From Embryology
Student Information (expand to read)  
Individual Assessments
Mark Hill.jpg

Please leave this template on top of your student page as I will add your assessment items here.

Beginning your online work - Working Online in this course

  1. Make your own page.
    1. Log-in to the embryology website using your student ID and Zpass.
    2. Click your student number (shown in red at the top right of the screen following log-in)
    3. Create page using the tab at the top of the page, and save.
  2. Add the following to the top of your page exactly as shown - {{ANAT2341Student2016}}
  3. How would you identify your Type in a group and add to your page.
  4. What was the most interesting thing you learnt in the fertilisation lecture?

If you have done the above correctly your ZID should be blue and not red on this page link - ANAT2341 2016 Students.

Here is the example page I made in Lab 1 Student Page. With a few more explanatory notes.

Click here to email Dr Mark Hill

Editing Links: Editing Basics | Images | Tables | Referencing | Journal Searches | Copyright | Font Colours | Virtual Slide Permalink | My Preferences | One Page Wiki Card | Printing | Movies | Language Translation | Student Movies | Using OpenOffice | Internet Browsers | Moodle | Navigation/Contribution | Term Link | Short URLs | 2018 Test Student
Lab 1 Assessment - Researching a Topic
In the lab I showed you how to find the PubMed reference database and search it using a topic word. Lab 1 assessment will be for you to use this to find a research reference on "fertilization" and write a brief summary of the main finding of the paper.
  1. Add a new Sub-heading "Lab 1 Assessment" (without the quotes).
  2. Search the database for a reference on "fertilisation" published in the last 5 years.
    1. It must be a research article not a Review.
    2. The full paper must be available online, not just the abstract.
  3. Add a link to this reference using its PMID using this code <pubmed>XXXXX</pubmed> replacing the Xs with just the PMID number (no text).
  4. Under the reference write a short summary of the papers main findings.
    1. Only 1-2 paragraphs.
    2. Must not be a copy of the paper abstract.
  5. Save and you are done.

PubMed logo.gif

Lab 2 Assessment - Uploading an Image
  1. Upload a research image using the guide information below. The image uploaded for your individual assessment can relate to your project or from fertilisation to week 3 of development (upload only a single image).
  2. Add that image to your own individual page (see Images) including an image title and its reference link.
  3. No two students should upload the same image, check new images before you upload.
  4. No student can delete an image once uploaded, please contact me by email with the image address and I will delete (with no penalty, just glad to help out).

2016 Group Project Topic - Signaling in Development

OK you are now in a group

  1. Go to the blank group page and add a topic that interests you along with your student signature.
  2. No two groups can do the same topic, but at this stage the final topic has not yet been decided (next week).

Initially the topic can be as specific or as broad as you want.

Chicken embryo E-cad and P-cad gastrulation.png

Chicken embryo E-cad and P-cad gastrulation[1]


  1. <pubmed>27097030</pubmed>
Lab 4 Assessment - GIT Quiz

ANAT2341 Quiz Example | Category:Quiz | ANAT2341 Student 2015 Quiz Questions |

Design 4 quiz questions based upon gastrointestinal tract. Add the quiz to your own page under Lab 4 assessment and provide a sub-sub-heading on the topic of the quiz.

An example is shown below (open this page in view code or edit mode). Note that it is not just how you ask the question, but also how you explain the correct answer.

Lab 5 Assessment - Course Review
Complete the course review questionnaire and add the fact you have completed to your student page.
Lab 6 Assessment - Cleft Lip and Palate
  1. Identify a known genetic mutation that is associated with cleft lip or palate.
  2. Identify a recent research article on this gene.
  3. How does this mutation affect developmental signalling in normal development.
Lab 7 Assessment - Muscular Dystrophy
  1. What is/are the dystrophin mutation(s)?
  2. What is the function of dystrophin?
  3. What other tissues/organs are affected by this disorder?
  4. What therapies exist for DMD?
  5. What animal models are available for muscular dystrophy?
Lab 8 Assessment - Quiz
A brief quiz was held in the practical class on urogenital development.
Lab 9 Assessment - Peer Assessment
  • This will form part of your individual assessment for the course.
  • Each student should now look at each of the other Group projects in the class.
  • Next prepare a critical assessment (should include both positive and negative issues) of each project using the project group assessment criteria.
  • This assessment should be pasted without signature on the top of the specific project's discussion page. (minimum length 3-5 paragraphs/project)
  • This critical assessment should also be pasted on your own student page.
  • Each student should therefore have 5 separate reports pasted on their own page for this assessment item.
  • Length, quality and accuracy of your reports will be part of the overall mark for this assessment.
    • there will be a greater loading on this than simple question assessments.
Lab 10 Assessment - Stem Cells
As part of the assessment for this course, you will give a 15 minutes journal club presentation in Lab 10. For this you will in your current student group discuss a recent (published after 2011) original research article (not a review!) on stem cell biology or technology.
Lab 10 - Stem Cell Presentations 2016
Group Mark Assessor General Comments

