Difference between revisions of "Embryology History - Viktor Hamburger"

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* University of Freiburg with [[Embryology_History_-_Hans_Spemann|Hans Spemann]].  
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* University of Freiburg with [[Embryology_History_-_Hans_Spemann|Hans Spemann]]. He was a graduate student in Spemann’s department at Freiburg during the years that the organizer graft experiments were being performed.
  
 
* 1933 - United States, first in Chicago and then at Washington University.
 
* 1933 - United States, first in Chicago and then at Washington University.
  
* 1988 - published "The Foundations of Experimental Embryology: Hans Spemann and the Organizer" (see review {{#pmid:17734868|PMID17734868}})
+
* 1988 - published "[[#The Heritage of Experimental Embryology: Hans Spemann and the Organizer|The Foundations of Experimental Embryology: Hans Spemann and the Organizer]]" (see also review {{#pmid:17734868|PMID17734868}})
 
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==The Heritage of Experimental Embryology: Hans Spemann and the Organizer==
 +
Monographs on the History and Philosophy of Biology, New York and Oxford, Oxford University Press, l988, 8vo, pp. xii, 196, illus., L22.50.
  
 +
A 1988 book review by Prof Jonathan Slack (ICRF Developmental Biology Unit, Oxford)
  
 +
:"I came into embryology as a postdoctoral fellow in l974, when the subject was rather unfashionable and neglected. 0ver my first few years I spent long hours in the library and read with fascination of an earlier "golden age" between the two World Wars. slowly I pieced together the story of the organized It took time because most of the papers had to be retrieved from dusty stacks and because most were in German, a language I read poorly. How I would have loved to read Professor Hamburgers book then!
  
 +
:The organizer graft is a transplantation of tissue from the dorsal lip of the blastopore of an amphibian gastrula to the prospective ventral lip of another individual. When performed correctly, it yields a mirror syrnmetrical double dorsal embryo, rather like a pair of siamese twins joined belly to belly. The lower half of the duplication, often called the secondary axis, consists of a notochord derived from the graft and the remainder, mainly somites and neural tube, is induced from the ventral tissues of the host. The organizer graft was first reported in a famous paper by Spemann and Mangold in l924.
 +
 +
:Hamburger was a graduate student in Spemann’s department at Freiburg during the years that the organizer grafts were first being performed. In his book he describes the scientific background, the character of experimental work at the time, and something of the personality of the individuals involved. It is certainly sobering to be reminded of the experimental difficulties of the time. In my laboratory today we generate two or three batches of Xenopus eggs each week, we manipulate their developmental rate with incubators at different temperatures, and we protect our grafts and explant cultures from infection with antibiotics. During the l920s, embryologists had to collect their eggs (usually newt eggs) from the wild during the brief breeding season in the spring. The whole year’s experiments would be performed in a mad rush, with horrific mortality rates due to poor culture conditions and to infection. It is because of these difficulties that the famous organizer paper describes only six cases, of which only two show good double-dorsal duplications.
 +
 +
:Hamburger goes on to describe the subsequent work on early amphibian development. Unfortunately the organizer, which we now regard as the source of a dorsalizing positional Signal, was then seen mainly as an agent of neural induction. In 1932 three groups, all in Germany, simultaneously reported that killed organizer tissue had neural-inducing activity. This sparked off the famous «gold rush" for the chemical nature of the organizer, using neuralization of gastrula ectoderm as the assay. The hopelessness of such a task, with the biochemical techniques available over 50 years ago, may be assessed from the fact that we have only just succeeded in detecting a few picrograms per embryo of the mesoderm—inducing factor bFGF, using affinity HPLC and ultrasensitive immunochemical methods. In fact, neural induction, particularly in newts, is a rather unspecific process and many substances can trigger it, including some synthetic chemicals which do not occur in embryos at all. This realization caused much consternation, and the high morale and sense of excitement evident in the literature of the ’20s and ’30s faded rapidly. The field as a whole went into eclipse during the second World War, partly because of the failure of the gold rush, but also because of the dispersal of the German scientists whose efforts had led the way throughout this period.
 +
 +
:The real legacy of the period was not so much the work on the organizer, which, with the benefit of hindsight can be seen as largely misdirected, but rather the formulation of a set of self-consistent concepts for the description and analysis of early development For example, fate, potency, induction, competence, and regulation were widely used as categories of explanation in this period. Now, when we have the technical means to investigate the inner workings of cells, this heritage is available not as a set of explanations but as a set of problems requiring solution.
 +
 +
:Probably no one did more in this vital task than Johannes Holtfreter, who receives extensive coverage in the second half of the book. His in vitm isolation experiments and his work on the regional specificity of neural induction particularly helped to define the style and standard of experimental embryology for decades to come.
 +
 +
:Hamburger’s book really finishes at the second World War, although one or two later experiments are described. The modern era, starting with Nieuwkoop’s discovery of mesoderm induction, is not covered. so this is not really a book for those who want to understand amphibian development, but rather a lucid and interesting account of a critical period in scientific history. It has a special fascination because it is written by a participant who can not only tell us what happened, but also what it felt like at the time."
 +
 +
 +
See also the review.{{#pmid:17734868|PMID17734868}}
 
