Ultrasound

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Introduction

Ultrasound Imaging planes
Ultrasound Imaging planes

A non-invasive technique using sound waves in the ultrasonic (above our hearing range) frequency for visualizing and prenatal diagnosis of several features of development of: follicles in the ovaries, the gestational sac, fetus in the uterus, fetal parameters, and the placenta. Ultrasound imaging began in the 1950's but it was only with the application of computer analysis beginning in the 1980's that more detailed images could be generated. This current page links to all human and animal ultrasound movies, you can also use the Category:Ultrasound to find related content.


Parents now commonly see ultrasound movies or images in the first trimester and clinically this is a non-invasive prenatal diagnostic tool for detection of abnormalities as well as a method of staging (ageing) and checking growth. There are several different standards available[1] for calculating age based upon several measurements, including embryo or fetal crown rump length (CRL).[2]


Ultrasound can also be used in combination with other techniques to locate both embryo and placenta for other prenatal tests (More? prenatal diagnosis). Development of modern ultrasound techniques now allow the measurement of blood flow (doppler) as well as computer three-dimensional reconstruction of embryos or structures.


The ultrasound technique can be used at any stage during pregnancy for fetal and placenta monitoring (More? Placenta Development | Placenta Abnormalities | Prenatal Diagnosis).


Movie help 01.jpg

The ultrasound movies can be viewed in two ways:

  1. Clicking either the movie image or "Page" text below the image opens a new page with both the movie and a more detailed text description of features. Embedded movies then play by clicking the play triangle icon lying over the movie image.
  2. Clicking on the "Play" link will open the MP4 movie version alone on a new page.

Abnormal developmental ultrasound and features are listed on a separate page (More? abnormal ultrasound) all content is for educational use only.

Page | Play
Movie shows a 12 week fetus in 3d in realtime (hence 4D).
Special thanks to Dr Andrew McLennan, Foetal Medicine Unit, Royal North Shore Hospital and Dr Stanley Ng for many of the original video materials.


Diagnosis Links: Prenatal Diagnosis | Pregnancy Test | Amniocentesis | Chorionic villus sampling | Ultrasound | Alpha-Fetoprotein | Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A | Fetal Blood Sampling | Magnetic Resonance Imaging | Computed Tomography | Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing | Fetal Cells in Maternal Blood | Preimplantation Genetic Screening | Comparative Genomic Hybridization | Genome Sequencing | Neonatal Diagnosis | Category:Prenatal Diagnosis | Fetal Surgery | Classification of Diseases | Category:Neonatal Diagnosis
| Abnormal Ultrasound

