From Embryology
Student Information (expand to read)  
Individual Assessments
Mark Hill.jpg

Please leave this template on top of your student page as I will add your assessment items here.

Beginning your online work - Working Online in this course

  1. Make your own page.
    1. Log-in to the embryology website using your student ID and Zpass.
    2. Click your student number (shown in red at the top right of the screen following log-in)
    3. Create page using the tab at the top of the page, and save.
  2. Add the following to the top of your page exactly as shown - {{ANAT2341Student2016}}
  3. How would you identify your Type in a group and add to your page.
  4. What was the most interesting thing you learnt in the fertilisation lecture?

If you have done the above correctly your ZID should be blue and not red on this page link - ANAT2341 2016 Students.

Here is the example page I made in Lab 1 Student Page. With a few more explanatory notes.

Click here to email Dr Mark Hill

Editing Links: Editing Basics | Images | Tables | Referencing | Journal Searches | Copyright | Font Colours | Virtual Slide Permalink | My Preferences | One Page Wiki Card | Printing | Movies | Language Translation | Student Movies | Using OpenOffice | Internet Browsers | Moodle | Navigation/Contribution | Term Link | Short URLs | 2018 Test Student
Lab 1 Assessment - Researching a Topic
In the lab I showed you how to find the PubMed reference database and search it using a topic word. Lab 1 assessment will be for you to use this to find a research reference on "fertilization" and write a brief summary of the main finding of the paper.
  1. Add a new Sub-heading "Lab 1 Assessment" (without the quotes).
  2. Search the database for a reference on "fertilisation" published in the last 5 years.
    1. It must be a research article not a Review.
    2. The full paper must be available online, not just the abstract.
  3. Add a link to this reference using its PMID using this code <pubmed>XXXXX</pubmed> replacing the Xs with just the PMID number (no text).
  4. Under the reference write a short summary of the papers main findings.
    1. Only 1-2 paragraphs.
    2. Must not be a copy of the paper abstract.
  5. Save and you are done.

PubMed logo.gif

Lab 2 Assessment - Uploading an Image
  1. Upload a research image using the guide information below. The image uploaded for your individual assessment can relate to your project or from fertilisation to week 3 of development (upload only a single image).
  2. Add that image to your own individual page (see Images) including an image title and its reference link.
  3. No two students should upload the same image, check new images before you upload.
  4. No student can delete an image once uploaded, please contact me by email with the image address and I will delete (with no penalty, just glad to help out).

2016 Group Project Topic - Signaling in Development

OK you are now in a group

  1. Go to the blank group page and add a topic that interests you along with your student signature.
  2. No two groups can do the same topic, but at this stage the final topic has not yet been decided (next week).

Initially the topic can be as specific or as broad as you want.

Chicken embryo E-cad and P-cad gastrulation.png

Chicken embryo E-cad and P-cad gastrulation[1]


  1. <pubmed>27097030</pubmed>
Lab 4 Assessment - GIT Quiz

ANAT2341 Quiz Example | Category:Quiz | ANAT2341 Student 2015 Quiz Questions |

Design 4 quiz questions based upon gastrointestinal tract. Add the quiz to your own page under Lab 4 assessment and provide a sub-sub-heading on the topic of the quiz.

An example is shown below (open this page in view code or edit mode). Note that it is not just how you ask the question, but also how you explain the correct answer.

