|Student Information (expand to read)|
Please leave this template on top of your student page as I will add your assessment items here.
Beginning your online work - Working Online in this course
|Lab 1 Assessment - Researching a Topic|
|In the lab I showed you how to find the PubMed reference database and search it using a topic word. Lab 1 assessment will be for you to use this to find a research reference on "fertilization" and write a brief summary of the main finding of the paper.
|Lab 2 Assessment - Uploading an Image|
OK you are now in a group
Initially the topic can be as specific or as broad as you want.
Chicken embryo E-cad and P-cad gastrulation
|Lab 4 Assessment - GIT Quiz|
Design 4 quiz questions based upon gastrointestinal tract. Add the quiz to your own page under Lab 4 assessment and provide a sub-sub-heading on the topic of the quiz.
An example is shown below (open this page in view code or edit mode). Note that it is not just how you ask the question, but also how you explain the correct answer.
|Lab 5 Assessment - Course Review|
|Complete the course review questionnaire and add the fact you have completed to your student page.|
|Lab 6 Assessment - Cleft Lip and Palate|
|Lab 7 Assessment - Muscular Dystrophy|
|Lab 8 Assessment - Quiz|
|A brief quiz was held in the practical class on urogenital development.|
|Lab 9 Assessment - Peer Assessment|
|Lab 10 Assessment - Stem Cells|
|As part of the assessment for this course, you will give a 15 minutes journal club presentation in Lab 10. For this you will in your current student group discuss a recent (published after 2011) original research article (not a review!) on stem cell biology or technology.
|Lab 11 Assessment - Heart Development|
|Read the following recent review article on heart repair and from the reference list identify a cited research article and write a brief summary of the paper's main findings. Then describe how the original research result was used in the review article.
How would you identify your type in a group?
I found myself falling under multiple types. However, people who have worked with me in the past have always said that I am enthusiastic and diligent. For this reason, I would classify myself as the Resource Investigator. I'm always excited to do new things and integrate things from outside the box. I don't think I'm very creative with brainstorming new ideas, but with what ideas my teammates do bring, I would try my best to make it happen. It's true how it says that we start off great but tend to lose momentum towards the end. I find that this happens to me a lot, but I always strive to finish off just as enthusiastic as how I started.
What was the most interesting thing you learnt in the fertilisation lecture?
Prior to studying Embryology, I studied Histology and Evolutionary and Functional Biology where I first heard of the process of fertilisation. So, I was familiar with some words/phrases such as 'corpus luteum', 'antrum' and 'the secretory phase', however, I was overwhelmed by the detail explained in the fertilisation lecture. The previous subjects only provided a brief summary and would continue on the course. I also never heard of a lot of the words used in the lecture such as 'gametogenesis' and the process of 'patterning' and 'gastrulation', so there's definitely a lot for me to study. The most interesting thing I learnt in the lecture was how the follicle enlarges, ruptures and releases the oocyte, surrounding cells and fluid in ovulation but not all the follicle gets released. The remainder of the follicle remains in the uterus goes to form corpus luteum, which plays a big role in pregnancy as it secretes progesterone.
Lab 1 Assessment
For an infertile couple, in vitro fertilisation (IVF) can be the solution. The purpose of this article was to explore the most common cause of infertility in both males and females; and to investigate the reasons why many couples, who seem strongly motivated at the beginning, end up discontinuing from IVF cycles in India. In this study, there were 88 cases of IVF. This consisted of couples aged between 20-40 years old who attended IVF clinics during 2009-2012, was in their first cycle of IVF treatment and whose last and only option left was IVF. The research was conducted over a 4 month period from May - August 2013.