Some Recent Findings

  • Dating of Pregnancy in First versus Second Trimester in Relation to Post-Term Birth Rate: A Cohort Study[3] "To evaluate in a national standardised setting whether the performance of ultrasound dating during the first rather than the second trimester of pregnancy had consequences regarding the definition of pre- and post-term birth rates. A cohort study of 8,551 singleton pregnancies with spontaneous delivery was performed from 2006 to 2012 at Copenhagen University Hospital, Holbæk, Denmark. We determined the duration of pregnancy calculated by last menstrual period, crown rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (1st trimester), BPD (2nd trimester), and head circumference and compared mean and median durations, the mean differences, the systematic discrepancies, and the percentages of pre-term and post-term pregnancies in relation to each method. The primary outcomes were post-term and pre-term birth rates defined by different dating methods. ...Systematic discrepancies were identified when biometric formulas were used to determine duration of pregnancy. This should be corrected in clinical practice to avoid an overestimation of post-term birth and unnecessary inductions when first trimester formulas are used."
  • Uterine Doppler velocimetry of the uterine arteries in the second and third trimesters for the prediction of gestational outcome[4] "The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the value of uterine artery Doppler sonography during the second and third trimesters in the prediction of adverse pregnancy outcome in low-risk (205 singleton pregnant) women. ...The uterine artery PI and RI values for both second and third-trimester evaluations were significantly higher in patients with adverse pregnancy outcome than in normal women." Placenta - Cord
  • 13-14-week fetal anatomy scan: a 5-year prospective study[5] "To assess the potential value of an early (first-trimester) ultrasound examination in depicting fetal anomalies by transabdominal (TAS) and transvaginal (TVS) sonography, to compare it with the traditional mid-trimester anomaly ultrasound examination and to evaluate the degree of patient acceptance of early sonography by the transvaginal route. ...TVS was significantly better in visualizing the cranium, spine, stomach, kidneys, bladder and upper and lower limbs (P < 0.001). Complete fetal anatomical surveys were achieved by TAS in 64% of cases versus 82% of the cases in which it was attempted by TVS (P < 0.001). ...Besides its importance in screening for chromosomal abnormalities, the early scan has great potential in visualizing with precision fetal anatomy. TVS can be used to compliment difficult TAS examinations; however, patients do not always agree to undergo TVS. The mid-trimester scan remains crucial for detailed fetal anatomical survey."
  • Comparison between ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in assessment of fetal cytomegalovirus infection[6] "MRI can provide important additional information with regard to abnormal gyration, cerebellar hypoplasia, or abnormal signal in white matter. It is certainly useful in the assessment of fetuses with extracerebral features without brain abnormalities detected with ultrasounds. If the fetal ultrasound is strictly normal in an infected fetus, MRI may not detect brain anomalies; however, it seems difficult to not perform this noninvasive procedure."
  • Prenatal diagnosis of vasa previa through color Doppler and three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography[7] "Vasa previa occurs in pregnancy when one of the membrane vessels extends down to the level of the internal cervical os, ahead of the fetal presenting part and unsupported by the placenta tissue or umbilical cord. The rupture of the vessels might happen spontaneously or artificially and frequently results in fetal exsanguination and demise. Ultrasound prenatal diagnosis is highly important as it allows the identification of patients at risk, thus an elective cesarean can be performed before rupture the membranes. We report a case of vasa previa diagnosed through color Doppler mode in the 30th week of gestation, emphasizing the contribution of three-dimensional power Doppler to the adequate mapping of aberrant vessels, which greatly contributed to the success of the perinatal result."
More recent papers  
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches


Search term: Fetal Ultrasound

Radek Bukowski, Nellie I Hansen, Halit Pinar, Marian Willinger, Uma M Reddy, Corette B Parker, Robert M Silver, Donald J Dudley, Barbara J Stoll, George R Saade, Matthew A Koch, Carol Hogue, Michael W Varner, Deborah L Conway, Donald Coustan, Robert L Goldenberg, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network (SCRN) Altered fetal growth, placental abnormalities, and stillbirth. PLoS ONE: 2017, 12(8);e0182874 PubMed 28820889

Maia Delaine, Anne-Sophie Weingertner, Antoine Nougairede, Quentin Lepiller, Samira Fafi-Kremer, Romain Favre, Rémi Charrel Microcephaly Caused by Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus. Emerging Infect. Dis.: 2017, 23(9);1548-1550 PubMed 28820372

Chung Ming Chor, Liona Chiu Yee Poon, Tak Yeung Leung Prediction of labor outcome using serial transperineal ultrasound in the first stage of labor. J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.: 2017;1-21 PubMed 28819985

Himanshu Popat, Kristy P Robledo, Lucille Sebastian, Nicholas Evans, Andrew Gill, Martin Kluckow, Sanjay Sinhal, Koert de Waal, William Tarnow-Mordi, David Osborn Interobserver agreement and image quality of functional cardiac ultrasound measures used in a randomised trial of delayed cord clamping in preterm infants. Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed.: 2017; PubMed 28818853

Mehmet Serdar Kutuk, Murside Sahin, Sureyya Burcu Gorkem, Selim Doganay, Ahmet Ozturk Relationship between Doppler findings and fetal brain apparent diffusion coefficient in early-onset intra uterine growth restriction. J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.: 2017;1-23 PubMed 28818013

Ultrasound Movies

This table of images links to both normal and abnormal ultrasound movies. Page link will open a new window with the movie and additional information.