Lab 5 Assessment - Course Review
Complete the course review questionnaire and add the fact you have completed to your student page.
Lab 6 Assessment - Cleft Lip and Palate
  1. Identify a known genetic mutation that is associated with cleft lip or palate.
  2. Identify a recent research article on this gene.
  3. How does this mutation affect developmental signalling in normal development.
Lab 7 Assessment - Muscular Dystrophy
  1. What is/are the dystrophin mutation(s)?
  2. What is the function of dystrophin?
  3. What other tissues/organs are affected by this disorder?
  4. What therapies exist for DMD?
  5. What animal models are available for muscular dystrophy?
Lab 8 Assessment - Quiz
A brief quiz was held in the practical class on urogenital development.
Lab 9 Assessment - Peer Assessment
  • This will form part of your individual assessment for the course.
  • Each student should now look at each of the other Group projects in the class.
  • Next prepare a critical assessment (should include both positive and negative issues) of each project using the project group assessment criteria.
  • This assessment should be pasted without signature on the top of the specific project's discussion page. (minimum length 3-5 paragraphs/project)
  • This critical assessment should also be pasted on your own student page.
  • Each student should therefore have 5 separate reports pasted on their own page for this assessment item.
  • Length, quality and accuracy of your reports will be part of the overall mark for this assessment.
    • there will be a greater loading on this than simple question assessments.
Lab 10 Assessment - Stem Cells
As part of the assessment for this course, you will give a 15 minutes journal club presentation in Lab 10. For this you will in your current student group discuss a recent (published after 2011) original research article (not a review!) on stem cell biology or technology.
Lab 10 - Stem Cell Presentations 2016
Group Mark Assessor General Comments

Group 1: 15/20

Group 2: 19/20

Group 3: 20/20

Group 4: 19/20

Group 5: 16/20

Group 6: 16/20

The students put great effort in their presentation and we heard a nice variety of studies in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine today. The interaction after the presentation was great.

As general feedback I would like to advise students to:

  • Never discuss M&M as a separate section in journal clubs. I gave this advice prior to the lab, but still most groups did talk through the M&M section.
  • Do not use your slides as cheat sheets, avoid text on slides, know what messages you need to get across, use images to illustrate these
  • Engage with your slides. Talk through them. Point at panels. Gauge your audience’s understanding by making eye contact with them
  • Avoid using abbreviations. Most people do not readily understand these and will lose track
Lab 11 Assessment - Heart Development
Read the following recent review article on heart repair and from the reference list identify a cited research article and write a brief summary of the paper's main findings. Then describe how the original research result was used in the review article.


ANAT2341Lectures - Textbook chapters  
Lecture (Timetable) Textbook - The Developing Human Textbook - Larsen's Human Embryology
Embryology Introduction Introduction to the Developing Human
Fertilization First Week of Human Development Gametogenesis, Fertilization, and First Week
Week 1 and 2 Second Week of Human Development Second Week: Becoming Bilaminar and Fully Implanting
Week 3 Third Week of Human Development Third Week: Becoming Trilaminar and Establishing Body Axes
Mesoderm Fourth to Eighth Weeks of Human Development Fourth Week: Forming the Embryo
Ectoderm Nervous System Development of the Central Nervous System
Early Vascular Cardiovascular System Development of the Vasculature
Placenta Placenta and Fetal Membranes Development of the Vasculature
Endoderm - GIT Alimentary System Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract
Respiratory Respiratory System Development of the Respiratory System and Body Cavities
Head Pharyngeal Apparatus, Face, and Neck Development of the Pharyngeal Apparatus and Face
Neural Crest Nervous System Development of the Peripheral Nervous System
Musculoskeletal Muscular System Development of the Musculoskeletal System
Limb Development of Limbs Development of the Limbs
Renal Urogenital System Development of the Urinary System
Genital Urogenital System Development of the Urinary System
Stem Cells
Integumentary Integumentary System Development of the Skin and Its Derivatives
Endocrine Covered through various chapters (see also alternate text), read head and neck, neural crest and renal chapters.
Endocrinology Textbook - Chapter Titles  
Nussey S. and Whitehead S. Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach (2001) Oxford: BIOS Scientific Publishers; ISBN-10: 1-85996-252-1.