In this study, it was found that 21% of the female participants had tubal pathology, making it the most common cause of infertility in women. Another important factor of infertility that should be considered is age. The mean age of the women was 30.9 years old, with 34% between 31-35 years old and 16% between 36-40 years old. If these female participants underwent IVF earlier, their chances of a successful outcome would have increased as age is a significant factor for a positive pregnancy. Oligo-asthenospermia was found to be the most dominant cause among male participants (13%). In addition, poor lifestyle habits such as smoking and stress could have a negative effect on sperm quality, quantity and mobility. The study also concluded that financial burden was the main reason behind IVF cycle drop out, with 65% of the couples discontinuing the treatment due to its high expenses. However, this came as a surprise as only 19% of women were classified under the low-income group and more than half (52%) belonged to the middle-income group. Other minor reasons why couples backed out from the IVF cycle was because 6.25% took on alternative methods such as adoption. An important note to take into consideration is that the infertile couples also go though stress, worry and agony, and unfortunately, those feelings cannot be quantitated.
|Mark Hill 18 August 2016 - You have added the citation correctly and written a good brief summary of the article findings. While the paper does relate to fertilisation, it is not linked to the biological process, please stay focussed on the course topics.||Assessment 4/5|
Lab 2 Assessment
The cell behaviours and its different locations down the AP embryonic axis
|Mark Hill 29 August 2016 - All information Reference, Copyright and Student Image template included with the file and citation referenced on your page here.
There are some formatting issues in the file information box, that have not affected your final mark. See my comments with the file.
Lab 3 Assessment
|Mark Hill 31 August 2016 - Lab 3 Assessment Quiz - Mesoderm and Ectoderm development.||Assessment 2.5/5|
Lab 4 Assessment
|Mark Hill 17 October 2016 - Good range of questions . Question 1 simple T/F, not much testing of knowledge. Question 2 gives a poor range of options, pretty easy to guess. Question 3 better question design. Question 4 three of the options have a simple name while the correct answer is spelt out, would have been a better option as "Intestinal Malrotation" matching the format of the other options.||Assessment 4.5/5|
Lab 5 Assessment
I have completed the course review questionnaire.
|Mark Hill 17 October 2016 - course review questionnaire, thanks.||Assessment 5/5|
Lab 6 Assessment
CDH1/Epithelial cadherin mutations are correlated with cleft lip or palate.
How does this mutation affect developmental signalling in normal development? The CDH1 gene encodes the protein epithelial cadherin (E cadherin), which is located within the membrane that encloses epithelial cells. The main function of the E cadherin is cell adhesion, in order to form organized tissues. It also acts as a tumour suppressor protein and is required in the regulation of the activity of certain genes, controlling of cell maturation and transmitting of chemical signals within cells. CDH1 gene mutations are linked with thyroid, breast and ovarian cancer. When the CDH1 gene loses its function, it is believed to be involved in cancer progression by increasing invasion and proliferation.
|Mark Hill 17 October 2016 - CDH1 is a novel factor and you summary is useful. It would have been good to also include the signaling pathway involved.||Assessment 5/5|
Lab 7 Assessment
What is/are the dystrophin mutation(s)? What is the function of dystrophin? Dystrophin is a protein that is mainly found in skeletal and cardiac muscle, with a small amount located in the nerve cells of the brain. In skeletal (movement) and cardiac (heart) muscles, Dystrophin is part of a protein complex whose function is to strengthen muscle fibres and protect them from injury during contraction and relaxation of the muscles. It acts as an anchor, linking each muscle cell's cytoskeleton with the extracellular matrix. It can also be involved in cell signalling as it communicates with proteins that send and receive chemical signals.
What other tissues/organs are affected by this disorder? What therapies exist for DMD? Steroids can be used as treatment, however, there is no cure. What animal models are available for muscular dystrophy? MDX mouse
Find a PUBMED article on the current status of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27542949
- what sort of tissues are affected - current status of therapeutic - is it more prevalent - more common among ? - how is it diagnosed? DMD due to a mutation ____ on the X chromosome how big is the protein? is it the same mutation for every DMD patient?
|Mark Hill 17 October 2016 - You have answered some of the questions, but not provided citations for your data sources.||Assessment 4/5|
Lab 8 Assessment
Completed the quiz during the lab.
|Mark Hill 27 October 2016 - Very well done. Hard to give more feedback when you get all the questions correct.||Assessment 8/8|
Lab 9 Assessment
These are very good reviews of the project pages, with some specific examples. They include a balanced critical assessment, perhaps a little too on the positive side, given the existing status of some of these pages. 8/10
Group 1 Peer Review: WnT signalling pathway
Good job to Group 1 for putting together what they have so far. It is evident that they have appropriately delegated various sections of the pathway to different people, and each member has put in a good amount of time and effort into this project.
