Abnormal Development - Hypertension

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Introduction

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (maternal hypertension) can be environmental, genetic or of unknown causes, occurs in 2-3% (some say higher) of all pregnancies and has an increasing incidence associated with obesity. This page mainly focusses on the effects of hypertension on development, rather than the maternal health condition. Pregnancy-induced hypertension is defined as systolic blood pressure greater than 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure greater than 90 mmHg.[1]

Hypertension has previously been grouped into 4 classes:[2]

  1. chronic hypertension
  2. preeclampsia-eclampsia
  3. preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension
  4. gestational hypertension (transient hypertension of pregnancy , chronic hypertension after GA 20 weeks)


Other developmental abnormalities of development, such as hypospadias have been associated with maternal hypertension.[3]

Environmental Links: Introduction | low folic acid | iodine deficiency | Nutrition | Drugs | Australian Drug Categories | USA Drug Categories | thalidomide | herbal drugs | Illegal Drugs | smoking | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | TORCH | viral infection | bacterial infection | fungal infection | zoonotic infection | toxoplasmosis | Malaria | maternal diabetes | maternal hypertension | maternal hyperthermia | Maternal Inflammation | Maternal Obesity | hypoxia | biological toxins | chemicals | heavy metals | air pollution | radiation | Prenatal Diagnosis | Neonatal Diagnosis | International Classification of Diseases | Fetal Origins Hypothesis

Some Recent Findings

  • Trends in comorbidity, acuity, and maternal risk associated with preeclampsia across obstetric volume settings[4] "The objective of this study was to characterize morbidity, acuity, and maternal risks associated with preeclampsia across hospitals with varying obstetric volumes. This retrospective cohort analysis used a large administrative data source, the Perspective database, to characterize the risk for preeclampsia from 2006 to 2015. Of 36,985,729 deliveries included, 1,414,484 (3.8%) had a diagnosis of preeclampsia. Of these, 779,511 (2.1%) had mild, 171,109 (0.5%) superimposed, and 463,864 (1.3%) severe preeclampsia. The prevalence of mild, superimposed, and severe preeclampsia each increased over the study period with severe and superimposed preeclampsia as opposed to mild preeclampsia increasing the most proportionately (53.2 and 102.5 versus 10.8%, respectively). The use of antihypertensives used to treat severe range hypertension increased with use of intravenous labetalol increasing 31.5%, 43.2%, and 36.1% at low-, medium-, and high-volume hospitals. Comorbid risk also increased across hospital volume settings as did risk for severe maternal morbidity. Preeclampsia is increasing across obstetric care settings with preeclamptic patients demonstrating increasing comorbid risk, increased risk for severe morbidity, and more frequent need for treatment of acute hypertension."
  • Pharmacogenomics of Hypertension and Preeclampsia: Focus on Gene-Gene Interactions[5] "Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular mortality, but only about half of patients on antihypertensive therapy achieve blood pressure control. Preeclampsia is defined as pregnancy-induced hypertension and proteinuria, and is associated with increased maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Similarly, a large number of patients with preeclampsia are non-responsive to antihypertensive therapy. Pharmacogenomics may help to guide the personalized treatment for non-responsive hypertensive patients."
  • Review - Pregnancy-Induced hypertension[1] "Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) complicates 6-10% of pregnancies. It is defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) greater than 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) greater than 90 mmHg. It is classified as mild (SBP 140-149 and DBP 90-99 mmHg), moderate (SBP 150-159 and DBP 100-109 mmHg) and severe (SBP ≥ 160 and DBP ≥ 110 mmHg). PIH refers to one of four conditions: a) pre-existing hypertension, b) gestational hypertension and preeclampsia (PE), c) pre-existing hypertension plus superimposed gestational hypertension with proteinuria and d) unclassifiable hypertension. PIH is a major cause of maternal, fetal and newborn morbidity and mortality. Women with PIH are at a greater risk of abruptio placentae, cerebrovascular events, organ failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Fetuses of these mothers are at greater risk of intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity and intrauterine death. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring over a period of 24 h seems to have a role in predicting deterioration from gestational hypertension to PE. Antiplatelet drugs have moderate benefits when used for prevention of PE. Treatment of PIH depends on blood pressure levels, gestational age, presence of symptoms and associated risk factors. Non-drug management is recommended when SBP ranges between 140-149 mmHg or DBP between 90-99 mmHg. Blood pressure thresholds for drug management in pregnancy vary between different health organizations. According to 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines, antihypertensive treatment is recommended in pregnancy when blood pressure levels are ≥ 150/95 mmHg. Initiation of antihypertensive treatment at values ≥ 140/90 mmHg is recommended in women with a) gestational hypertension, with or without proteinuria, b) pre-existing hypertension with the superimposition of gestational hypertension or c) hypertension with asymptomatic organ damage or symptoms at any time during pregnancy. Methyldopa is the drug of choice in pregnancy. Atenolol and metoprolol appear to be safe and effective in late pregnancy, while labetalol has an efficacy comparable to methyldopa. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II antagonists are contraindicated in pregnancy due to their association with increased risk of fetopathy."
More recent papers  
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Search term: Maternal Hypertension | Gestational Hypertension | Preeclampsia | Eeclampsia Gestational Methyldopa