Full Table of Contents

Heart Cardiovascular System Development of the Heart
Sensory Development of Eyes and Ears Development of the Eyes
Fetal Fetal Period Fetal Development and the Fetus as Patient
Birth and Revision
Additional Textbook Content - The following concepts also form part of the theory material covered throughout the course.
  1. Principles and Mechanisms of Morphogenesis and Dysmorphogenesis
  2. Common Signaling Pathways Used During Development
  3. Human Birth Defect
ANAT2341 Course Timetable  
Week (Mon) Lecture 1 (Mon 1-2pm) Lecture 2 (Tue 3-4pm) Practical (Fri 1-3pm)
Week 2 (1 Aug) Introduction Fertilization Lab 1
Week 3 (8 Aug) Week 1 and 2 Week 3 Lab 2
Week 4 (15 Aug) Mesoderm Ectoderm Lab 3
Week 5 (22 Aug) Early Vascular Placenta Lab 4
Week 6 (29 Aug) Gastrointestinal Respiratory Lab 5
Week 7 (5 Sep) Head Neural Crest Lab 6
Week 8 (12 Sep) Musculoskeletal Limb Development Lab 7
Week 9 (19 Sep) Renal Genital Lab 8
Mid-semester break
Week 10 (3 Oct) Public Holiday Stem Cells Lab 9
Week 11 (10 Oct) Integumentary Endocrine Lab 10
Week 12 (17 Oct) Heart Sensory Lab 11
Week 13 (24 Oct) Fetal Birth and Revision Lab 12

ANAT2341 2016: Moodle page | ECHO360 | Textbooks | Students 2016 | Projects 2016

Group Work

Resource Investigator

The Resource Investigator gives a team a rush of enthusiasm at the start of the project by vigorously pursuing contacts and opportunities. He or she is focused outside the team, and has a finger firmly on the pulse of the outside world. Where a Plant creates new ideas, a Resource Investigator will quite happily appropriate them from other companies or people. A good Resource Investigator is a maker of possibilities and an excellent Connector (social)|networker, but has a tendency to lose momentum towards the end of a project and to forget small details.


A co-ordinator is a likely candidate for the chairperson of a team, since they have a talent for stepping back to see the big picture. Co-ordinators are confident, stable and mature and because they recognise abilities in others, they are very good at delegating tasks to the right person for the job. The co-ordinator clarifies decisions, helping everyone else focus on their tasks. Co-ordinators are sometimes perceived to be manipulative and will tend to delegate all work, leaving nothing but the delegating for them to do.

Lecture 1: Fertilization

The most interesting part of the lecture was learning about the abnormalities that can occur, although they are unfortunate events, it is interesting to learn how this occurs and the different outcomes

Mark Hill 4 August 2016 - Thank you for adding this content before tomorrows lab. Also, if you look at the History tab (under the pencil in the top menu) you can see how every page edit is logged. Note that page History cannot be edited or deleted. It also means that no-one can edit your page without you knowing.

Lab Attendance

Lab 1

Z3460148 (talk) 14:35, 5 August 2016 (AEST)

Lab 2

Z3460148 (talk) 14:42, 12 August 2016 (AEST)

Lab 3

Z3460148 (talk) 13:15, 19 August 2016 (AEST)

Lab 4

Z3460148 (talk) 14:54, 26 August 2016 (AEST)

Lab 5

Z3460148 (talk) 13:07, 2 September 2016 (AEST)

Lab 6

Z3460148 (talk) 13:09, 9 September 2016 (AEST)

Lab 7

Z3460148 (talk) 14:04, 16 September 2016 (AEST)

Lab 8

Z3460148 (talk) 14:59, 26 September 2016 (AEST)

Lab 9

Z3460148 (talk) 13:14, 7 October 2016 (AEDT)

Lab 10

Z3460148 (talk) 22:57, 27 October 2016 (AEDT)

Lab 11

Z3460148 (talk) 13:09, 28 October 2016 (AEDT)

Lab 12

Z3460148 (talk) 13:09, 28 October 2016 (AEDT)