The various signalling pathways: Canonical pathway, Non-Canonical pathway and the WnT-Calcium Ion Pathway are clearly outlined and have a reasonable amount of content each. However, ‘Non-Canonical Pathway’ differs from the other two, as it contains subheadings such as Pathways, Role and Studies. I suggest that there should be a consistency between the three pathways – that is, add the same subheadings for the other two. This refines the project as it makes them easier to understand and compare. In addition, more information should be added on how the pathway is involved in the process of embryology.
Reading through the project and having very limited knowledge of the WnT signalling pathway made it difficult to understand majority of the content. I think it would be very beneficial if a brief introduction of the pathway was added at the beginning of the project, so students like me could grasp some understanding before delving into heavy research. In addition, seeing as the glossary is blank at the moment, it would be very helpful if the definitions of medical jargon such as ‘Gaq/11’, ‘PIP2’ and ‘IP3’ was added. This would definitely aid in my understanding of the components of the pathway.
The references are placed at the end of each signalling pathway, which I understand is helpful because it shows what articles the student used to gain the content. However, a complete reference list at the bottom of the page is standard, and would also make the page look cleaner. A positive aspect of the project is how well researched and clearly presented the research is. I suggest this group add in pictures as visual aid to support the content. It can be a picture of the pathway/s, a timeline of the history, or anything related to how the pathway is involved in embryology. Extra subheadings such as ‘History’ and ‘Current research’ would also be beneficial.
Overall, I think Group 1 has done a great job so far. Once pictures and extra content is added, their project will be even better. All group members have contributed to the project and the information is relevant and neatly displayed.
Group 2 Peer Review: Notch signalling pathway
Wow! Group 2, I was very impressed with your page. The information is organized and clearly presented under relevant headings and subheadings, with the amount of content demonstrating that you have done your research. The ‘Introduction’ at the start of your page was well written – it was short but included everything necessary, such as the processes that involve the Notch signaling pathway, how it is activated and how it is a part of the process of embryology. The history of the pathway, formatted in a timeline, could not have been done any better! I found it very easy to understand because it was presented so clearly. If it is possible to add a few more points, I think that will enhance that section even more.
The content is correctly citied in this page. I was very impressed with the use of in-text references, as it enables students like me to easily access the article they have used. In addition, the complete reference list at the bottom of the page showed a large number of articles, which demonstrates that this group has done significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
Another positive aspect of the project is how well they have explored the Notch signalling pathway’s roles in embryonic development, which they further split into the Cardiovascular section and the Central Nervous system. Under the Cardiovascular system are numerous subheadings that further delve into how different parts of the system, such as the heart valve and atrioventricular canal, are developed. This fulfils the criteria of showing the specific role in embryonic development. I would suggest that the group add more information under Central Nervous system to balance out the content (though I am aware this is an unfinished project).
Overall, it is evident that Group 2 has diligently and consistently worked on this project. They have done an amazing job so far, and the project will become even better once more things are added and everything is finalised. Great job!
Group 3 Peer Review: FGFR Pathway
Group 3, you have done an excellent job so far. Your page is well organized, with relevant headings of the topic such as ‘Role in Embryonic development’ and ‘Subtypes of FGFR’ that explore different elements of the FGFR pathway. A substantial amount of information is placed under the appropriate subheadings, which is good, however there are still a few where content needs to be added to improve the project. This page has a lot of potential and will be very informative once finished.
The introduction is very effective because it is short and succinct. It states what processes the FGFR pathway is involved in and mentions how it is involved in early development. There has been a good start to the history of the pathway. More dates and significant events, such as discoveries, should also be added here.
I like how you have included an ‘Overview’ of the pathway. It is a good reference point for students like me (who don’t know much about FGFR Pathway) to refer back to when content gets too confusing. In addition, the subtypes of FGFR were presented effectively through the use of a table. The organised structure of the table made it simple to understand, quick to read, and easy to compare the different subtypes. Well done!
