Sheep Development

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Introduction

Sheep with lamb with second (twin) lamb being born.

The domestic sheep (Ovis aries) has been used as a mammalian model of development with a term gestational period of 145 - 150 days.


Carnegie stages species comparison.jpg

Animal Development Time 
Animal Development Time  
Animal Average Days
Bear (Black) 210
Bison 270
Budgerigar 18
Camel 410
Cat 65
Cattle 281
Chicken 21
Chimpanzee 236
Chinchilla 111
Coyote 63
Deer (Mule) 200
Dog 63
Donkey 365
Duck 28
Duck (Muscovy) 35
Elephant 660
Elk, Wapiti 255
Ferret 42
Finch 14
Fox 52
Giraffe 425
Goat 150
Goose 28
Gorilla 270
Guinea fowl 28
Guinea pig 68
Hare 36
Hippopotamus 240
Horse 338
Human 274
Leopard 95
Lion 108
Llama 350
Marmoset 150
Mink (European) 41
Monkey (Macaque) 180
Moose 240
Mouse 20
Muskox 255
Muskrat 29
Nutria, Coypu 130
Opossum 12
Otter 285
Panther 90
Parrot 26
Pheasant 24
Pig 114
Pigeon 18
Porcupine 210
Pronghorn 230
Quail 16
Rabbit 31
Raccoon 63
Rat 21
Reindeer 225
Rhinoceros (African) 480
Seal 330
Sheep 150
Shrew 20
Skunk 63
Squirrel (Gray) 40
Swan 35
Tapir 390
Tarsier 182
Tiger 103
Turkey 28
Walrus 450
Whale (Sperm) 450
Wolf 63
Woodchuck 31
Animal Notes and Table Data Sources
  • Each animal species has different variations +/- the average values shown in the table.
  • Gestation is the carrying of an animal embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal.
  • Incubation is the laying of an egg (birds, reptiles, monotremes) with development occurring outside the female animal.


Animal Development: Axolotl | Bat | Cat | Chicken | Cow | Dog | Dolphin | Echidna | Fly | Frog | Grasshopper | Guinea Pig | Hamster | Kangaroo | Koala | Lizard | Medaka | Mouse | Pig | Platypus | Rabbit | Rat | Sea Squirt | Sea Urchin | Sheep | Worm | Zebrafish | Life Cycles | Development Timetable | K12
Historic Embryology  
1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 1906 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | 1951 Frog | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer


Additional Data Sources

  • The House Mouse: Atlas of Mouse Development by Theiler Springer-Verlag, NY (1972, 1989).
  • The Genetics of the Dog. E Ostrander, E. and Ruvinsky, A. ISBN: 9781845939403 (2012)
  • Merck Veterinary Manual. Aiello, S.E. and Moses, M.A. (ed) ISBN: 0911910506 (2013) Online
  • Witschi, E. (1962) Development: Rat. In: Growth Including Reproduction and Morphological Development. Altman, P. L. , and D. S. Dittmer, ed. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Washington DC, pp. 304-314.

Some Recent Findings

  • Healthy ageing of cloned sheep[1] "The health of cloned animals generated by somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been of concern since its inception; however, there are no detailed assessments of late-onset, non-communicable diseases. Here we report that SCNT has no obvious detrimental long-term health effects in a cohort of 13 cloned sheep. We perform musculoskeletal assessments, metabolic tests and blood pressure measurements in 13 aged (7-9 years old) cloned sheep, including four derived from the cell line that gave rise to Dolly. We also perform radiological examinations of all main joints, including the knees, the joint most affected by osteoarthritis in Dolly, and compare all health parameters to groups of 5-and 6-year-old sheep, and published reference ranges. Despite their advanced age, these clones are euglycaemic, insulin sensitive and normotensive. Importantly, we observe no clinical signs of degenerative joint disease apart from mild, or in one case moderate, osteoarthritis in some animals. Our study is the first to assess the long-term health outcomes of SCNT in large animals." Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
  • Development of morulae from the oocytes of cultured sheep preantral follicles[2] "Sheep preantral follicles (PFs) measuring 250-400 microm in diameter were cultured for six days in serum-free media supplemented differently with growth factors and hormones. ...In combination with T4 and FSH, IGF-I+GH supported the best development of the PFs. Culture of PFs in micro drops or agar gel supported similarly high development. In vitro fertilization of the oocytes from the cultured sheep PFs resulted in the embryos developing to the morula stage for the first time."
  • Viral particles of endogenous betaretroviruses are released in the sheep uterus and infect the conceptus trophectoderm in a transspecies embryo transfer model[3]
More recent papers  
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches


Search term: Sheep Embryology

Marina Gimeno, Pedro Pinczowski, Gracia Mendoza, Javier Asín, Francisco J Vázquez, Eugenio Vispe, Felícito García-Álvarez, Marta Pérez, Jesús Santamaría, Manuel Arruebo, Lluís Luján Antibiotic-eluting orthopedic device to prevent early implant associated infections: Efficacy, biocompatibility and biodistribution studies in an ovine model. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater.: 2017; PubMed 28976634

Alberto Centeno, Santiago Rojas, Belén Arias, Ignasi Miquel, Pilar Sánchez, Claudia Ureta, Esther Rincón, Ramón López, Jesús Murat A new topical hemostatic agent TT-173 reduces blood loss in a sheep model of total knee arthroplasty. Knee: 2017; PubMed 28865948

Jamal Nourinezhad, Saleh Bamohabat, Yazdan Mazaheri Developmental morphology and topography of the components of the cervical sympathetic trunk in sheep (Ovis aries) during the fetal period. Anat Rec (Hoboken): 2017; PubMed 28865185

Wolfgang Härtig, Bianca Mages, Susanne Aleithe, Björn Nitzsche, Stephan Altmann, Henryk Barthel, Martin Krueger, Dominik Michalski Damaged Neocortical Perineuronal Nets Due to Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Mice, Rats and Sheep. Front Integr Neurosci: 2017, 11;15 PubMed 28860977

Samane Adib, Mojtaba Rezazadeh Valojerdi Molecular assessment, characterization, and differentiation of theca stem cells imply the presence of mesenchymal and pluripotent stem cells in sheep ovarian theca layer. Res. Vet. Sci.: 2017, 114;378-387 PubMed 28738285

Development Overview

Sheep follicle in vitro[4]
  • day 4 - embryo enters the uterus at the morula stage of development
  • day 6 - develops into a blastocyst
  • day 8 - blastocyst hatches from zona pellucida
  • day 11-16 - elongates to a filamentous form
  • day 14 - 16 - binucleate cells begin to differentiate in the trophoblast
  • day 16 - adplantation

See also Implantation mechanisms: insights from the sheep[5]

Dolly

Dolly the sheep (5 July 1996 – 14 February 2003)

A female domestic sheep remarkable in being the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell, using the process of nuclear transfer.[6]

Cloned by Ian Wilmut, Keith Campbell and colleagues at the Roslin Institute near Edinburgh in Scotland, born on 5 July 1996 and she lived until the age of six (5 July 1996 – 14 February 2003). The cell used as the donor for the cloning of Dolly was taken from a mammary gland, and the production of a healthy clone therefore proved that a cell taken from a specific part of the body could recreate a whole individual. As Dolly was cloned from part of a mammary gland, she was named after the famously curvaceous country western singer Dolly Parton.


Links: Roslin Institute, Edinburgh | Science Museum - Dolly the sheep, 1996-2003


Oocyte Development

Sheep follicle gene expression 01.jpg

Sheep follicle gene expression[7]
  • red - genes expressed in granulose cells.
  • blue - genes expressed in oocytes.
  • black - genes expressed both in oocytes and granulosa cells.


Sheep Oocyte Distribution of Telomerase reverse transcriptase

The following oocyte images are from a recent study of sheep in vitro follicle development.[8]

Sheep oocyte 01.jpg Sheep oocyte 02.jpg
preantral early antral
Sheep oocyte 03.jpg Sheep oocyte 04.jpg
early antral preovulatory follicle
  • TERT - Red (Cy3-conjugated secondary antibody) (telomerase reverse transcriptase, TERT)
  • DNA - Green (SYBR Green 14/I)


Sheep Oocyte TERT: preantral | early antral | early antral | preovulatory follicle | Oocyte Development | Sheep Development

Respiratory

Phases of fetal lung development:[9]

  1. embryonic - 0 to 40 days.
  2. pseudoglandular - 40 to 80 days.
  3. canalicular - 80 to 120 days.
  4. saccular - 120 to term 148 days gestation.


Links: Respiratory Development

Immune

Lymphocytes development has been characterised by an immunohistology study of T lymphocytes in the sheep fetal spleen.[10]

  • 43-44 days of gestation, SBU-T1- and SBU-T8-positive lymphocytes were present in low numbers.
  • 45-50 days of gestation Surface immunoglobulin (sIg) was first detected on fetal spleen cells
  • 50-55 days of gestation SBU-T4, 20.96-, 25.69-, 38.38-, or 46.66-positive lymphocytes present.
  • 57 days of gestation SBU-T19 lymphocytes appeared.


