Pig Development

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Introduction

Sow and piglet.

Pig (Sus scrofa) developmental model is studied extensively due to the commercial applications of pigs for meat production and for health issues such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and organ transplantation (xenotransplantation).

Historically, there is an excellent description of the pig reproductive estrous cycle and the cyclic changes that occur within the ovary.[1]


Pig Links: Introduction | Estrous Cycle | 1897 Pig Embryo Development Plates | 1951 Pig Embryology | Category:Pig
Historic Papers: 1903 12mm Pig | 1905 Thymus | 1908 Pancreas | 1908 Pharyngeal Pouches | 1908 Intestinal Diverticula | 1910 Hypoglossal Ganglia | 1911 Prenatal Growth | 1921 Estrous and Implantation | 1922 Limb Arteries | 1924 Pig | 1937 Coronary Circulatory

Some Recent Findings

Historic drawing of early limb vasculature.
  • Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo[2] "Here, we derived a porcine pluripotent stem cell (pPSC) line from day 5.5 blastocysts in a newly developed culture system based on MXV medium and a 5% oxygen atmosphere. The pPSCs had been passaged more than 75 times over two years, and the morphology of the colony was similar to that of human embryonic stem cells."
  • An In Vivo Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Averaged Brain Collection of the Neonatal Piglet[3] "Due to the fact that morphology and perinatal growth of the piglet brain is similar to humans, use of the piglet as a translational animal model for neurodevelopmental studies is increasing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be a powerful tool to study neurodevelopment in piglets, but many of the MRI resources have been produced for adult humans. Here, we present an average in vivo MRI-based atlas specific for the 4-week-old piglet." (More? Neural System - Postnatal)
  • A gene expression atlas of the domestic pig[4] "As an important livestock animal with a physiology that is more similar than mouse to man, we provide a major new resource for understanding gene expression with respect to the known physiology of mammalian tissues and cells. The data and analyses are available on the websites http://biogps.org and http://www.macrophages.com/pig-atlas."
  • How pig sperm prepares to fertilize[5] "We propose that this capacitation driven membrane docking and stability thereof is a preparative step prior to the multipoint membrane fusions characteristic for the acrosome reaction induced by sperm-zona binding."
  • Axial differentiation and early gastrulation stages of the pig embryo[6] "Differentiation of the principal body axes in the early vertebrate embryo is based on a specific blueprint of gene expression and a series of transient axial structures such as Hensen's node and the notochord of the late gastrulation phase. ... Intriguingly, the round shape and gradual posterior displacement of the APD in the pig appear to be species-specific (differing from all other mammals studied in detail to date) but correlate with ensuing specific primitive streak and extraembryonic mesoderm development. APD and, hence, the earliest axial structure presently known in the mammalian embryo may thus be functionally involved in shaping extraembryonic membranes and, possibly, the specific adult body form."
More recent papers  
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Search term: Pig Embryology

Barbora East, Martin Plencner, Martin Kralovic, Michala Rampichova, Vera Sovkova, Karolina Vocetkova, Martin Otahal, Zbynek Tonar, Yaroslav Kolinko, Evzen Amler, Jiri Hoch A polypropylene mesh modified with poly-ε-caprolactone nanofibers in hernia repair: large animal experiment. Int J Nanomedicine: 2018, 13;3129-3143 PubMed 29881270

Shuang Liang, Hao Jiang, Xing-Hui Shen, Jia-Bao Zhang, Nam-Hyung Kim Inhibition of cathepsin B activity prevents deterioration in the quality of in vitro aged porcine oocytes. Theriogenology: 2018, 116;103-111 PubMed 29800805

Jan Strnadel, Cassiano Carromeu, Cedric Bardy, Michael Navarro, Oleksandr Platoshyn, Andreas N Glud, Silvia Marsala, Jozef Kafka, Atsushi Miyanohara, Tomohisa Kato, Takahiro Tadokoro, Michael P Hefferan, Kota Kamizato, Tetsuya Yoshizumi, Stefan Juhas, Jana Juhasova, Chak-Sum Ho, Taba Kheradmand, PeiXi Chen, Dasa Bohaciakova, Marian Hruska-Plochan, Andrew J Todd, Shawn P Driscoll, Thomas D Glenn, Samuel L Pfaff, Jiri Klima, Joseph Ciacci, Eric Curtis, Fred H Gage, Jack Bui, Kazuhiko Yamada, Alysson R Muotri, Martin Marsala Survival of syngeneic and allogeneic iPSC-derived neural precursors after spinal grafting in minipigs. Sci Transl Med: 2018, 10(440); PubMed 29743351

Turgay Topcuoglu, Murat Kocyıgıt, Erdogan Bulut, Safiye G Ortekın, Mehmet Kanter, Recep Yagız The Effects of Experimental Intratympanic Steroid Administration on Organ of Corti Type 1 Spiral Ganglion. Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol: 2018, 22(2);171-176 PubMed 29619108

Barbara Przybylska-Gornowicz, Bogdan Lewczuk, Magdalena Prusik, Maria Hanuszewska, Marcela Petrusewicz-Kosińska, Magdalena Gajęcka, Łukasz Zielonka, Maciej Gajęcki The Effects of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on the Pig Large Intestine. A Light and Electron Microscopy Study. Toxins (Basel): 2018, 10(4); PubMed 29617295