Lab 1 Assessment


The paper explores the possibility of pregnancy at a later age in life using in vitro fertilisation. The purpose of study was to provide the opportunity to have a child later in life, due to the interruptions and commitments that may prevent pregnancy from occurring at an earlier age. The study aimed to determine whether dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) decreases the age-related decline of the in vitro fertilization outcome in women younger than 40 years old. It acts as an anti-ageing property to pregnancy. The main finding of the experiment was that women experienced higher pregnancy rates and lower miscarriage rates. 109 women participated in the trial and were between 36-40 years old. One group received 75 mg of DHEA once a day, while the women in the second group (control group) received a placebo for a total of 8 weeks. They then underwent IVF treatment. 22 women in the first group became pregnant and all the births were successful and no miscarriages occurred. However, the control group had 18 pregnancies, however 5 of those ended in miscarriages. The other 13 pregnancies resulted in normal births. Thus it can be concluded that the DHEA had an effect on pregnancy and resulted in higher live birth rates and lower miscarriage rates. Thus DHEA has been proven to assist and increase the probability of live births and decreasing the chance of miscarriage in women, allowing pregnancy to occur at a late stage in life.

Mark Hill 18 August 2016 - You have added a citation correctly, but it does not match the paper summary you have provided. You should check your work and have noticed that the title did not match. Please fix this before I can provide a full assessment. Assessment ?5/5

Lab 2 Assessment

Mechanism of Fertilization.jpg

Reference: Mechanism of Fertilization[1]

  1. <pubmed>25851662</pubmed>

Mark Hill 29 August 2016 - All information Reference, Copyright and Student Image template correctly included with the file and referenced on your page here. Assessment 5/5

Mark Hill 31 August 2016 - Lab 3 Assessment Quiz - Mesoderm and Ectoderm development.

Question 2 - paraxial

Question 3 - brain vesicles

Question 5 - maternal diet

Assessment 2.5/5

Lab 4 Assessment

Gastrointestinal Tract Quiz

1 The Ectoderm, in the germ layer, contributes to which of the following :

Smooth Muscle
Blood Vessels
Enteric Nervous System

2 Meckel's Diverticulum is quite common, which of the following represents the closest value to its occurrence:


3 Which of the following occurs as a result of a lack of enteric nervous system:

Intestinal Aganglionosis
Intestinal Malrotation

4 Which of the following statements are not true:

  • A: The mesoderm undergoes segmentation to form paraxial, intermediate mesoderm and lateral plate mesoderm
  • B: Paraxial mesoderm segments into somites
  • C: The 3 major body cavities are the pericardial, pharynx and peritoneal cavities
  • D: Most of the GI tract will eventually lie within the peritoneal cavity


Mark Hill 17 October 2016 - GIT Quiz questions test a range of topics. Question 1 is good, should include gastrointestinal tract in the question. Question 2 tests knowledge of prevalence and your answer gives an explanation. Question 3 is OK. Question 4 has a mix of concepts, some not related to GIT. Assessment 5/5

Lab 5 Assessment

Survey completed

Mark Hill 17 October 2016 - Questionnaire completed, thanks. Assessment 5/5

Lab 6 Assessment

Identify a known genetic mutation that is associated with cleft lip or palate. T-box transcription factor-22 is associated with cleft palate

Identify a recent research article on this gene. Reference: Genetic Mutations of Cleft Lip and Palate [1]

  1. <pubmed>22438645 </pubmed>

How does this mutation affect developmental signalling in normal development The genetic mutation is linked to the X chromosome (CPX). The mutation is expressed as cleft palate and ankyloglossia (tongue-tie). The expression in males differs to females. In males, high-arched palate, bifid uvula, or ankyloglossia can be seen, while in females they may express the CPX mutation in whole.

Mark Hill 17 October 2016 - TBX22 is a factor identified by several students and you summary is useful. It would have been good to also include the signaling pathway involved. Assessment 5/5

Lab 7 Assessment

1. What is/are the dystrophin mutation(s)?

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by a mutation of the dystrophin gene on the X chromosome . There are over 1000 gene mutations that can result in DMD. The gene codes for skeletal muscles and cardiac muscles and as a result, the mutation causes muscle weakness and cardiorespiratory complications leading to premature death. It is confirmed in the individual through muscle biopsy or genetic testing. The extent of its nature is important to determine as it allows genetic counseling and individualised treatment. The majority of the cases involving DMD are males due to the genes recessive nature.

