular|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.
Search term: Axes Formation
Human anatomical position - anterior (ventral), posterior (dorsal)
First break in embryonic symmetry is the anteroposterior axis (A-P) sagittal plane
- BMP, Wnt,
- transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
- fibroblast growth factor (FGF)
- Links: Dorsal-Ventral Axis
rostrocaudal, craniocaudal, head to tail, superior-inferior, longitudinal plane
- Hox - bilateral animals
- Wnt/β-catenin - both bilaterian and non-bilaterian animals
- Links: Cranio-Caudal Axis
left-right axis (L-R) transverse plane
- vertebrates - left side Nodal expression
- sea urchins- right side Nodal expression, inhibit the right mesodermal coelomic pouch (CP) from forming the adult rudiment
- Nodal - induces its own expression and that of Lefty.
- Lefty - a Nodal feedback inhibitor with a longer diffusion range.
|Primitive node cilia (human stage 8)||Embryo left-right asymmetry pathway</ref>|
- Links: Left-Right Axis
- Li J, Gao F, Zhao Y, He L, Huang Y, Yang X, Zhou Y, Yu L, Zhao Q & Dong X. (2019). Zebrafish znfl1s regulate left-right asymmetry patterning through controlling the expression of fgfr1a. J. Cell. Physiol. , 234, 1987-1995. PMID: 30317609 DOI.
- Watanabe H, Schmidt HA, Kuhn A, Höger SK, Kocagöz Y, Laumann-Lipp N, Ozbek S & Holstein TW. (2014). Nodal signalling determines biradial asymmetry in Hydra. Nature , 515, 112-5. PMID: 25156256 DOI.
- Norris DP. (2012). Cilia, calcium and the basis of left-right asymmetry. BMC Biol. , 10, 102. PMID: 23256866 DOI.
Gilbert SF. Developmental Biology. 6th edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2000. Axis Formation in Amphibians: The Phenomenon of the Organizer
Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL, et al. Molecular Cell Biology. 4th edition. New York: W. H. Freeman; 2000. Anteroposterior Specification during Embryogenesis | Dorsoventral Patterning by TGFβ-Superfamily Proteins | Molecular Mechanisms of Responses to Morphogens
Madame Curie Bioscience Database Austin (TX): Landes Bioscience; 2000. The Role of Wnt Signaling in Vertebrate Head Induction and the Organizer-Gradient Model Dualism
Embryonic Axes: The Long and Short of It in the Mouse http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982204001484
Chan WK, Price DJ & Pratt T. (2017). FGF8 morphogen gradients are differentially regulated by heparan sulphotransferases Hs2st and Hs6st1 in the developing brain. Biol Open , 6, 1933-1942. PMID: 29158323 DOI.
Dynamics of anterior–posterior axis formation in the developing mouse embryo http://www.nature.com/ncomms/journal/v3/n2/full/ncomms1671.html
Search Pubmed: Embryo Axes Formation
- Longitudinal - (vertical) cranial to caudal (intersection of coronal and sagittal planes) superior inferior
- Sagittal - anteroposterior (intersection of sagittal and transverse planes) anterior (ventral)
- Transverse - horizontal (intersection of coronal and transverse planes) Left Right (sinister,dexter)
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, June 2) Embryology Developmental Mechanism - Axes Formation. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Developmental_Mechanism_-_Axes_Formation
- © Dr Mark Hill 2020, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G