===Reference===
 
===Reference===
 
Search PubMed [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=HAMBURGER%20V%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=14824426 Hamburger V]
 
Search PubMed [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=HAMBURGER%20V%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=14824426 Hamburger V]
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{{#pmid:28353770}}
 
{{#pmid:28353770}}
  
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{{Footer}}
[[Category:People]]
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[[Category:People]][[Category:USA]]
 
[[Category:Neural]]
 
[[Category:Neural]]
 
[[Category:NGF]][[Category:Chicken]]
 
[[Category:NGF]][[Category:Chicken]]
 
 
{{History People}}
 

Latest revision as of 12:19, 24 August 2018

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Introduction

Viktor Hamburger
Viktor Hamburger (1900 – 2001)

Viktor Hamburger (1900 – 2001) was a founding researcher in the field of developmental neuroscience. Established with Rita Levi-Montalcini the role of neural growth factors (neurotrophic), in particular Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)) for neuronal survival during development.[1][2]


Also know for his development, along with Howard Hamilton, of the historic chicken staging sequence the Hamburger Hamilton Stages.[3]

Hans Spemann

Hans Spemann (1869 - 1941)


  • University of Freiburg with Hans Spemann. He was a graduate student in Spemann’s department at Freiburg during the years that the organizer graft experiments were being performed.
  • 1933 - United States, first in Chicago and then at Washington University.
Links: neural | Hamburger Hamilton Stages | NGF


Chicken Links: Introduction | Chicken stages | Hamburger Hamilton Stages | Witschi Stages | Placodes | Category:Chicken
Historic Chicken Embryology  
1883 History of the Chick | 1900 Chicken Embryo Development Plates | 1904 X-Ray Effects | 1910 Somites |

1919 Lillie Textbook | 1920 Chick Early Embryology | 1933 Neural | 1939 Sternum | 1948 Limb | Movie 1961 | Historic Papers


Embryologists: William Hunter | Wilhelm Roux | Caspar Wolff | Wilhelm His | Oscar Hertwig | Julius Kollmann | Hans Spemann | Francis Balfour | Charles Minot | Ambrosius Hubrecht | Charles Bardeen | Franz Keibel | Franklin Mall | Florence Sabin | George Streeter | George Corner | James Hill | Jan Florian | Thomas Bryce | Thomas Morgan | Ernest Frazer | Francisco Orts-Llorca | José Doménech Mateu | Frederic Lewis | Arthur Meyer | Robert Meyer | Erich Blechschmidt | Klaus Hinrichsen | Hideo Nishimura | Arthur Hertig | John Rock | Viktor Hamburger | Mary Lyon | Nicole Le Douarin | Robert Winston | Fabiola Müller | Ronan O'Rahilly | Robert Edwards | John Gurdon | Shinya Yamanaka | Embryology History | Category:People
Related Histology Researchers  
Santiago Ramón y Cajal | Camillo Golgi

Hamburger Hamilton Stages

Below are example images of the Hamburger Hamilton stage 21 chicken embryo with timing and descriptions of developmental features.[3]

3.5 days 43-44 somites; visceral arch IV, cleft 4

HHstage21.jpg HHstage21a.jpg

The Heritage of Experimental Embryology: Hans Spemann and the Organizer

Monographs on the History and Philosophy of Biology, New York and Oxford, Oxford University Press, l988, 8vo, pp. xii, 196, illus., L22.50.