2. What is the function of dystrophin?

The purpose of dystrophin in the body is related to skeletal muscle. It acts to strengthen the existing muscle fibers and prevent damage from occurring, since the muscles are constantly contracting and relaxing. Dystrophin acts as a supportive complex to the cytoskeleton of the muscles, consisting of a protein lattice located on the exterior of the cells. Another function of the dystrophin complex is related to nerve cells. It allows normal functioning of the nerve synapses as well as maintaining its structure, thus allowing communication between cells to work efficiently.

3. What other tissues/organs are affected by this disorder?

The mutation affects many muscles including the shoulders, legs and arms, leading to fatigue in the individual and inability to perform everyday tasks effeciently, for example, climbing a flight of stairs. It can cause contracture, that is, tightening the joints and tendons, especially in the ankles, limiting the range of motion. Scoliosis can also occur which appears as a curved spine, this could then impact upper body functioning, such as causing breathing difficulties. DMD can also affect brain functioning, which in turn affects speech and cognitive functioning. Also, heart problems can occur as the cardiac muscle begins to falter.

4. What therapies exist for DMD?

Although there is no cure for DMD, there are several strategies in place to reduce its full impact. Physiotherapy is an option in place to strengthen the weakened muscles. Splints can be used, especially in the legs to maintain stretching of the muscles. Speech therapy can be utilised as soon as a speech disorder is detected to improve and prevent the individual from getting worse. Steroids have been proven to delay DMD from progressing at its actual speed. However, if steroids are used, the diet needs to be monitored to ensure weight is being maintained. A non-invasive ventilation machine can be used to assist breathing in the individual, especially while sleeping. Surgery can be implemented if contracture has occurred to loosen the joints and allow a larger range of motion. Surgery on the spine can also occur if the individual has scoliosis. A metal rod can be implanted to straighten the spine and prevent further curving.

5. What animal models are available for muscular dystrophy?

MDX mice are a widely used animal model to determine the effects of DMD. The results of the mice can then be tested on a large scale animal. DMD has also been observed in over 20 different dog breeds, including, Cavalier King Charles spaniel, Golden Retrievers and Rottweilers. However, most studies are based on the Golden Retriever species

[1] [2] [3] [4]

  1. <pubmed>27524897</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>27594988</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>25740330</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>26396664</pubmed>

Mark Hill 17 October 2016 - Excellent referenced answers. Assessment 5/5

Lab 8 Assessment

Online Quiz Completed

Lab 9 Assessment

These are good reviews of the project pages, with some specific examples. They include a balanced critical assessment, given the existing status of these pages. 8/10

Group 2

Well done on the presentation and content of your topic, everything is set out very clearly and you have covered quite a lot of content. The history timeline is a great addition to the page as it outlines clearly and simply the progression through time of what new information had been learnt. The use of both tables and images assists the understanding of the individual in a simple manner. The in text citations are quite useful and extensive, it allows the reader to further their own research on a particular area of the topic. The introduction was quite detailed yet simple to understand and gave a great overall understanding of what will be included in the page. The cardiovascular information on the page related to embryonic development is a major highlight. You have covered quite a significant amount of information and yet you have distributed the information into sub-headings that allow an easier understanding of the topic.

You have also included on your page animal models and studies in relation to the Notch signalling pathway. It is quite interesting to see what the role of the pathway is in each of the models. Also, the addition of the abnormalities is quite interesting to read, and you have covered several abnormalities that can occur.