Group 1: 15/20

Group 2: 19/20

Group 3: 20/20

Group 4: 19/20

Group 5: 16/20

Group 6: 16/20

The students put great effort in their presentation and we heard a nice variety of studies in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine today. The interaction after the presentation was great.

As general feedback I would like to advise students to:

  • Never discuss M&M as a separate section in journal clubs. I gave this advice prior to the lab, but still most groups did talk through the M&M section.
  • Do not use your slides as cheat sheets, avoid text on slides, know what messages you need to get across, use images to illustrate these
  • Engage with your slides. Talk through them. Point at panels. Gauge your audience’s understanding by making eye contact with them
  • Avoid using abbreviations. Most people do not readily understand these and will lose track
Lab 11 Assessment - Heart Development
Read the following recent review article on heart repair and from the reference list identify a cited research article and write a brief summary of the paper's main findings. Then describe how the original research result was used in the review article.


ANAT2341Lectures - Textbook chapters  
Lecture (Timetable) Textbook - The Developing Human Textbook - Larsen's Human Embryology
Embryology Introduction Introduction to the Developing Human
Fertilization First Week of Human Development Gametogenesis, Fertilization, and First Week
Week 1 and 2 Second Week of Human Development Second Week: Becoming Bilaminar and Fully Implanting
Week 3 Third Week of Human Development Third Week: Becoming Trilaminar and Establishing Body Axes
Mesoderm Fourth to Eighth Weeks of Human Development Fourth Week: Forming the Embryo
Ectoderm Nervous System Development of the Central Nervous System
Early Vascular Cardiovascular System Development of the Vasculature
Placenta Placenta and Fetal Membranes Development of the Vasculature
Endoderm - GIT Alimentary System Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract
Respiratory Respiratory System Development of the Respiratory System and Body Cavities
Head Pharyngeal Apparatus, Face, and Neck Development of the Pharyngeal Apparatus and Face
Neural Crest Nervous System Development of the Peripheral Nervous System
Musculoskeletal Muscular System Development of the Musculoskeletal System
Limb Development of Limbs Development of the Limbs
Renal Urogenital System Development of the Urinary System
Genital Urogenital System Development of the Urinary System
Stem Cells
Integumentary Integumentary System Development of the Skin and Its Derivatives
Endocrine Covered through various chapters (see also alternate text), read head and neck, neural crest and renal chapters.
Endocrinology Textbook - Chapter Titles  
Nussey S. and Whitehead S. Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach (2001) Oxford: BIOS Scientific Publishers; ISBN-10: 1-85996-252-1.

Full Table of Contents

Heart Cardiovascular System Development of the Heart
Sensory Development of Eyes and Ears Development of the Eyes
Fetal Fetal Period Fetal Development and the Fetus as Patient
Birth and Revision
Additional Textbook Content - The following concepts also form part of the theory material covered throughout the course.
  1. Principles and Mechanisms of Morphogenesis and Dysmorphogenesis
  2. Common Signaling Pathways Used During Development
  3. Human Birth Defect
ANAT2341 Course Timetable  
Week (Mon) Lecture 1 (Mon 1-2pm) Lecture 2 (Tue 3-4pm) Practical (Fri 1-3pm)
Week 2 (1 Aug) Introduction Fertilization Lab 1
Week 3 (8 Aug) Week 1 and 2 Week 3 Lab 2
Week 4 (15 Aug) Mesoderm Ectoderm Lab 3
Week 5 (22 Aug) Early Vascular Placenta Lab 4
Week 6 (29 Aug) Gastrointestinal Respiratory Lab 5
Week 7 (5 Sep) Head Neural Crest Lab 6
Week 8 (12 Sep) Musculoskeletal Limb Development Lab 7
Week 9 (19 Sep) Renal Genital Lab 8
Mid-semester break
Week 10 (3 Oct) Public Holiday Stem Cells Lab 9
Week 11 (10 Oct) Integumentary Endocrine Lab 10
Week 12 (17 Oct) Heart Sensory Lab 11
Week 13 (24 Oct) Fetal Birth and Revision Lab 12