A 1988 book review by Prof Jonathan Slack (ICRF Developmental Biology Unit, Oxford)

"I came into embryology as a postdoctoral fellow in l974, when the subject was rather unfashionable and neglected. 0ver my first few years I spent long hours in the library and read with fascination of an earlier "golden age" between the two World Wars. slowly I pieced together the story of the organized It took time because most of the papers had to be retrieved from dusty stacks and because most were in German, a language I read poorly. How I would have loved to read Professor Hamburgers book then!
The organizer graft is a transplantation of tissue from the dorsal lip of the blastopore of an amphibian gastrula to the prospective ventral lip of another individual. When performed correctly, it yields a mirror syrnmetrical double dorsal embryo, rather like a pair of siamese twins joined belly to belly. The lower half of the duplication, often called the secondary axis, consists of a notochord derived from the graft and the remainder, mainly somites and neural tube, is induced from the ventral tissues of the host. The organizer graft was first reported in a famous paper by Spemann and Mangold in l924.
Hamburger was a graduate student in Spemann’s department at Freiburg during the years that the organizer grafts were first being performed. In his book he describes the scientific background, the character of experimental work at the time, and something of the personality of the individuals involved. It is certainly sobering to be reminded of the experimental difficulties of the time. In my laboratory today we generate two or three batches of Xenopus eggs each week, we manipulate their developmental rate with incubators at different temperatures, and we protect our grafts and explant cultures from infection with antibiotics. During the l920s, embryologists had to collect their eggs (usually newt eggs) from the wild during the brief breeding season in the spring. The whole year’s experiments would be performed in a mad rush, with horrific mortality rates due to poor culture conditions and to infection. It is because of these difficulties that the famous organizer paper describes only six cases, of which only two show good double-dorsal duplications.
Hamburger goes on to describe the subsequent work on early amphibian development. Unfortunately the organizer, which we now regard as the source of a dorsalizing positional Signal, was then seen mainly as an agent of neural induction. In 1932 three groups, all in Germany, simultaneously reported that killed organizer tissue had neural-inducing activity. This sparked off the famous «gold rush" for the chemical nature of the organizer, using neuralization of gastrula ectoderm as the assay. The hopelessness of such a task, with the biochemical techniques available over 50 years ago, may be assessed from the fact that we have only just succeeded in detecting a few picrograms per embryo of the mesoderm—inducing factor bFGF, using affinity HPLC and ultrasensitive immunochemical methods. In fact, neural induction, particularly in newts, is a rather unspecific process and many substances can trigger it, including some synthetic chemicals which do not occur in embryos at all. This realization caused much consternation, and the high morale and sense of excitement evident in the literature of the ’20s and ’30s faded rapidly. The field as a whole went into eclipse during the second World War, partly because of the failure of the gold rush, but also because of the dispersal of the German scientists whose efforts had led the way throughout this period.
The real legacy of the period was not so much the work on the organizer, which, with the benefit of hindsight can be seen as largely misdirected, but rather the formulation of a set of self-consistent concepts for the description and analysis of early development For example, fate, potency, induction, competence, and regulation were widely used as categories of explanation in this period. Now, when we have the technical means to investigate the inner workings of cells, this heritage is available not as a set of explanations but as a set of problems requiring solution.
Probably no one did more in this vital task than Johannes Holtfreter, who receives extensive coverage in the second half of the book. His in vitm isolation experiments and his work on the regional specificity of neural induction particularly helped to define the style and standard of experimental embryology for decades to come.
Hamburger’s book really finishes at the second World War, although one or two later experiments are described. The modern era, starting with Nieuwkoop’s discovery of mesoderm induction, is not covered. so this is not really a book for those who want to understand amphibian development, but rather a lucid and interesting account of a critical period in scientific history. It has a special fascination because it is written by a participant who can not only tell us what happened, but also what it felt like at the time."


