Sea Squirt Development

From Embryology

Introduction

Sea squirt - ciona intestinalis
Ascidian hox expression[1]

Sea squirts (ascidians, Ascidiacea) are filter feeding marine animals, primitive chordates, that exist in many shapes and sizes. They reproduce by either sexual or asexual (budding) and develop through a laval (tadpole) to an adult phase. Some species have transparent eggs and embryos simplifying developmental imaging.

See also the historic paper identifying cell lineages in the sea squirt embryo.

Conklin EG. The Organization and Cell-Lineage of the Ascidian Egg (1905) J. Acad., Nat. Sci. Phila. 13, 1.


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Historic Embryology  
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Some Recent Findings

  • Neurula rotation determines left-right asymmetry in ascidian tadpole larvae[2] "Tadpole larvae of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi show morphological left-right asymmetry. ... We suggest that chemical, and not mechanical, signals from the vitelline membrane promote nodal expression. Neurula rotation is also conserved in other ascidian species."
  • Creating 3D digital replicas of ascidian embryos from stacks of confocal images.[3] "During embryonic development, cell behaviors that are tightly coordinated both spatially and temporally integrate at the tissue level and drive embryonic morphogenesis. Over the past 20 years, advances in imaging techniques, in particular, the development of confocal imaging, have opened a new world in biology, not only giving us access to a wealth of information, but also creating new challenges. It is sometimes difficult to make the best use of the recordings of the complex, inherently three-dimensional (3D) processes we now can observe. In particular, these data are often not directly suitable for even simple but conceptually fundamental quantifications. This article describes a process whereby image stacks gathered from live or fixed ascidian embryos are digitalized and segmented to produce 3D embryo replicas. These replicas can then be interfaced via a 3D Virtual Embryo module to a model organism database (Aniseed) that allows one to relate the geometrical properties of cells and cell contacts to additional parameters such as cell lineage, cell fates, or the underlying genetic program. Such an integrated system can serve several general purposes. First, it makes it possible to quantify and better understand the dynamics of cell behaviors during embryonic development, including, for instance, the automatic detection of asymmetric cell divisions or the evolution of cell contacts. Second, the 3D Virtual Embryo software proposes a panel of mathematical shape descriptors to precisely quantify cellular geometries and generate a 3D identity card for each embryonic cell. Such reconstructions open the door to a detailed 3D simulation of morphogenesis."
More recent papers  
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Search term: Sea Squirt Embryology

Noriyuki Satoh Two Decades of Ascidian Developmental Biology: A Personal Research Story. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol.: 2016, 117;289-300 PubMed 26969984

Emmanuel Faure, Thierry Savy, Barbara Rizzi, Camilo Melani, Olga Stašová, Dimitri Fabrèges, Róbert Špir, Mark Hammons, Róbert Čúnderlík, Gaëlle Recher, Benoît Lombardot, Louise Duloquin, Ingrid Colin, Jozef Kollár, Sophie Desnoulez, Pierre Affaticati, Benoît Maury, Adeline Boyreau, Jean-Yves Nief, Pascal Calvat, Philippe Vernier, Monique Frain, Georges Lutfalla, Yannick Kergosien, Pierre Suret, Mariana Remešíková, René Doursat, Alessandro Sarti, Karol Mikula, Nadine Peyriéras, Paul Bourgine A workflow to process 3D+time microscopy images of developing organisms and reconstruct their cell lineage. Nat Commun: 2016, 7;8674 PubMed 26912388

Naoyuki Ohta, Kana Waki, Atsushi Mochizuki, Yutaka Satou A Boolean Function for Neural Induction Reveals a Critical Role of Direct Intercellular Interactions in Patterning the Ectoderm of the Ascidian Embryo. PLoS Comput. Biol.: 2015, 11(12);e1004687 PubMed 26714026

Thomas Stach, Chiara Anselmi High-precision morphology: bifocal 4D-microscopy enables the comparison of detailed cell lineages of two chordate species separated for more than 525 million years. BMC Biol.: 2015, 13(1);113 PubMed 26700477

Agnès Roure, Sébastien Darras Msxb is a core component of the genetic circuitry specifying the dorsal and ventral neurogenic midlines in the ascidian embryo. Dev. Biol.: 2015; PubMed 26592100

Early Development

Invertebrate chordate notochords.jpg

(b) Ciona intestinalis notochord[4]

Neural

  • ascidians lack a segmented hindbrain, but have restricted expression patterns of anterior Hox genes.[5]

Historic

Manual of Human Embryology by Franz Keibel and Franklin P. Mall (1910).

"Conklin (1895) has been able to determine in ascidian eggs, even before cleavage begins, the existence of organ-forming substances, one of which, the myoplasm, that has to do with the formation of muscle tissue, is clearly recognizable and can be followed through successive stages of development into formed muscle."

References

  1. Alfonso Natale, Carrie Sims, Maria L Chiusano, Alessandro Amoroso, Enrico D'Aniello, Laura Fucci, Robb Krumlauf, Margherita Branno, Annamaria Locascio Evolution of anterior Hox regulatory elements among chordates. BMC Evol. Biol.: 2011, 11;330 PubMed 22085760 | BMC Evol Biol.
  2. Kazuhiko Nishide, Michio Mugitani, Gaku Kumano, Hiroki Nishida Neurula rotation determines left-right asymmetry in ascidian tadpole larvae. Development: 2012, 139(8);1467-75 PubMed 22399684
  3. François B Robin, Delphine Dauga, Olivier Tassy, Daniel Sobral, Fabrice Daian, Patrick Lemaire Creating 3D digital replicas of ascidian embryos from stacks of confocal images. Cold Spring Harb Protoc: 2011, 2011(10);1251-61 PubMed 21969625
  4. David E K Ferrier Tunicates push the limits of animal evo-devo. BMC Biol.: 2011, 9;3 PubMed 21251298 | BMC Biol.
  5. A Locascio, F Aniello, A Amoroso, M Manzanares, R Krumlauf, M Branno Patterning the ascidian nervous system: structure, expression and transgenic analysis of the CiHox3 gene. Development: 1999, 126(21);4737-48 PubMed 10518491

Reviews

Patrick Lemaire Evolutionary crossroads in developmental biology: the tunicates. Development: 2011, 138(11);2143-52 PubMed 21558365


Articles

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Animal Development: Axolotl | Bat | Cat | Chicken | Cow | Dog | Dolphin | Echidna | Fly | Frog | Grasshopper | Guinea Pig | Hamster | Kangaroo | Koala | Lizard | Medaka | Mouse | Pig | Platypus | Rabbit | Rat | Sea Squirt | Sea Urchin | Sheep | Worm | Zebrafish | Life Cycles | Development Timetable | K12
Historic Embryology  
1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 1906 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | 1951 Frog | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Sea Squirt Development. Retrieved March 23, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Sea_Squirt_Development

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