ANAT2341 2016: Moodle page | ECHO360 | Textbooks | Students 2016 | Projects 2016

Lab Attendance

Z5018267 (talk) 14:39, 12 August 2016 (AEST)

Z5018267 (talk) 13:27, 19 August 2016 (AEST)

Z5018267 (talk) 13:33, 26 August 2016 (AEST)

Z5018267 (talk) 13:50, 2 September 2016 (AEST)

Z5018267 (talk) 13:34, 9 September 2016 (AEST)

Z5018267 (talk) 13:20, 7 October 2016 (AEDT)

Belbin Team Roles

Personally I believe that I have qualities which are found in many of the team roles outlined in 'Belbin's Model Team Roles' and it is difficult to restrict myself to a single role, however I feel that I am most closely correlated with the role of an implementer. I enjoy hands on work which engages me directly and have shown in the past to be efficient at coalescing ideas from multiple group members in order to work towards a common goal. As the provided description denotes I am not very particular when selecting which part of a team assignment I will take upon myself, however I disagree with the inflexibility and close-mindedness points as I am always open to new ideas which could further improve any plans that I may have already made.

Lecture 1: Fertilisation

Embryology is a area which I am somewhat familiar with however during my previous studies it was only touched upon, the fertilization lecture opened my eyes to just how intricate this single process really is and how much more there is to embryology than I knew. I myself found the sex determination steps the most interesting especially how male gonad development is activated by a Sry gene on the Y chromosome.

Lab 1 Assessment

<pubmed>27502144</pubmed> Malaria is a disease spread via the Anopheles mosquito and over the last four decades vector control methods have become increasingly ineffective due to the emergence of drug resistant parasites. As a result there is much need for an effective antimalarial vaccine to be developed and transmission-blocking vaccines (TBV) are one option which is expected to play a key role in efficient malaria control. The research article aims to test whether or not by combining two sexual-stage antigens in a TBV (the gametocyte antigen Pys48/45 and ookinete surface protein Pys25) a stronger antibody response can be achieved than by utilizing only a single antigen when immunized into mice.

Results founded that both Pys25 and Pys48/45 targeting the pre- and post-fertilization antigens respectively exhibited induced functional transmission-blocking capabilities, with serum from Pys-25 showing a markedly stronger transmission-blocking activity than Pys48/45. This being said the combination of both these DNA constructs during immunization resulted in an inhibitory effect with a drop in transmission-blocking activity due to interference between the two, however the composite vaccination did show higher activity when compared to the Pys48/45 only vaccination group. The findings do not yet reveal whether this phenomenon is only active in DNA vaccines and forms the ground work in working towards future possible efficacious composite vaccines.

Mark Hill 18 August 2016 - You have added the citation correctly and written a good brief summary of the article findings. Unfortunately, this paper is not on the topic described for assessment, unless you include malaria development. Please always read the assessment requirements and if in doubt contact the assessor for clarification.

Lab 1 assessment will be for you to use this to find a research reference on "fertilization" and write a brief summary of the main finding of the paper.

Assessment 3/5

Lab 2 Assessment

| Mark Hill 29 August 2016 - Reference information correctly included with the file summary box. Reference would look better under its own sub-heading, but I have not removed any marks for formatting. No Copyright and Student Image template included with file.

Image added correctly to your page here, but no legend or citation included.

| Assessment 3/5 |

Histological characteristic during turtle gastrulation.png

Histological characteristic during turtle gastrulation[1]

Lab 3 Assessment

Mark Hill 31 August 2016 - Lab 3 Assessment Quiz - Mesoderm and Ectoderm development. Assessment 5/5

Lab 4 Assessment


1 The mesoderm undegoes segementation to form which of the following layers

paraxial, intermediate mesoderm and splanchnic mesoderm
paraxial, intermediate mesoderm and lateral plate mesoderm
paraxial, lateral plate mesoderm and somites
paraxial, lateral plate and splanchnic mesoderm

2 Which of the following events occurs in week 4 of gestational age.

Mesentry development
hepatic diverticulum development begins
Canalization occurs
Intestine herniation occurs

3 Which of the following are part of the adult foregut?

celiac artery, upper duodenum, liver
superior part anal canal, jejunum, liver
liver, superior mesenteric artery, cecum
inferior mesenteric artery, rectum, celiac artery

4 The lumen abnormality Atresia can be describe as:

Narrowing of the lumen
The formation of parallel lumens.
Interruption of the lumen
Inflammation of the meninges of the brain.