Links: Immune Development

References

  1. K D Sinclair, S A Corr, C G Gutierrez, P A Fisher, J-H Lee, A J Rathbone, I Choi, K H S Campbell, D S Gardner Healthy ageing of cloned sheep. Nat Commun: 2016, 7;12359 PubMed 27459299
  2. G Arunakumari, N Shanmugasundaram, V H Rao Development of morulae from the oocytes of cultured sheep preantral follicles. Theriogenology: 2010, 74(5);884-94 PubMed 20615540
  3. Sarah G Black, Frederick Arnaud, Robert C Burghardt, M Carey Satterfield, Jo-Ann G W Fleming, Charles R Long, Carol Hanna, Lita Murphy, Roman Biek, Massimo Palmarini, Thomas E Spencer Viral particles of endogenous betaretroviruses are released in the sheep uterus and infect the conceptus trophectoderm in a transspecies embryo transfer model. J. Virol.: 2010, 84(18);9078-85 PubMed 20610723
  4. Barbara Barboni, Valentina Russo, Sandra Cecconi, Valentina Curini, Alessia Colosimo, Maria Luigia A Garofalo, Giulia Capacchietti, Oriana Di Giacinto, Mauro Mattioli In vitro grown sheep preantral follicles yield oocytes with normal nuclear-epigenetic maturation. PLoS ONE: 2011, 6(11);e27550 PubMed 22132111 | PLoS One.
  5. Thomas E Spencer, Greg A Johnson, Fuller W Bazer, Robert C Burghardt Implantation mechanisms: insights from the sheep. Reproduction: 2004, 128(6);657-68 PubMed 15579583
  6. I Wilmut, A E Schnieke, J McWhir, A J Kind, K H Campbell Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells. Nature: 1997, 385(6619);810-3 PubMed 9039911
  7. Agnes Bonnet, Bertrand Servin, Philippe Mulsant, Beatrice Mandon-Pepin Spatio-Temporal Gene Expression Profiling during In Vivo Early Ovarian Folliculogenesis: Integrated Transcriptomic Study and Molecular Signature of Early Follicular Growth. PLoS ONE: 2015, 10(11);e0141482 PubMed 26540452 | PLoS One.
  8. Barbara Barboni, Valentina Russo, Sandra Cecconi, Valentina Curini, Alessia Colosimo, Maria Luigia A Garofalo, Giulia Capacchietti, Oriana Di Giacinto, Mauro Mattioli In vitro grown sheep preantral follicles yield oocytes with normal nuclear-epigenetic maturation. PLoS ONE: 2011, 6(11);e27550 PubMed 22132111 | PLoS One.
  9. M G Gnanalingham, A Mostyn, J Dandrea, D P Yakubu, M E Symonds, T Stephenson Ontogeny and nutritional programming of uncoupling protein-2 and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the ovine lung. J. Physiol. (Lond.): 2005, 565(Pt 1);159-69 PubMed 15774522 | PMC1464504
  10. J F Maddox, C R Mackay, M R Brandon Ontogeny of ovine lymphocytes. II. An immunohistological study on the development of T lymphocytes in the sheep fetal spleen. Immunology: 1987, 62(1);107-12 PubMed 3308689


Reviews

G Lazzari, S Colleoni, I Lagutina, G Crotti, P Turini, I Tessaro, D Brunetti, R Duchi, C Galli Short-term and long-term effects of embryo culture in the surrogate sheep oviduct versus in vitro culture for different domestic species. Theriogenology: 2010, 73(6);748-57 PubMed 19726075

K H S Campbell, R Alberio, I Choi, P Fisher, R D W Kelly, J-H Lee, W Maalouf Cloning: eight years after Dolly. Reprod. Domest. Anim.: 2005, 40(4);256-68 PubMed 16008756


Articles

Juhui Wang, Michel Guillomot, Isabelle Hue Cellular organization of the trophoblastic epithelium in elongating conceptuses of ruminants. C. R. Biol.: 2009, 332(11);986-97 PubMed 19909921

Michel Guillomot, Annick Turbe, Isabelle Hue, Jean-Paul Renard Staging of ovine embryos and expression of the T-box genes Brachyury and Eomesodermin around gastrulation. Reproduction: 2004, 127(4);491-501 PubMed 15047940

| Reproduction

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Animal Development: Axolotl | Bat | Cat | Chicken | Cow | Dog | Dolphin | Echidna | Fly | Frog | Grasshopper | Guinea Pig | Hamster | Kangaroo | Koala | Lizard | Medaka | Mouse | Pig | Platypus | Rabbit | Rat | Sea Squirt | Sea Urchin | Sheep | Worm | Zebrafish | Life Cycles | Development Timetable | K12
Historic Embryology  
1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 1906 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | 1951 Frog | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Sheep Development. Retrieved October 23, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Sheep_Development

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