One thing I must point out is maybe you should include a more detailed glossary section, as you have used a few terms that may be hard to understand for some people, or better explain them within the paragraph. You have also included some pictures on your page, however, you do not link them to your explanation very well, maybe you should explain in detail what is exactly going on in the image. For example, it seems as if your explanation and terms used for the canonical pathway does not match those of the image for that section. Also, that particular image is not of the best quality and any writing present cannot be clearly and easily read. There are also several sub-headings that are missing information, I do, however, look forward to read what you will include

You have put together quite an impressive page with lots of information that is divided clearly into many sub-headings. It was fairly simple to understand the content, only minor changes should be made to your page.

Group 3

Overall, it is a great page to look at with lots of information divided clearly into subheadings. The subtypes of the FGFR in the table is quite useful and clearly explain the differences between them, also the addition of the abnormalities in that table is very useful. The student drawn image is a very nice addition to the page, however some of the writing is slightly difficult to read. The section on the role on embryonic development is quite detailed and very well set out. There are many reference throughout the page, which is very useful to the reader. The abnormalities are discussed very well and you have explored a large range of possible abnormalities.

The history information is lacking a little and doesn’t provide much understanding on the progression of knowledge on this topic. The overview of the pathway is quite simple, so I don’t feel like I have a good enough understanding of what the pathway actually entails. You should probably include a better glossary section as you have a lot of complex terminology within the page that is not explained, so a glossary list will help the reader better understand what is going on. The section on bone development is slightly confusing due to the image used. The image is very complicated and has a lot of detail within it. One change would be to draw the image yourself to simplify it and express only the information required. There are a lot of blank sections within the page that will hopefully be filled in soon.

The addition of the quiz at the end of the page is a very nice idea, however, I was disappointed to see that both the questions and answers were still blank. I do really like the idea of it and I feel that once it has been finalised it will be useful to the reader.

Looking at the page as a whole, I really like the way everything is set out and the content you have covered. Most of the information is very clear to understand and some of the images compliment the writing very well. Some small changes can be made to assist the understanding of the reader.

Group 4

The layout of the page is quite nice with lots of sub-headings present that can be used to navigate the page easily. The explanation of the mechanism in animal models in humans is very good and extremely detailed. You have covered a lot of information in this section and have covered a variety of animal models. You have also differentiated between the models to make them all unique. Try and put the same amount of effort in some of the other sections of your page as they are lacking in detail. There are a lot of references used on the page proving that a lot of research and effort has been put in.

There was no introduction at the top of the page to give the reader an overall understanding of what the page is about. You have also included an image at the top of you page regarding the Hedgehog signalling pathway, however, you have not included any information to explain the diagram. So, the reader cannot understand what is going on. There are several blank sections on the page that will hopefully be built upon as the sub-headings look quite interesting. Maybe you should include a glossary section at the end of the page due to some of the complex terminology you have used.

You have created a very detailed page with quite a bit of information, however, you have not mentioned some of the basics of the signalling pathway to provide the reader with the basic knowledge and understanding on the topic.

Group 5

At first glance I can see that you’ve done an amazing job and a lot of time and effort has been put into your page. There are a lot of subheading that clearly divide the page into groups and makes it easier to navigate for the reader. Your introduction is excellent, it is very detailed and explains a lot about T-box genes and signalling. The use of the table to clarify the different T-box genes is very useful, it clearly explains the differences between them in a very simple way. You have also covered quite a lot of information on the function of T-box in development. This is quite an impressive section and also very detailed. Another great addition to your page is the abnormalities section, this is also very detailed and extremely interesting to read. You have also clearly discussed research related to your signalling pathway and several animal models, great addition to the page. The referencing throughout is also a great bonus to the reader and you have used an extensive number of sources.

One fault I can see on your page is the referencing added at the end of the paragraphs, maybe move them to the bottom of the page since you already have in-text referencing. You have included a section on the origins and evolution of the T-box gene, you should probably move it to the beginning of the page to give the reader a basic and initial understanding of what is known. Consider adding a glossary section to the end of your page to better explain some key terms you have used.