Normal Ultrasound
Ultrasound12wk 3D image2.jpg
 ‎‎Ultrasound 12wk
Page | Play
Week12 fetal heart rate-icon.jpg
‎‎12 Week Heart Rate
Page | Play
19weeklabel1.jpg
 ‎‎19 Week Fetus
Page | Play
  
Ultrasound day16 rabbit.jpg
 ‎‎Rabbit Embryo
Page | Play
Ultrasound: normal movies | abnormal movies | all ultrasound movies | Movies
Abnormal Ultrasound
Uterus Cleft Lip
Ectopic 01.jpg
 ‎‎Ectopic Pregnancy
Page | Play
Bicornuate uterus ectopic movie icon.jpg
 ‎‎Bicornuate Ectopic
Page | Play
Cleft lip 01.jpg
 ‎‎Cleft Lip 18 Week
Page | Play
Cleft lip 02.jpg
 ‎‎Cleft Lip 15 Week
Page | Play
Gastrointestinal Neural
Gastroschisis 01.jpg
 ‎‎Gastroschisis
Page | Play
Omphalocele 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Omphalocele
Page | Play
US Dandy-Walker 01.jpg
 ‎‎Dandy-Walker
Page | Play
US Spina bifida GA19week.jpg
 ‎‎Spina Bifida
Page | Play
Cardiac
US Transposition great arteries.jpg
 ‎‎Heart TGA
Page | Play
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome movie icon.jpg
 ‎‎Hypoplastic Left
Heart Syndrome
Page | Play
Postnatal persistant ductus venosus ultrasound 03.jpg
 ‎‎Patent
Ductus Venosus
Page | Play
Placenta
US Placenta Previa GA33week icon.jpg
 ‎‎Placenta Previa
Page | Play
US Vasa Previa GA32week.jpg
 ‎‎Vasa Previa
Page | Play
Velamentous cord movie icon.jpg
 ‎‎Velamentous Cord
Page | Play
Ultrasound: normal movies | abnormal movies | all ultrasound movies | Movies

Ultrasound Gestational Age

The following table is based upon Australian data from ultrasound measurements of Crown Rump Length (CRL).[8]

Note that Gestational Age GA differs from fertilisation age by about 2 weeks.

Gestational Age and Crown-Rump Length (measured by ultrasound
Gestational Age
GA (week.day)
Crown-Rump
Length (CRL)
5.2 1
5.3 2
5.4 3
55 3
5.6 4
6 4
6.1 5
6.2 6
6.3 7
6.4 8
6.5 9
6.6 10
7 11
7.1 11
7.2 12
7.3 12
7.4 13
7.5 14
7.6 15
8 17
8.1 18
8.2 19
8.3 20
8.4 21
8.5 22
8.6 22
9 23
9.1 24
9.2 26
9.3 27
9.4 28
9.5 29
9.6 31
10 34
10.1 36
10.2 37
10.3 38
10.4 39
10.5 39
10.6 40
11 44
11.1 45
11.2 47
11.3 48
11.4 52
11.5 55
11.6 56
12 57
12.1 58
12.2 60
12.3 61
12.4 63
12.5 64
12.6 65
13 68
13.1 70
13.2 72
13.3 74
113.4 76
135 77
13.6 80
14 81
14.1 84
14.2 85
14.3 86
14.4 87
Reference

Table adapted from Westerway (2015) PDF and S C Westerway, A Davison, S Cowell Ultrasonic fetal measurements: new Australian standards for the new millennium. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol: 2000, 40(3);297-302 PubMed 11065037