See also the review.[4]

Reference

Search PubMed Hamburger V

  1. LEVI-MONTALCINI R & HAMBURGER V. (1951). Selective growth stimulating effects of mouse sarcoma on the sensory and sympathetic nervous system of the chick embryo. J. Exp. Zool. , 116, 321-61. PMID: 14824426
  2. Cohen S, Levi-Montalcini R & Hamburger V. (1954). A NERVE GROWTH-STIMULATING FACTOR ISOLATED FROM SARCOM AS 37 AND 180. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 40, 1014-8. PMID: 16589582
  3. 3.0 3.1 Hamburger V. and Hamilton HL. A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. (1951) J Morphol. 88(1): 49-92. PMID 24539719 PDF
  4. 4.0 4.1 Witkowski JA. (1988). The work of spemann: the heritage of experimental embryology. Science , 241, 365-6. PMID: 17734868 DOI.


Pubmed Reference List

LEVI-MONTALCINI R & HAMBURGER V. (1951). Selective growth stimulating effects of mouse sarcoma on the sensory and sympathetic nervous system of the chick embryo. J. Exp. Zool. , 116, 321-61. PMID: 14824426

HAMBURGER V & LEVI-MONTALCINI R. (1949). Proliferation, differentiation and degeneration in the spinal ganglia of the chick embryo under normal and experimental conditions. J. Exp. Zool. , 111, 457-501. PMID: 18142378

LEVI-MONTALCINI R, MEYER H & HAMBURGER V. (1954). In vitro experiments on the effects of mouse sarcomas 180 and 37 on the spinal and sympathetic ganglia of the chick embryo. Cancer Res. , 14, 49-57. PMID: 13126933

Cohen S, Levi-Montalcini R & Hamburger V. (1954). A NERVE GROWTH-STIMULATING FACTOR ISOLATED FROM SARCOM AS 37 AND 180. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 40, 1014-8. PMID: 16589582

Hamburger V & Narayanan CH. (1969). Effects of the deafferentation of the trigeminal area on the motility of the chick embryo. J. Exp. Zool. , 170, 411-26. PMID: 5804915 DOI.

Narayanan CH, Fox MW & Hamburger V. (1971). Prenatal development of spontaneous and evoked activity in the rat (Rattus norvegicus albinus). Behaviour , 40, 100-34. PMID: 5157515

HAMBURGER V. (1961). Experimental analysis of the dual origin of the trigeminal ganglion in the chick embryo. J. Exp. Zool. , 148, 91-123. PMID: 13904079

HAMBURGER V & BALABAN M. (1963). Observations and experiments on spontaneous rhythmical behavior in the chick embryo. Dev. Biol. , 6, 533-45. PMID: 13952299

Decker JD & Hamburger V. (1967). The influence of different brain regions on periodic motility of the chick embryo. J. Exp. Zool. , 165, 371-83. PMID: 6076902 DOI.

HAMBURGER V. (1946). Isolation of the brachial segments of the spinal cord of the chick embryo by means of tantalum foil blocks. J. Exp. Zool. , 103, 113-42. PMID: 20275393

Hamburger V & Oppenheim R. (1967). Prehatching motility and hatching behavior in the chick. J. Exp. Zool. , 166, 171-203. PMID: 6080550 DOI.

Hamburger V, Balaban M, Oppenheim R & Wenger E. (1965). Periodic motility of normal and spinal chick embryos between 8 and 17 days of incubation. J. Exp. Zool. , 159, 1-13. PMID: 5215365

Narayanan CH & Hamburger V. (1971). Motility in chick embryos with substitution of lumbosacral by brachial and brachial by lumbosacral spinal cord segments. J. Exp. Zool. , 178, 415-31. PMID: 5161044 DOI.

HAMBURGER V. (1947). Differential mitotic activity in the spinal cord of the chick. Anat. Rec. , 99, 655. PMID: 18895453

HAMBURGER V. (1946). The use of tantalum foil as a mechanical block for the separation of spinal cord and brain in chick embryos. Anat. Rec. , 94, 355. PMID: 21020493

HAMBURGER V & HABEL K. (1947). Influenza-A virus as a teratogenetic agent in chick embryos. Anat. Rec. , 99, 569. PMID: 18935367

HAMBURGER V & HABEL K. (1947). Teratogenetic and lethal effects of influenza-A and mumps viruses on early chick embryos. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. , 66, 608-17. PMID: 18900040

Hamburger V. (1999). Hans Spemann on vitalism in biology: translation of a portion of Spemann's autobiography. J Hist Biol , 32, 231-43. PMID: 11624206

Hamburger V. (1997). Wilhelm Roux: visionary with a blind spot. J Hist Biol , 30, 229-38. PMID: 11619471

Hamburger V. (1997). A historic moment: the discovery of the chemical transmission of embryonic inductions. Dev. Neurosci. , 19, 293-6. PMID: 9215874 DOI.

