Difference between revisions of "Sea Squirt Development"

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Sea squirts (ascidians, Ascidiacea) are filter feeding marine animals, primitive chordates, that exist in many shapes and sizes. They reproduce by either sexual or asexual (budding) and develop through a laval (tadpole) to an adult phase. Some species have transparent eggs and embryos simplifying developmental imaging.
 
Sea squirts (ascidians, Ascidiacea) are filter feeding marine animals, primitive chordates, that exist in many shapes and sizes. They reproduce by either sexual or asexual (budding) and develop through a laval (tadpole) to an adult phase. Some species have transparent eggs and embryos simplifying developmental imaging.
  
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See also the historic paper identifying cell lineages in the sea squirt embryo.
  
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Search term: [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Sea+Squirt+Embryology ''Sea Squirt Embryology'']
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<pubmed limit=5>Sea Squirt Embryology</pubmed>
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==Early Development==
 
==Early Development==
  

Latest revision as of 16:46, 22 October 2016

Introduction

Sea squirt - ciona intestinalis
Ascidian hox expression[1]

Sea squirts (ascidians, Ascidiacea) are filter feeding marine animals, primitive chordates, that exist in many shapes and sizes. They reproduce by either sexual or asexual (budding) and develop through a laval (tadpole) to an adult phase. Some species have transparent eggs and embryos simplifying developmental imaging.

See also the historic paper identifying cell lineages in the sea squirt embryo.

Conklin EG. The Organization and Cell-Lineage of the Ascidian Egg (1905) J. Acad., Nat. Sci. Phila. 13, 1.


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Historic Embryology  
1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 1906 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | 1951 Frog | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer

Some Recent Findings

  • Neurula rotation determines left-right asymmetry in ascidian tadpole larvae[2] "Tadpole larvae of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi show morphological left-right asymmetry. ... We suggest that chemical, and not mechanical, signals from the vitelline membrane promote nodal expression. Neurula rotation is also conserved in other ascidian species."
  • Creating 3D digital replicas of ascidian embryos from stacks of confocal images.[3] "During embryonic development, cell behaviors that are tightly coordinated both spatially and temporally integrate at the tissue level and drive embryonic morphogenesis. Over the past 20 years, advances in imaging techniques, in particular, the development of confocal imaging, have opened a new world in biology, not only giving us access to a wealth of information, but also creating new challenges. It is sometimes difficult to make the best use of the recordings of the complex, inherently three-dimensional (3D) processes we now can observe. In particular, these data are often not directly suitable for even simple but conceptually fundamental quantifications. This article describes a process whereby image stacks gathered from live or fixed ascidian embryos are digitalized and segmented to produce 3D embryo replicas. These replicas can then be interfaced via a 3D Virtual Embryo module to a model organism database (Aniseed) that allows one to relate the geometrical properties of cells and cell contacts to additional parameters such as cell lineage, cell fates, or the underlying genetic program. Such an integrated system can serve several general purposes. First, it makes it possible to quantify and better understand the dynamics of cell behaviors during embryonic development, including, for instance, the automatic detection of asymmetric cell divisions or the evolution of cell contacts. Second, the 3D Virtual Embryo software proposes a panel of mathematical shape descriptors to precisely quantify cellular geometries and generate a 3D identity card for each embryonic cell. Such reconstructions open the door to a detailed 3D simulation of morphogenesis."
More recent papers  
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Search term: Sea Squirt Embryology

Takeo Horie, Ryoko Horie, Kai Chen, Chen Cao, Masashi Nakagawa, Takehiro G Kusakabe, Noriyuki Satoh, Yasunori Sasakura, Michael Levine Regulatory cocktail for dopaminergic neurons in a protovertebrate identified by whole-embryo single-cell transcriptomics. Genes Dev.: 2018, 32(19-20);1297-1302 PubMed 30228204

Yuji Mizotani, Mayu Suzuki, Kohji Hotta, Hidenori Watanabe, Kogiku Shiba, Kazuo Inaba, Etsu Tashiro, Kotaro Oka, Masaya Imoto 14-3-3εa directs the pulsatile transport of basal factors toward the apical domain for lumen growth in tubulogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2018; PubMed 30158171

Miki Tokuoka, Kenji Kobayashi, Yutaka Satou ##Title## Development: 2018, 145(11); PubMed 29764858

Jiankai Wei, Bo Dong Identification and expression analysis of long noncoding RNAs in embryogenesis and larval metamorphosis of Ciona savignyi. Mar Genomics: 2018; PubMed 29754835

Kaori Miyaoku, Ayaki Nakamoto, Hiroki Nishida, Gaku Kumano Control of Pem protein level by localized maternal factors for transcriptional regulation in the germline of the ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi. PLoS ONE: 2018, 13(4);e0196500 PubMed 29709000

Early Development

Invertebrate chordate notochords.jpg

(b) Ciona intestinalis notochord[4]

Neural

  • ascidians lack a segmented hindbrain, but have restricted expression patterns of anterior Hox genes.[5]

Historic

Manual of Human Embryology by Franz Keibel and Franklin P. Mall (1910).

"Conklin (1895) has been able to determine in ascidian eggs, even before cleavage begins, the existence of organ-forming substances, one of which, the myoplasm, that has to do with the formation of muscle tissue, is clearly recognizable and can be followed through successive stages of development into formed muscle."

References

  1. Alfonso Natale, Carrie Sims, Maria L Chiusano, Alessandro Amoroso, Enrico D'Aniello, Laura Fucci, Robb Krumlauf, Margherita Branno, Annamaria Locascio Evolution of anterior Hox regulatory elements among chordates. BMC Evol. Biol.: 2011, 11;330 PubMed 22085760 | BMC Evol Biol.
  2. Kazuhiko Nishide, Michio Mugitani, Gaku Kumano, Hiroki Nishida Neurula rotation determines left-right asymmetry in ascidian tadpole larvae. Development: 2012, 139(8);1467-75 PubMed 22399684
  3. François B Robin, Delphine Dauga, Olivier Tassy, Daniel Sobral, Fabrice Daian, Patrick Lemaire Creating 3D digital replicas of ascidian embryos from stacks of confocal images. Cold Spring Harb Protoc: 2011, 2011(10);1251-61 PubMed 21969625
  4. David E K Ferrier Tunicates push the limits of animal evo-devo. BMC Biol.: 2011, 9;3 PubMed 21251298 | BMC Biol.
  5. A Locascio, F Aniello, A Amoroso, M Manzanares, R Krumlauf, M Branno Patterning the ascidian nervous system: structure, expression and transgenic analysis of the CiHox3 gene. Development: 1999, 126(21);4737-48 PubMed 10518491

Reviews

Patrick Lemaire Evolutionary crossroads in developmental biology: the tunicates. Development: 2011, 138(11);2143-52 PubMed 21558365


Articles

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Search Pubmed: Sea Squirt Development

External Links

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Historic Embryology  
1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 1906 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | 1951 Frog | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, December 13) Embryology Sea Squirt Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Sea_Squirt_Development

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