Mark Hill 13 October 2016 - These seem good quiz questions with a few issues. Question 1 should be "mesoderm initially undergoes segmentation". Question 2 "week 4 of gestational age" you mean post-fertilisation age, as gestational age would be week 6. Question 3 answer the "respiratory tract" is not part of the foregut GIT. Question 4 always better to show the correct answer in the order first. Assessment 4/5

Lab 5 Assessment

I have completed the prescribed questionnaire during lab.

Mark Hill 11 October 2016 - Questionnaire on course structure. Assessment 5/5

Lab 6 Assessment

Identify a known genetic mutation that is associated with cleft lip or palate: Wnt9b gene mutation

Identify a recent research article on this gene: <pubmed>PMC3086810</pubmed> How does this mutation affect developmental signalling in normal development: Mutation of Wnt9b lead to cleft lip/palate (CLP) in mice, this indicated that Wntpb played a key role in the development of the lip. This was further supported from observations that Wnt signaling is activated during mid facial morphogenesis in mice, during this process the genetic inactivation of low density lipoprotein receptor-releated protein 6 (Lrp6) a co-receptor of the Wnt/ β-catenin signaling pathway was found to be the trigger for CLP. It is also found that this signaling pathway has other downstream targets (Msx1 and Msx2) which are involved in lip formation and fusion. [2]

Mark Hill 13 October 2016 - Should have explained that OMIM WNT9B is a cysteine-rich secreted glycoprotein that acts as extracellular signaling factor. Assessment 4/5

Lab 7 Assessment

What is/are the dystrophin mutation(s)? Dystrophin is a cytoskeleton protein which is encoded by a complex gene on the X chromosome, mutations of this gene are abundant and mostly affect the expression of muscle isoform. The most common mutation in the dystrophin gene is intragenic deletions which make up for 65% of total dystrophin mutations, two deletion hotspots are known, one located towards the center of the gene and another towards the 5’ end.[3]

What is the function of dystrophin? Dystrophin is a rod shaped protein which is associated with the plasma membrane of cardiac and skeletal muscle (the sarcolemma), its main role is to interact with integral membrane proteins such as sarcoglycans and dystroclycans which are assembled in a dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. One of the main roles of this complex is to stabilize the sarcolemma and protect muscle fibres from long term contraction induced damage + necrosis. Mutations of the genes encoding for these proteins result in various types of muscular dystrophy.[3]

What other tissues/organs are affected by this disorder? There are short dystrophin isoforms which are found in the retina, brain and kidney tissues as well as skeletal and cardiac muscle. Some patients who are suffering from DMD also have severe mental retardation however others with DMD have completely normal intellectual function. In regards to dystrophin mutation within the retina the affected males have shown normal visual acuity however parallel studies involving mice shows defects in electroretinography proving to be abnormal.[3]

What therapies exist for DMD? There are currently many different therapies some include: gene replacement therapy, myoblast transplantation, stem-cell therapy, proteasome inhibitors and upregulation therapy.[4]

What animal models are available for muscular dystrophy? The two most widely used animal models for muscular dystrophy are the mdx mouse and golden retriever muscular dystrophy dog.[4]

Mark Hill 13 October 2016 - These are good answers. Assessment 5/5

Lab 9 Assessment

These are very good reviews of the project pages, with some specific examples. They include a balanced critical assessment, perhaps a little too on the positive side, given the existing status of some of these pages. 7/10

Group 1

This group has covered a substantial amount of content however the beginning of the article requires an introductory paragraph which outlines the basics of WnT signaling, this will prove to be useful for readers with little knowledge of the process and provide a good framework for the rest of the article. In regards to their referencing they have begun to compile a reference list which is an excellent start however they are lacking in text citation as well as numbering of their list. The group has made a good selection of sub-headings covering the content thoroughly however some of the coding for the headings has not been added properly, “===what can go wrong? ===” which is not a big problem but should be attended to. As well as this the formatting of the headings should be fixed so that they each fall under the correct numbering in the table of contents, examples of this can be found in previous years projects. This report has a good start however requires further information and media, especially diagrams, tables and student made figures. Specifically since they are describing pathways (non-canonical, PCP etc) and their subdivision, flowcharts will be especially useful when explaining each step to audiences and also a good opportunity to include their own student made figures. These media additions will help strengthen not only the means of information delivery but also aid in keeping readers engaged and presenting them with an alternative perspective on written concepts. Overall group 1 has made a good effort to begin their project and compiling information on WnT signaling however there are some small aspects which need to be touched up.