Hamburger V. (1996). Differentiation potencies of isolated parts of the urodele gastrula, by J. Holtfreter. Dev. Dyn. , 205, 223-44. PMID: 8850560 <223::AID-AJA4>3.0.CO;2-K DOI.

Hamburger V. (1996). Differentiation potencies of isolated parts of the anuran gastrula, by J. Holtfreter. Dev. Dyn. , 205, 217-22. PMID: 8850559 <217::AID-AJA3>3.0.CO;2-L DOI.

Hamburger V. (1996). Introduction: Johannes Holtfreter, pioneer in experimental embryology. Dev. Dyn. , 205, 214-6. PMID: 8850558 <214::AID-AJA2>3.0.CO;2-L DOI.

Hamburger V. (1996). Memories of Professor Hans Spemann's Department of Zoology at the University of Freiburg, 1920-1932. Int. J. Dev. Biol. , 40, 59-62. PMID: 8735911

Hamburger V. (1993). The history of the discovery of the nerve growth factor. J. Neurobiol. , 24, 893-7. PMID: 8228966 DOI.

Hamburger V. (1992). The stage series of the chick embryo. Dev. Dyn. , 195, 273-5. PMID: 1304822 DOI.

Hamburger V & Hamilton HL. (1992). A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. 1951. Dev. Dyn. , 195, 231-72. PMID: 1304821 DOI.

Hamburger V. (1992). History of the discovery of neuronal death in embryos. J. Neurobiol. , 23, 1116-23. PMID: 1469378 DOI.

Hamburger V. (1990). The S. Kuffler lecture. The rise of experimental neuroembryology. A personal reassessment. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. , 8, 121-31. PMID: 2183545

Hamburger V. (1989). The journey of a neuroembryologist. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. , 12, 1-12. PMID: 2648945 DOI.

Hamburger V. (1988). Ontogeny of neuroembryology. J. Neurosci. , 8, 3535-40. PMID: 3057123

Hamburger V. (1984). Hilde Mangold, co-discoverer of the organizer. J Hist Biol , 17, 1-11. PMID: 11611449

Hamburger V & Yip JW. (1984). Reduction of experimentally induced neuronal death in spinal ganglia of the chick embryo by nerve growth factor. J. Neurosci. , 4, 767-74. PMID: 6707733

Hamburger V. (1984). Scientific survey. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. , 2, 505-6. PMID: 24874390 DOI.

Hamburger V, Brunso-Bechtold JK & Yip JW. (1981). Neuronal death in the spinal ganglia of the chick embryo and its reduction by nerve growth factor. J. Neurosci. , 1, 60-71. PMID: 7346558

Hamburger V. (1980). S. Ramón y Cajal, R. G. Harrison, and the beginnings of neuroembryology. Perspect. Biol. Med. , 23, 600-16. PMID: 7010300

Hamburger V. (1980). Trophic interactions in neurogenesis: a personal historical account. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. , 3, 269-78. PMID: 6998342 DOI.

Brunso-Bechtold JK & Hamburger V. (1979). Retrograde transport of nerve growth factor in chicken embryo. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 76, 1494-6. PMID: 286335

Hollyday M & Hamburger V. (1977). An autoradiographic study of the formation of the lateral motor column in the chick embryo. Brain Res. , 132, 197-208. PMID: 890480

Hollyday M, Hamburger V & Farris JM. (1977). Localization of motor neuron pools supplying identified muscles in normal and supernumerary legs of chick embryo. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 74, 3582-6. PMID: 269415

Hamburger V. (1977). The developmental history of the motor neuron. Neurosci Res Program Bull , 15 Suppl, iii-37. PMID: 876456

Hollyday M & Hamburger V. (1976). Reduction of the naturally occurring motor neuron loss by enlargement of the periphery. J. Comp. Neurol. , 170, 311-20. PMID: 993371 DOI.

Hamburger V. (1975). Cell death in the development of the lateral motor column of the chick embryo. J. Comp. Neurol. , 160, 535-46. PMID: 1123466 DOI.