Fertilization and Gestational Age - Crown-Rump Length (measured by ultrasound
Fertilization Age
(days)
Gestational Age
GA (week.day)
Crown-Rump
Length (mm)
37 5.2 1
38 5.3 2
39 5.4 3
40 55 3
41 5.6 4
42    Week 4 6 4
43 6.1 5
44 6.2 6
45 6.3 7
46 6.4 8
47 6.5 9
48 6.6 10
49    Week 5 7 11
50 7.1 11
51 7.2 12
52 7.3 12
53 7.4 13
54 7.5 14
55 7.6 15
56    Week 6 8 17
57 8.1 18
58 8.2 19
59 8.3 20
60 8.4 21
61 8.5 22
62 8.6 22
63    Week 7 9 23
64 9.1 24
65 9.2 26
66 9.3 27
67 9.4 28
68 9.5 29
69 9.6 31
70    Week 8 10 34
71 10.1 36
72 10.2 37
73 10.3 38
74 10.4 39
75 10.5 39
76 10.6 40
77    Week 9 11 44
78 11.1 45
79 11.2 47
80 11.3 48
81 11.4 52
82 11.5 55
83 11.6 56
84    Week 10 12 57
85 12.1 58
86 12.2 60
87 12.3 61
88 12.4 63
89 12.5 64
90 12.6 65
91    Week 11 13 68
92 13.1 70
93 13.2 72
94 13.3 74
95 113.4 76
96 135 77
97 13.6 80
98    Week 12 14 81
99 14.1 84
100 14.2 85
101 14.3 86
102 14.4 87
Reference


Table adapted from Westerway (2015) PDF and S C Westerway, A Davison, S Cowell Ultrasonic fetal measurements: new Australian standards for the new millennium. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol: 2000, 40(3);297-302 PubMed 11065037


Links: Ultrasound | Fetal Development

CRL-GA TableFA-GA-CRL

Doppler Ultrasound

Doppler ultrasound is a noninvasive measure of blood flow and blood pressure by bouncing ultrasound off circulating red blood cells. Originally used for fetal heart beat detection, more recently used diagnostically in uterine, placental, ductus venosus and other fetal blood vessels.

Doppler effect is due to the movement of blood cells causing a change in pitch of the reflected sound waves.

Velamentous Cord Insertion Vasa Previa

This colour doppler ultrasound movie shows blood flow in the umbilical cord inserted into the post uterine wall and then courses superiorly to enter the fundal edge of the anterior placenta.

US Vasa Previa GA32week.jpg
 ‎‎Vasa Previa
Page | Play

Dr Stanley Ng - Obstetrical and gynecological sonologist (Sydney) for providing fetal ultrasound images and movie clips.

4D Ultrasound

Fetal Face

Fetal facial expression 01.jpg Fetal facial expression 02.jpg
(a) 24 weeks (b) 27.5 weeks (c - d) 32 weeks. [9] (a) 28 weeks neutral face (b) 33 weeks (c) 32.5 weeks (d) 33 weeks.[9]

3D Ultrasound

3D Ultrasound Imaging
3D Ultrasound 12 week fetus

Three dimensional (3D) ultrasound scan images are generated from a series of images in 3 different planes. The image shows a 12 week fetal ultrasound images in the sagittal, axial and coronal planes that are used by the computer to generate the final 3D image in the lower right. Computers are able to generate these images in realtime, therefore in addition to static pictures, realtime 4D movies can be generated.

Cardiovascular

Cardiac
US Transposition great arteries.jpg
 ‎‎Heart TGA
Page | Play
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome movie icon.jpg
 ‎‎Hypoplastic Left
Heart Syndrome
Page | Play
Postnatal persistant ductus venosus ultrasound 03.jpg
 ‎‎Patent
Ductus Venosus
Page | Play

The heart is the first organ in the embryo that can be easily ultrasound visualised by its contractility. The absence of contractility also being a early diagnosis of embryo/fetal demise or trophoblastic disease.

The use of ultrasound at later stages of heart development in the mid-1980's began to be used as a diagnostic tool for congenital cardiac abnormalities.[10]

Fetal ductus venosus ultrasound[11]
Fetal ductus venosus ultrasound 01.jpg Fetal ductus venosus pressure wave 01.jpg

Soft Markers

Ultrasound nuchal translucency
File:Ultrasound nuchal translucency[12]

The term "soft markers" refers to ultrasound measurements which may not be diagnostic by themselves, but can have an indicative role for further diagnostic analysis of the pregnancy.