Group 2

Upon first look this group’s project is very well laid out, each heading and subheading fall under each other perfectly and the overall formatting is very appealing. In conjunction with this the group has made efforts to use flowcharts and diagrams which is again another positive aspect, however they should aim to also include a student made figure as is indicated in the marking criteria. In regards to the content of the page, the Notch signaling pathway is well introduced and the history section gives a good overview of steps taken to build up to our current knowledge of the Notch system. The referencing for this page has been done in different formats, i.e there are multiple types of intext citation, in some instances a superscript number is provided with a link where as in other cases there are author names provided, in order to increase the readability and flow of the article I recommend sticking to a single format. The group has provided a more than substantial amount of information for a draft version of their page however in some areas it is difficult to follow along due to the presence of undefined or newly introduced terms. This problem may be alleviated by adding the more technical terms to the glossary section they have created.

Group 3

This group has gathered a large amount of information and made good progress on the FGFR pathway, the introduction is well written and helps set the framework for the rest of the article. The organization of the page including the subheadings and formatting was very impressive and needs little work. The history section however should be attended to as there are only two entries, a more substantial history especially recent developments would be very beneficial in understanding the FGFR pathway. The media usage is very abundant throughout the page and includes student made illustrations which is something many other groups have not yet incorporated thus is a very good sign. Of course more media could be used in the abnormalities section to demonstrate how these appear/how they are occurring. Overall this group has done very well in addressing the marking guidelines once more content is added underneath the unfilled subheadings and the superfluous links/notes have been removed the article should come out very nicely.

Group 4

This group has collated a large amount of information and presented it in a well referenced and written manner however the page could do with other learning mediums such as more images and/or videos. Currently the page is not very engaging and the addition of these will help with this aspect of the project. The referencing for this page has been done well on most accounts however there is no reference provided for the image they have placed under the hedgehog signaling pathway heading, also there is a stray reference at the beginning of the page which should be moved to the reference list. As well as this towards the start of the article an introductory paragraph should also be provided in order to help readers gain basic background knowledge on the hedgehog signaling pathway before delving into more complex concepts. Some of the terminology used throughout this article may prove to be difficult to understand for readers who are new to the topic or come from a non-science background therefore terms such as N and C terminus should be defined in an additional glossary section which can be added at the bottom of the page. Overall this group has made significant progress towards a good draft copy of their article and after filling out empty subheadings and adding vital components such as a good introductory paragraph they will have a well set out final product.

Group 5

This group’s project has been very well done they have provided a substantial amount of information as well as media to supplement all written concepts they have explained. They have provided self-edited/modified images however they have not produced any of their own illustrations/flowcharts, this should be added to fulfil marking guidelines and demonstrate their own understanding of subject matter. Unlike many other group they have provided well thought out tables which provide a brief summary of a collection of the main T-box genes. In this table they have outlined abnormalities however they want to consider adding visual aids for visible conditions such as clef palate, this would allow readers to easily understand what mutation in a certain T-box gene would manifest as phenotypically. In addition to this the image referencing is inconsistent throughout the page, in some areas there will be hyperlinked text “image from here” where as in other locations there will be a superscripted reference. There is nothing wrong with this however by accustoming the viewers to a consistent form of referencing will improve readability and allow for an easier flow. Overall there is little to critique about this project and the group has put in a lot of work to ensure that majority of the boxes are ticked, they may however want to look into ways of making their page more engaging by adding small quizzes or true or false questions scattered along the span of the article to ensure readers are understanding the conveyed information properly.

Lab 10 - Stem Cell Presentations 2016
Group Mark Assessor General Comments

Group 1: 15/20

Group 2: 19/20

Group 3: 20/20

Group 4: 19/20

Group 5: 16/20

Group 6: 16/20

The students put great effort in their presentation and we heard a nice variety of studies in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine today. The interaction after the presentation was great.

As general feedback I would like to advise students to:

  • Never discuss M&M as a separate section in journal clubs. I gave this advice prior to the lab, but still most groups did talk through the M&M section.
  • Do not use your slides as cheat sheets, avoid text on slides, know what messages you need to get across, use images to illustrate these
  • Engage with your slides. Talk through them. Point at panels. Gauge your audience’s understanding by making eye contact with them
  • Avoid using abbreviations. Most people do not readily understand these and will lose track

Student Page

  1. <pubmed>18628985</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>21331089</pubmed>
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 <pubmed>14636778</pubmed>
  4. 4.0 4.1 <pubmed>15470384</pubmed>