Older papers  
These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.

See also the Discussion Page for other references listed by year and References on this current page.

Gestational Hypertension

Gestational hypertension was previously called pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and is the new onset of hypertension after 20 weeks of gestation.


Pre-Eclampsia

This condition is also known as gestational proteinuric hypertension and occurs in occurs in approximately 2 to 4% of all pregnancies. The pathogenesis of eclamptic convulsions remains unknown and women with a history of eclampsia are at increased risk of eclampsia (1-2%) and preeclampsia (22-35%) in subsequent pregnancies. "Magnesium sulfate is the drug of choice for reducing the rate of eclampsia developing intrapartum and immediately postpartum."(see Sibai BM. 2005).

Recent research using a large population study in Norway has shown a strong generational association such that daughters of women who had pre-eclampsia during pregnancy had more than twice the risk of pre-eclampsia themselves. The paper concludes "Maternal genes and fetal genes from either the mother or father may trigger pre-eclampsia. The maternal association is stronger than the fetal association. The familial association predicts more severe pre-eclampsia."[6]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Kintiraki E, Papakatsika S, Kotronis G, Goulis DG & Kotsis V. (2015). Pregnancy-Induced hypertension. Hormones (Athens) , 14, 211-23. PMID: 26158653 DOI.
  2. Mammaro A, Carrara S, Cavaliere A, Ermito S, Dinatale A, Pappalardo EM, Militello M & Pedata R. (2009). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. J Prenat Med , 3, 1-5. PMID: 22439030
  3. Agopian AJ, Hoang TT, Mitchell LE, Morrison AC, Tu D, Nassar N & Canfield MA. (2016). Maternal hypertension and risk for hypospadias in offspring. Am. J. Med. Genet. A , 170, 3125-3132. PMID: 27570224 DOI.
  4. Booker WA, Ananth CV, Wright JD, Siddiq Z, D'Alton ME, Cleary KL, Goffman D & Friedman AM. (2019). Trends in comorbidity, acuity, and maternal risk associated with preeclampsia across obstetric volume settings. J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med. , 32, 2680-2687. PMID: 29478359 DOI.
  5. Luizon MR, Pereira DA & Sandrim VC. (2018). Pharmacogenomics of Hypertension and Preeclampsia: Focus on Gene-Gene Interactions. Front Pharmacol , 9, 168. PMID: 29541029 DOI.
  6. Skjaerven R, Vatten LJ, Wilcox AJ, Rønning T, Irgens LM & Lie RT. (2005). Recurrence of pre-eclampsia across generations: exploring fetal and maternal genetic components in a population based cohort. BMJ , 331, 877. PMID: 16169871 DOI.

Reviews

Ramos JGL, Sass N & Costa SHM. (2017). Preeclampsia. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet , 39, 496-512. PMID: 28793357 DOI.

Kintiraki E, Papakatsika S, Kotronis G, Goulis DG & Kotsis V. (2015). Pregnancy-Induced hypertension. Hormones (Athens) , 14, 211-23. PMID: 26158653 DOI.

Hutcheon JA, Lisonkova S & Joseph KS. (2011). Epidemiology of pre-eclampsia and the other hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol , 25, 391-403. PMID: 21333604 DOI.

Leeman L & Fontaine P. (2008). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Am Fam Physician , 78, 93-100. PMID: 18649616

Articles

Ahmad AS & Samuelsen SO. (2012). Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and fetal death at different gestational lengths: a population study of 2 121 371 pregnancies. BJOG , 119, 1521-8. PMID: 22925135 DOI.

Mammaro A, Carrara S, Cavaliere A, Ermito S, Dinatale A, Pappalardo EM, Militello M & Pedata R. (2009). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. J Prenat Med , 3, 1-5. PMID: 22439030


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, August 23) Embryology Abnormal Development - Hypertension. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Hypertension

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