The Diagnostic Imaging Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada in 2005[13] made the following recommendations:

  1. The screening ultrasound at 16 to 20 weeks should evaluate 8 markers, 5 of which (thickened nuchal fold, echogenic bowel, mild ventriculomegaly, echogenic focus in the heart, and choroid plexus cyst) are associated with an increased risk of fetal aneuploidy, and in some cases with nonchromosomal problems, while 3 (single umbilical artery, enlarged cisterna magna, and pyelectasis) are only associated with an increased risk of nonchromosomal abnormalities when seen in isolation (II-2 B).
  2. Identification of soft markers for fetal aneuploidy requires correlation with other risk factors, including history, maternal age, and maternal serum testing results (II-1 A).
  3. Soft markers identify a significant increase in fetal risk for genetic disease. Timely referral for confirmation, counselling, and investigation is required to maximize management options (III-B).
Links: Ultrasound - Nuchal Translucency

Neural

Neural
US Dandy-Walker 01.jpg
 ‎‎Dandy-Walker
Page | Play
US Spina bifida GA19week.jpg
 ‎‎Spina Bifida
Page | Play

Anencephaly ultrasound.jpg

Anencephaly ultrasound[14]

Ultrasound Placenta

Ultrasound can be used to measure both normal and abnormal placentation. Morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) is the general clinical term used to describe the different forms of abnormal placental implantation (Accreta, Increta and Percreta). Clinical ultrasound indicators of MAP are the presence of an interruption of the bladder line, absence of a retroplacental clear zone, and the presence of placental lacunae.

Placenta
US Placenta Previa GA33week icon.jpg
 ‎‎Placenta Previa
Page | Play
US Vasa Previa GA32week.jpg
 ‎‎Vasa Previa
Page | Play
Velamentous cord movie icon.jpg
 ‎‎Velamentous Cord
Page | Play

Placenta Previa

Placenta previa - anterior.jpg Placenta previa ultrasound 01.jpg
Anterior placenta position (upper arrow) in relation to cervix os (lower arrow). Posterior placenta position (arrow) in relation to cervix os (triangle).
Links: Placenta Abnormalities

Placental Cord

Velamentous cord movie icon.jpg
 ‎‎Velamentous Cord
Page | Play
Cord ultrasound

A number of clinical and diagnostic measurements can be made from ultrasound scans of the placental cord, including its insertion site with the placenta. Key measures are blood vessel number, measured by cross-sectional scan, and blood flow, measured by colour doppler.

  • Cord
    • length (cm)
    • cross-sectional area (mm2)
    • coiling index
    • Wharton’s jelly area (mm2)
  • Artery
    • cross-sectional area (mm2)
    • pulsatility index
  • Vein
    • cross-sectional area (mm2)
    • absolute blood flow (ml/min)
    • blood flow for fetal weight (ml/kg/min)
    • blood flow mean velocity (cm/second)

Genital

Sex Determination

The earliest accurate ultrasound marker for fetal sex by ultrasound is at end of first trimester scan (12-13 weeks GA). Based upon direction of the genital tubercle when scanned in the sagittal plane ("sagittal sign").[15]

  • female - downward direction of the genital tubercle
  • male - upward direction of the genital tubercle

Other sonographic landmarks can include:

  • female - labial lines, uterus
  • male - midline penis raphe, descended testis, micturition jet

Earlier embryonic sex determination can now be made by non-invasive genetic analysis techniques.

