Abnormal Development - Fungal Infection

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The variety of fungal infections that can occur during pregnancy is as variable as the potential developmental effects. In particular several fungi produce known mycotoxin chemicals.

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Environmental Links: Introduction | low folic acid | iodine deficiency | Nutrition | Drugs | Australian Drug Categories | USA Drug Categories | thalidomide | herbal drugs | Illegal Drugs | smoking | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | TORCH | viral infection | bacterial infection | fungal infection | Zoonotic Infection | Toxoplasmosis | Malaria | Maternal Diabetes | Maternal Hypertension | maternal hyperthermia | Maternal Inflammation | Maternal Obesity | Hypoxia | Biological Toxins | Chemicals | heavy metals | radiation | Prenatal Diagnosis | Neonatal Diagnosis | International Classification of Diseases | Fetal Origins Hypothesis

Some Recent Findings

  • Ochratoxin A: developmental and reproductive toxicity-an overview[1] "Ochratoxin A (OTA) is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, reprotoxic, embryotoxic, teratogenic, neurotoxic, immunotoxic, and carcinogenic for laboratory and farm animals. Male and female reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. A number of toxins in environment are suspected to affect reproductive system in male and female. OTA is one of them. OTA has been found to be teratogenic in several animal models including rat, mouse, hamster, quail, and chick, with reduced birth weight and craniofacial abnormalities being the most common signs. The presence of OTA also results in congenital defects in the fetus. Neither the potential of OTA to cause malformations in human nor its teratogenic mode of action is known. Exposure to OTA leads to increased embryo lethality manifested as resorptions or dead fetuses. The mechanism of OTA transfer across human placenta (e.g., which transporters are involved in the transfer mechanism) is not fully understood. Some of the toxic effects of OTA are potentiated by other mycotoxins or other contaminants. Therefore, OTA exposure of pregnant women should be minimized. OTA has been shown to be an endocrine disruptor and a reproductive toxicant, with abilities of altering sperm quality. Other studies have shown that OTA is a testicular toxin in animals. Thus, OTA is a biologically plausible cause of testicular cancer in man."
More recent papers  
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Search term: Fungal Teratogen

Érica Barbosa Felestrino, Izadora Tabuso Vieira, Washington Luiz Caneschi, Isabella Ferreira Cordeiro, Renata de Almeida Barbosa Assis, Camila Gracyelle de Carvalho Lemes, Natasha Peixoto Fonseca, Angélica Bianchini Sanchez, Juan Carlos Caicedo Cepeda, Jesus Aparecido Ferro, Camila Carrião Machado Garcia, Flávio Fonseca do Carmo, Luciana Hiromi Yoshino Kamino, Leandro Marcio Moreira Biotechnological potential of plant growth-promoting bacteria from the roots and rhizospheres of endemic plants in ironstone vegetation in southeastern Brazil. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.: 2018, 34(10);156 PubMed 30284648

Ante Bubić, Natalia Mrnjavac, Igor Stuparević, Marta Łyczek, Beata Wielgus-Kutrowska, Agnieszka Bzowska, Marija Luić, Ivana Leščić Ašler In the quest for new targets for pathogen eradication: the adenylosuccinate synthetase from the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem: 2018, 33(1);1405-1414 PubMed 30191734

Jodi Switzer Blum, Jaime Hernandez-Maldonado, Kaitlyn Redford, Caitlyn Sing, Stacy C Bennett, Chad W Saltikov, Ronald S Oremland Arsenate-dependent growth is independent of an ArrA mechanism of arsenate respiration in the termite hindgut isolate Citrobacter sp. strain TSA-1. Can. J. Microbiol.: 2018, 64(9);619-627 PubMed 30169127

Emanuela Caraffa, Gianluca Russo, Serena Vita, Miriam Lichtner, Anna Paola Massetti, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Vincenzo Vullo, Maria Rosa Ciardi, Camilla Ajassa Intracranial tuberculous mass lesions treated with thalidomide in an immunocompetent child from a low tuberculosis endemic country: A case report. Medicine (Baltimore): 2018, 97(29);e11186 PubMed 30024502

Pengfei Jin, Haonan Wang, Wenbo Liu, Yongmei Fan, Weiguo Miao A new cyclic lipopeptide isolated from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HAB-2 and safety evaluation. Pestic Biochem Physiol: 2018, 147;40-45 PubMed 29933991

Older papers  


  1. ingestion of contaminated food
  2. colonization of the intestine
  3. intestinal translocation
  4. replication in the liver and spleen
  5. either the resolution of infection or spread to other organs resulting in a systemic infection


  1. Malir F, Ostry V, Pfohl-Leszkowicz A & Novotna E. (2013). Ochratoxin A: developmental and reproductive toxicity-an overview. Birth Defects Res. B Dev. Reprod. Toxicol. , 98, 493-502. PMID: 24395216 DOI.





  • Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Edited by VBD Skerman, Vicki McGowan, and PHA Sneath. Washington (DC): ASM Press; 1989. ISBN-13: 978-1-55581-014-6 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK814 PMID 20806452

Search PubMed: embryonic fungal infection | prenatal fungal infection | maternal fungal infection |

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, November 17) Embryology Abnormal Development - Fungal Infection. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Fungal_Infection

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