Another positive aspect of the project is how you have incorporated pictures that support the content. I especially find the flowchart of the FGFR pathway very useful because it visually shows the process of the pathway. It is correctly citied and balances out the look of the page (instead of blocks of information in long paragraphs). In addition, I love how you guys have added a quiz. It offers something different to the project.
A good start has been made to the glossary. The purpose of a glossary is to simplify the meaning so that it is easier to understand. However, the definition was still a bit too complicated for me. Also, I suggest that more words should be added.
I was impressed by the use of in-text references throughout the project as it demonstrates that you have done significant research on this topic. The complete reference list at the bottom of the project contains a large number of articles, which is excellent. All articles used in this project have been correctly citied. All in all, Group 3, you have done an amazing job! With a few minor tweaks and adding more information, I am sure that you will receive good marks for this project.
Group 4 Peer Review: Hedgehog signalling pathway
Group 4 is off to a good start for this project. Before anything else, I strongly encourage that you guys add an ‘Introduction’ to your page, briefly explaining the importance of the pathway and in what processes it is involved in. Alternatively, an ‘Overview’ of the topic would also be helpful to give us readers an outline on what your page will be about.
The picture of the Hedgehog signalling pathway process at the top of the page is good and correctly referenced. However, on its own, I do not fully understand the pathway – I think it would be more effective if the picture were placed beside information that described the steps of the pathway. Moreover, it would make the page visually appealing if more pictures (that of course, support the content) were added. In regards to the 'History' of the pathway, it is clear that information is yet to be added. I suggest something other than text, such as a timeline or a table, to be used – it gives a break from the long paragraphs of information and is much more easier to read. The information on the page is correctly citied, with the complete reference list at the bottom of the page and the use of in-text references. However, I noticed that the ‘Organogenesis’ section had no in-text references and suggest that there be consistency with citation in this project.
A critical aspect of the page is that they do not explain how the pathway is involved in the process of embryology, not even a heading to show that they will write about it. Showing how the Hedgehog signalling pathway is involved in early development is one of the main aspects of this project, so it is important that this group starts working on that section.
Overall, Group 4 has showed great progress and have a lot of potential to make the page even better. They have demonstrated that they are capable of producing an excellent and nformative page, but just need to add more parts of the pathway that are essential for this project.
Group 5 Peer Review: T-box genes and their signalling
Group 5, your project is the best I have seen out of all the groups! The amount of time and effort you have put in is notably evident in how much information your page holds. There are so many elements to the page, such as the Features, Origins, Functions of the T-box genes and many more. I am very impressed with what you guys have created.
As I was scrolling down your page, I love how you have used a variety of ways to present your information. For instance, you used a table to display the T-box genes. In this table, you have included the main expression sites during embryogenesis, the function and the abnormalities. The organised structure of the table provides consistency throughout the T-box genes and makes it simple to read and understand. Great work! You have also added multiple pictures throughout the page that supports the content beside it. It is correctly referenced and all is of good sizing and location. The amount of information you have included in your page is balanced out well with the table and the pictures.
There is very little to improve with your project. Considering how much information you have put in your project, maybe you can add a quiz to test the reader’s understanding? Also, I noticed that the glossary is still empty. Words and definitions should be added, but this is only a minor area of improvement. In regards to the references, I was very impressed with the amount of articles you have used for this project, shown through the correct use of in-text citation and collectively at the reference list at the bottom of the page.
Overall Group 5, you have done an awesome job so far. There are only a few minor improvements that can be done to this project. Great work!
|Lab 10 - Stem Cell Presentations 2016|
|Group Mark||Assessor General Comments|
Group 1: 15/20
Group 2: 19/20
Group 3: 20/20
Group 4: 19/20
Group 5: 16/20
Group 6: 16/20
|The students put great effort in their presentation and we heard a nice variety of studies in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine today. The interaction after the presentation was great.
As general feedback I would like to advise students to:
- <pubmed>26062934</pubmed>|