Links: Genital System Development | Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing

Twinning

Placental Membranes
Ultrasound twinning 01.jpg Ultrasound twinning 02.jpg
Dichorionic diamniotic

GA 13 week = 11 week

Monochorionic diamniotic

GA 12 week = 10 week

Thick dividing membrane and "lambda" or twin peak sign at the junction with the placenta. Thin dividing membrane and "T" sign at the junction with the placenta.
Links: Placenta Membranes
Dichorionic twins ultrasound 01.gif

Dichorionic twins ultrasound[16]

Transvaginal ultrasonography of dichorionic-diamniotic twins at 8 weeks and 5 days since co-incubation as part of IVF. The twin at left in the image is shown in the sagittal plane with the head pointing towards upper left. The twin at right in the image is shown in the coronal plane with the head pointing rightwards.

Ultrasound Research

Ultrasound imaging began in the 1950's but it was only with the application of computer analysis beginning in the 1980's that more detailed images could be generated. The increasing quality of ultrasonic equipment and computing allows today realtime 3D scans and calculations of fetal measurements as well as doppler measurement of heart rates.

In medical research there have been recent developments that allow spatial high resolution down to 30 microns in real-time.


Other Imaging Techniques

There are a range of other imaging techniques to study development and used in developmental research.

Other developmental research imaging techniques include:

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Computed Tomography
  • high frequency ultrasound or High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)
  • positron emission tomography (PET)
  • single photon emission computed tomography
  • optical bioluminescence
  • fluorescence

Additional Images

References

  1. S C Westerway, A Davison, S Cowell Ultrasonic fetal measurements: new Australian standards for the new millennium. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol: 2000, 40(3);297-302 PubMed 11065037
  2. G E Chalouhi, J P Bernard, G Benoist, B Nasr, Y Ville, Laurent J Salomon A comparison of first trimester measurements for prediction of delivery date. J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.: 2011, 24(1);51-7 PubMed 20350241
  3. Ida Näslund Thagaard, Lone Krebs, Ulrik Lausten-Thomsen, Severin Olesen Larsen, Jens-Christian Holm, Michael Christiansen, Torben Larsen Dating of Pregnancy in First versus Second Trimester in Relation to Post-Term Birth Rate: A Cohort Study. PLoS ONE: 2016, 11(1);e0147109 PubMed 26760299 | PLoS One.
  4. Maryam Afrakhteh, Aida Moeini, Morteza Sanei Taheri, Hamid Reza Haghighatkhah, Mohammad Fakhri, Nina Masoom Uterine Doppler velocimetry of the uterine arteries in the second and third trimesters for the prediction of gestational outcome. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet: 2014, 36(1);35-9 PubMed 24554228
  5. A Ebrashy, A El Kateb, M Momtaz, A El Sheikhah, M M Aboulghar, M Ibrahim, M Saad 13-14-week fetal anatomy scan: a 5-year prospective study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol: 2010, 35(3);292-6 PubMed 20205205
  6. Olivier Picone, Isabelle Simon, Alexandra Benachi, Francis Brunelle, Pascale Sonigo Comparison between ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in assessment of fetal cytomegalovirus infection. Prenat. Diagn.: 2008, 28(8);753-8 PubMed 18551722
  7. E Araujo Júnior, H A G Filho, C R Pires, S M Zanforlin Filho, A F Moron Prenatal diagnosis of vasa previa through color Doppler and three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography. A case report. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol: 2006, 33(2);122-4 PubMed 16903253
  8. S C Westerway, A Davison, S Cowell Ultrasonic fetal measurements: new Australian standards for the new millennium. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol: 2000, 40(3);297-302 PubMed 11065037
  9. 9.0 9.1 Reissland N, Francis B, Mason J, Lincoln K (2011) Do Facial Expressions Develop before Birth? PLoS ONE 6(8): e24081. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024081 PLoS One
  10. G R DeVore The prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease--a practical approach for the fetal sonographer. J Clin Ultrasound: 1985, 13(4);229-45 PubMed 3923046
  11. Fernanda C da Silva, Renato A Moreira de Sá, Paulo R N de Carvalho, Laudelino M Lopes Doppler and birth weight Z score: predictors for adverse neonatal outcome in severe fetal compromise. Cardiovasc Ultrasound: 2007, 5;15 PubMed 17374167 | Cardiovasc Ultrasound.
  12. Jennifer Alphonse, Jennifer Cox, Jill Clarke, Philip Schluter, Andrew McLennan The Effect of Ethnicity on 2D and 3D Frontomaxillary Facial Angle Measurement in the First Trimester. Obstet Gynecol Int: 2013, 2013;847293 PubMed 24288543 | Obstet Gynecol Int.
  13. Michiel C Van den Hof, R Douglas Wilson, Diagnostic Imaging Committee, Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, Genetics Committee, Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada Fetal soft markers in obstetric ultrasound. J Obstet Gynaecol Can: 2005, 27(6);592-636 PubMed 16100637
  14. Ibrahim A Alorainy, Nauman B Barlas, Amer A Al-Boukai Pictorial Essay: Infants of diabetic mothers. Indian J Radiol Imaging: 2010, 20(3);174-81 PubMed 21042439
  15. Marwan Odeh, Vatali Granin, Mohamed Kais, Ella Ophir, Jacob Bornstein Sonographic fetal sex determination. Obstet Gynecol Surv: 2009, 64(1);50-7 PubMed 19099612
  16. Häggström, M. "Medical gallery of Mikael Häggström 2014". Wikiversity Journal of Medicine 1 (2). DOI:10.15347/wjm/2014.008. ISSN 20018762.


