Abnormal Development - Hypertension
|Embryology - 1 Dec 2020 Expand to Translate|
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Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (maternal hypertension) can be environmental, genetic or of unknown causes, occurs in 2-3% (some say higher) of all pregnancies and has an increasing incidence associated with obesity. This page mainly focusses on the effects of hypertension on development, rather than the maternal health condition. Pregnancy-induced hypertension is defined as systolic blood pressure greater than 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure greater than 90 mmHg.
Hypertension has previously been grouped into 4 classes:
- chronic hypertension
- preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension
- gestational hypertension (transient hypertension of pregnancy , chronic hypertension after GA 20 weeks)
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
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|These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.|
Gestational hypertension was previously called pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and is the new onset of hypertension after 20 weeks of gestation.
This condition is also known as gestational proteinuric hypertension and occurs in occurs in approximately 2 to 4% of all pregnancies. The pathogenesis of eclamptic convulsions remains unknown and women with a history of eclampsia are at increased risk of eclampsia (1-2%) and preeclampsia (22-35%) in subsequent pregnancies. "Magnesium sulfate is the drug of choice for reducing the rate of eclampsia developing intrapartum and immediately postpartum."(see Sibai BM. 2005).
Recent research using a large population study in Norway has shown a strong generational association such that daughters of women who had pre-eclampsia during pregnancy had more than twice the risk of pre-eclampsia themselves. The paper concludes "Maternal genes and fetal genes from either the mother or father may trigger pre-eclampsia. The maternal association is stronger than the fetal association. The familial association predicts more severe pre-eclampsia."
- Kintiraki E, Papakatsika S, Kotronis G, Goulis DG & Kotsis V. (2015). Pregnancy-Induced hypertension. Hormones (Athens) , 14, 211-23. PMID: 26158653 DOI.
- Mammaro A, Carrara S, Cavaliere A, Ermito S, Dinatale A, Pappalardo EM, Militello M & Pedata R. (2009). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. J Prenat Med , 3, 1-5. PMID: 22439030
- Agopian AJ, Hoang TT, Mitchell LE, Morrison AC, Tu D, Nassar N & Canfield MA. (2016). Maternal hypertension and risk for hypospadias in offspring. Am. J. Med. Genet. A , 170, 3125-3132. PMID: 27570224 DOI.
- Booker WA, Ananth CV, Wright JD, Siddiq Z, D'Alton ME, Cleary KL, Goffman D & Friedman AM. (2019). Trends in comorbidity, acuity, and maternal risk associated with preeclampsia across obstetric volume settings. J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med. , 32, 2680-2687. PMID: 29478359 DOI.
- Luizon MR, Pereira DA & Sandrim VC. (2018). Pharmacogenomics of Hypertension and Preeclampsia: Focus on Gene-Gene Interactions. Front Pharmacol , 9, 168. PMID: 29541029 DOI.
- Skjaerven R, Vatten LJ, Wilcox AJ, Rønning T, Irgens LM & Lie RT. (2005). Recurrence of pre-eclampsia across generations: exploring fetal and maternal genetic components in a population based cohort. BMJ , 331, 877. PMID: 16169871 DOI.
Leeman L & Fontaine P. (2008). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Am Fam Physician , 78, 93-100. PMID: 18649616
Ahmad AS & Samuelsen SO. (2012). Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and fetal death at different gestational lengths: a population study of 2 121 371 pregnancies. BJOG , 119, 1521-8. PMID: 22925135 DOI.
Mammaro A, Carrara S, Cavaliere A, Ermito S, Dinatale A, Pappalardo EM, Militello M & Pedata R. (2009). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. J Prenat Med , 3, 1-5. PMID: 22439030
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- Medline Plus -
- American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists - 2013 Report - Hypertension in Pregnancy
- Journal - Hypertension
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, December 1) Embryology Abnormal Development - Hypertension. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Hypertension
- © Dr Mark Hill 2020, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G