Overall, this is a wonderful page and you have paid a great attention to detail and covered a lot of content. All your information was relevant and very interesting to read. There is not much to fault on your page, only some minor changes to make the page more appealing and more presentable.

Group 6

You have covered a lot of the basic information and explained the TGF beta signalling pathway well. The explanation of the signalling pathway is exceptional, and you have gone into great detail and explained the process quite well. The images you have used are also quite simple and easy to understand. You have started a glossary at the bottom of the page, which is very useful, but you should include some more terminology once you have added some more content to your page.

At first glance, you can see that your page is a little scarce and lacking in information and detail. You have included a brief history on the TGF beta signalling pathway, however, a lot more content is needed to better explain the change and development in the understanding of the signalling pathway. You have included some interesting subheadings, such as, current research, regulation of the pathway and limitations. But the information is extremely lacking in these sections, it would be interesting to read about the information that you do eventually find. A downfall of your page is the extreme lack of references you have used, and all of them are websites. You should aim to increase the number of references as well as focus more on finding information from relevant journals.

This group has a great start to the page and have laid out the foundations quite well. They have covered some of the basic information needed to grasp a general understanding on the TGF beta signalling pathway, however, a lot more work is needed to better explain the process, as well as the other sub-headings mentioned on the page.

Lab 10 Assessment

Lab 10 - Stem Cell Presentations 2016
Group Mark Assessor General Comments

Group 1: 15/20

Group 2: 19/20

Group 3: 20/20

Group 4: 19/20

Group 5: 16/20

Group 6: 16/20

The students put great effort in their presentation and we heard a nice variety of studies in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine today. The interaction after the presentation was great.

As general feedback I would like to advise students to:

  • Never discuss M&M as a separate section in journal clubs. I gave this advice prior to the lab, but still most groups did talk through the M&M section.
  • Do not use your slides as cheat sheets, avoid text on slides, know what messages you need to get across, use images to illustrate these
  • Engage with your slides. Talk through them. Point at panels. Gauge your audience’s understanding by making eye contact with them
  • Avoid using abbreviations. Most people do not readily understand these and will lose track

Lab 11 Assessment

The study conducted by Alkass, K. et al (2015), explored the effect of cardiomyocyte number expansion in preadolescent mice. It is known that cardiomyocytes are a tissue that are difficult to restore once damaged. This experiment tests that regenerative effect on the cardiomyocyte tissues in neonatal mouse hearts, since this animal displays the ability to correct any damage to the tissue. The process by which this occurs involves the duplication of the present cardiomyocytes. The number of cardiomyocytes in an embryo is difficult to determine due to the high concentration of cells in the perinatal period. The use of antibodies targeting the cardiomyocyte nuclear marker pericentriolar material 1 (PCM-1) allowed overcoming this obstacle. The methodology involved in this experiment involves stereology, that is, critically analysing an image of a two-dimensional cross section that is explained in a three-dimensional manner. The experiment concluded that the cardiomyocyte cells increased in number until day 11 of the postnatal period. Most of the cardiomyocytes are formed in the first postnatal week, followed by a period of no growth. The findings of this research article relate to the literature review written by Foglia, M and Poss, K (2016). The purpose of their article was to summarise the research conducted on the ability of cardiomyocytes to maintain and replenish itself. It is widely known that the adult human heart does not have the ability to mend itself if any tissue has been injured. The resulting injury can lead to more serious complications such as the occurrence of scarring of the tissue or hypertrophy, this can lead to even more devastating results such as fatal arrhythmias and heart failure. The review article written by Foglia, M and Poss, K (2016) utilised the findings of Alkass, K. et al (2015) by including in the review article that cardiomyocyte proliferation occurs during the foetal and neonatal development in mammals. It is also mentioned in the article that some animals retain the ability to regenerate the cardiac muscle, even after injury in adults, they include the zebrafish and the neonatal mouse. These two animals give hope in cardiac research that adult cardiomyocytes may have the ability, in the future, to heal and replenish any injured or lost cells.

4/5 Very good needed to include the reference here.