Journals

Books

Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database (MICAD) NBK5330 | PMID:20641179

Articles

Kimberly Butt, Ken Lim, Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada Determination of gestational age by ultrasound. J Obstet Gynaecol Can: 2014, 36(2);171-83 PubMed 24518917

Marek Lubusky, Martina Studnickova, Ales Skrivanek, Katherine Vomackova, Martin Prochazka Ultrasound evaluation of fetal gender at 12-14 weeks. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub: 2012, 156(4);324-9 PubMed 22660228


Search PubMed

Search PubMed: Ultrasound prenatal diagnosis | Ultrasound


Prenatal Diagnosis Terms

  • ART - Assisted Reproductive Technology a general term to describe all the clinical techniques used to aid fertility.
  • blastomere biopsy - An ART preimplantation genetic diagnosis technique carried out at cleavage stage (day 3), excluding poor quality embryos, detects chromosomal abnormalities of both maternal and paternal origin. May not detect cellular mosaicism in the embryo.
  • blastocyst biopsy - An ART preimplantation genetic diagnosis technique carried out at blastocyst stage (day 4-5), removes several trophoblast (trophoderm) cells, detects chromosomal abnormalities of both maternal and paternal origin and may detect cellular mosaicism.
  • cell-free fetal deoxyribonucleic acid - (cffDNA) refers to fetal DNA circulating and isolated from the plasma portion of maternal blood.
  • false negative rate - The proportion of pregnancies that will test negative given that the congenital anomaly is present.
  • false positive rate - The proportion of pregnancies that will test positive given that the congenital anomaly is absent.
  • negative predictive value - The probability that a congenital anomaly is absent given that the prenatal screening test is negative.
  • Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing - (NIPT) could refer to ultrasound or other imaging techniques, but more frequently used to describe analysis of cell-free fetal DNA circulating in maternal blood.
  • polar body biopsy - (PB biopsy) An ART preimplantation genetic diagnosis technique that removes either the first or second polar body from the zygote. As these are generated by oocyte meiosis they detects chromosomal abnormalities only on the female genetics.
  • positive predictive value - The probability that a congenital anomaly is present given that the prenatal screening test is positive.
  • pre-implantation genetic diagnosis - (PGD, pre-implantation genetic screening) a diagnostic procedure for embryos produced through Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART, in vitro fertilisation, IVF) for genetic diseases that would generate developmental abnormalities or serious postnatal diseases.
  • prenatal screening sensitivity - (detection rate) The probability of testing positive on a prenatal screening test if the congenital anomaly is present.
  • prenatal screening specificity - The probability of testing negative on a prenatal screening test if the congenital anomaly is absent.
  • single nucleotide polymorphisms - (SNPs) the variation in a single DNA nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome.
Other Terms Lists  
Terms Lists: ART | Birth | Bone | Cardiovascular | Cell Division | Gastrointestinal | Genetic | Hearing | Heart | Immune | Integumentary | Neural | Oocyte | Palate | Placenta | Renal | Spermatozoa | Ultrasound | Vision | Historic | Glossary