Bekoff A, Stein PS & Hamburger V. (1975). Coordinated motor output in the hindlimb of the 7-day chick embryo. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 72, 1245-8. PMID: 1055400

Hamburger V. (1975). Changing concepts in developmental neurobiology. Perspect. Biol. Med. , 18, 162-78. PMID: 1105389

Skoff RP & Hamburger V. (1974). Fine structure of dendritic and axonal growth cones in embryonic chick spinal cord. J. Comp. Neurol. , 153, 107-47. PMID: 4810722 DOI.

Sharma SC, Provine RR, Hamburger V & Sandel TT. (1970). Unit activity in the isolated spinal cord of chick embryo, in situ. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 66, 40-7. PMID: 5273900

Provine RR, Sharma SC, Sandel TT & Hamburger V. (1970). Electrical activity in the spinal cord of the chick embryo, in situ. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 65, 508-15. PMID: 5267135

Hamburger V. (1969). Hans Spemann and the organizer concept. Experientia , 25, 1121-5. PMID: 4902878

Hamburger V. (1963). Embryology. Science , 142, 1367. PMID: 17752414 DOI.

HAMBURGER V. (1963). SOME ASPECTS OF THE EMBRYOLOGY OF BEHAVIOR. Q Rev Biol , 38, 342-65. PMID: 14111168

HAMBURGER V. (1958). Regression versus peripheral control of differentiation in motor hypoplasia. Am. J. Anat. , 102, 365-409. PMID: 13617221 DOI.

HAMBURGER V. (1952). Development of the nervous system. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. , 55, 117-32. PMID: 12977028

HAMBURGER V & HAMILTON HL. (1951). A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. J. Morphol. , 88, 49-92. PMID: 24539719

HAMBURGER V. (1948). The mitotic patterns in the spinal cord of the chick embryo and their relation to histogenetic processes. J. Comp. Neurol. , 88, 221-83. PMID: 18911643

HAMBURGER V. (1947). Monsters in nature. CIBA Symp , 9, 666-83. PMID: 20261006

Hamburger V. (1945). BIOLOGY IN THE PREMEDICAL CURRICULUM. Science , 102, 511-3. PMID: 17750726 DOI.

HAMBURGER M, GREEN MJ & HAMBURGER VG. (1945). The problem of the dangerous carrier of hemolytic streptococci; spread of infection by individuals with strongly positive nose cultures who expelled large numbers of hemolytic streptococci. J. Infect. Dis. , 77, 96-108. PMID: 21003561

Rudnick D & Hamburger V. (1940). On the Identification of Segregated Phenotypes in Progeny from Creeper Fowl Matings. Genetics , 25, 215-24. PMID: 17246966

Hamburger V. (1929). . Wilhelm Roux Arch Entwickl Mech Org , 119, 47-99. PMID: 28353841 DOI.

Hamburger V. (1928). . Wilhelm Roux Arch Entwickl Mech Org , 114, 272-363. PMID: 28354247 DOI.

Hamburger V. (1925). . Wilhelm Roux Arch Entwickl Mech Org , 105, 149-201. PMID: 28353770 DOI.


Embryologists: William Hunter | Wilhelm Roux | Caspar Wolff | Wilhelm His | Oscar Hertwig | Julius Kollmann | Hans Spemann | Francis Balfour | Charles Minot | Ambrosius Hubrecht | Charles Bardeen | Franz Keibel | Franklin Mall | Florence Sabin | George Streeter | George Corner | James Hill | Jan Florian | Thomas Bryce | Thomas Morgan | Ernest Frazer | Francisco Orts-Llorca | José Doménech Mateu | Frederic Lewis | Arthur Meyer | Robert Meyer | Erich Blechschmidt | Klaus Hinrichsen | Hideo Nishimura | Arthur Hertig | John Rock | Viktor Hamburger | Mary Lyon | Nicole Le Douarin | Robert Winston | Fabiola Müller | Ronan O'Rahilly | Robert Edwards | John Gurdon | Shinya Yamanaka | Embryology History | Category:People
Related Histology Researchers  
Santiago Ramón y Cajal | Camillo Golgi

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, December 9) Embryology Embryology History - Viktor Hamburger. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Embryology_History_-_Viktor_Hamburger

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G