Terms

Ultrasound

  • Biparietal diameter - (BPD) used to determine fetal age and normal development (small/large/abnormal) parameters. Measured as the diameter between the 2 sides of the head, measurements after 13 weeks (2.4 cm) to term (9.5 cm).
  • Crown-Rump Length - (CRL) measurement used in embryology to more accurately stage the early embryo and fetus. Measured from the curvature at the top (crown) to the curvature at the bottom (rump) of the "C-shaped" early embryo. Used in clinical ultrasound as a measurement between the periods of 7 to 13 weeks as an accurate estimation of the gestational age GA.
  • DICOM - (ISO standard 12052:2006) Acronym for Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine, a clinical standard for handling, storing, printing, and transmitting imaging information.
  • Femur length - (FL) is used to determine fetal age and normal development (small/large/abnormal) parameters. The femur is the longest bone in the body and measurements and reflects the longitudinal growth of the fetus (approximately 14 weeks 1.5 cm - term 7.8 cm). It is one of the four typical ultrasound assessments of fetal size and age: Biparietal Diameter (BPD), |Head Circumference (HC), Abdominal Circumference (AC), and Femur Length (FL).
  • Fetal size and age - typically measured using 4 ultrasound assessments: Biparietal Diameter (BPD), Head Circumference (HC), Abdominal Circumference (AC), and Femur Length (FL).
  • Functional linear discriminant analysis - (FLDA) new growth assessment technique using serial measurements to discriminate between normal and abnormal fetal growth during 2nd and 3rd trimester.
  • Head Circumference - (HC) Measured as an ellipse in a horizontal section at the level of the thalamus and the cavum septi pellucidi. 2nd trimester Fetal head growth
  • Gestational sac - (GS) size formed initially by the chorionic cavity, after the embryonic period (week 8, GA W10) the amniotic cavity expands and fuses with the chorion. Measured by mean gestation sac diameter.
  • inversion mode - an ultrasound processing method of volume analysis for the visualization of fluid-filled fetal structures such as; heart chambers, vessel lumen, stomach, gallbladder, renal pelvis, and the bladder. Post-processing inverts the gray scale of the volume voxels showing the normally anechoic structures in 3D or 4D renderings. This technique has been used to identify cardiac anomalies.
  • Linear discriminant analysis - (LDA) to longitudinal data (James and Hastie, 2001)
  • Mean gestation sac diameter - (MSD) = (length + height + width)/3. At week 3 (GAweek 5) MSD measures 2-3 mm. Normal MSD (in mm) + 30 = days of pregnancy.
  • Mean yolk sac diameter - (MYD) can be used as marker for subsequent embryonic death or abnormalities (PMID 22215774).
  • Spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) - an image acquisition method used mainly for fetal heart analysis. Requires two steps; an automatic volume sweep, then image data analysis according to spatial and temporal domain generating an online dynamic 3D image sequence.
  • Transabdominal scan - the ultrasound probe is placed on the external abdomen wall to scan pelvic region structures, conceptus and placenta. Also used to guide prenatal diagnostic techniques of chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis.
  • Transvaginal scan - (TVS) the ultrasound probe is placed inside the vagina and scans for female genital (uterus, ovary) and ectopic pregnancy.
  • Termination of pregnancy - (TOP)
Other Terms Lists  
Terms Lists: ART | Birth | Bone | Cardiovascular | Cell Division | Gastrointestinal | Genetic | Hearing | Heart | Immune | Integumentary | Neural | Oocyte | Palate | Placenta | Renal | Spermatozoa | Ultrasound | Vision | Historic | Glossary


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Ultrasound. Retrieved August 21, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Ultrasound

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© Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G