Hanna Marti, Nicole Borel, Deborah Dean, Cory A Leonard ##Title## Front Microbiol: 2018, 9;1414 PubMed 30018602

Yong Min Kim, Tae Jeong Choi, Kyu Ho Cho, Eun Seok Cho, Jung Jae Lee, Hak Jae Chung, Sun Young Baek, Yong Dae Jeong Effects of Sex and Breed on Meat Quality and Sensory Properties in Three-way Crossbred Pigs Sired by Duroc or by a Synthetic Breed Based on a Korean Native Breed. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour: 2018, 38(3);544-553 PubMed 30018498

Lidia Gómez-Gascón, Inmaculada Luque, Carmen Tarradas, Alfonso Olaya-Abril, Rafael J Astorga, Belén Huerta, Manuel J Rodríguez-Ortega Comparative immunosecretome analysis of prevalent Streptococcus suis serotypes. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.: 2018, 57;55-61 PubMed 30017079

Pengbo Ning, Zhongxing Wu, Xuepeng Li, Yulu Zhou, Aoxue Hu, Xiaocheng Gong, Jun He, Yuqiong Xia, Kangkang Guo, Ruili Zhang, Xianghan Zhang, Zhongliang Wang Development of functionalized gold nanoparticles as nanoflare probes for rapid detection of classical swine fever virus. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces: 2018, 171;110-114 PubMed 30016749

Zhijie Li, Xiaozhan Zhang, Xiaoliang Hu, Jin Tian, Hongtao Kang, Dongchun Guo, Jiasen Liu, Liandong Qu Development of an indirect ELISA assay for detecting antibodies against mammalian reovirus in pigs. J. Virol. Methods: 2018; PubMed 30016702

Taxon

Taxonomy ID: 9823

Genbank common name: pig

Inherited blast name: even-toed ungulates

Rank: species

Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard)

Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 2 (Vertebrate Mitochondrial)

Other names: wild boar, swine, pigs

Lineage (full): cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Fungi/Metazoa group; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Coelomata; Deuterostomia; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Gnathostomata; Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Suina; Suidae; Sus

Animal Models

Animal Model Comparison
Postnatal Animal Models mouse rat pig
Pregnancy period (days) 18 – 21 21 – 23 110 – 118
Placenta type Discoidal, decidual
hemoendothelial choroidea
Discoidal, decidual
hemoendothelial choroidea
Epitheliochorial
Litter size 6 – 12 6 – 15 11 – 16
Birth weight (g) 0.5 – 1.5 3 – 5 900 – 1600
Weaning weight male/female (g) 18 – 25/16 – 25 55 – 90/45 – 80 6000 – 8000
Suckling period (days) 21–28 21 28–49
Solid diet beginning (days) 10 12 12 – 15
Puberty male/female (week) 4 – 6/5 6/6 – 8 20 – 28
Life expectancy (years) 1 - 2 2 - 3 14 – 18
Table data - Otis and Brent (1954)[7]   Links: timeline

Carnegie Stages Comparison Table

Species Stage
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Human Days 20 22 24 28 30 33 36 40 42 44 48 52 54 55 58
Pig Days 14 15 16 17 18 19 20.5 21.5 23 24 25.5 27.5 29 30.5 32.5


Links: Carnegie Stage Comparison

Reproductive Overview

Pig development day 1-10
Pig development (day 1 to 10)
  • The gestation period of a pig is 112 to 114 days.
  • Female pigs can become pregnant at around 8 to 18 months of age.
  • The pig has an estrus cycle occurring every 21 days if not bred.
  • Male pigs become sexually active at 8 to 10 months of age.
  • Embryos begin to attach to the uterus on days 13–14 of pregnancy.
  • Day 15-20 implanted and expansion of allantois.
  • A litter of piglets is between 6 and 12 piglets.

Normal Stages

The images below are from the 1897 Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbeltiere - Sus scrofa domesticus (Normal Plates of the Development of the Pig Embryo) by Franz Keibel

Normal Plates Series: 1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 1906 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | Franz Keibel | Embryology History

Uterus and Ovary

Corner001.jpg

Diagram showing form and dimensions of the uterus and Fallopian tubes of the sow.[1] Drawn from an average specimen taken from a young mature animal.

Estrous Cycle

Female pig is called a sow.

Non-Pregnant

Corner002a.jpg

Events of the average cycle of 21 days in the non-pregnant sow.[1]

Diagram showing relationship between oestrua, ovulation, corpus luteum development, and the progress of the ova in the sow.

Pregnant

Corner002b.jpg

Events of the first weeks of pregnancy.[1]

Diagram showing relationship between oestrua, ovulation, corpus luteum development, and the progress of the ova in the sow.

Pig - uterine epithelium SEM.jpg

Scanning electron microscope images of the endometrial surface of a Day 13 pregnant sow.[8]

Male Pig

Male pig is called a boar.

Pig sperm capacitation 02.jpg

Capacitation alters the ultrastructure of the apical head and the acrosome of boar sperm.[5]


Model capacitation-induced acrosome docking to sperm membrane.jpg

Model for capacitation-induced stable docking of the acrosome to the sperm plasma membrane.[5]

Neural Development

The data below is summarised from an excellent study of early neural development in the pig.[9] The same authors have studied neural development in the rabbit.

  • 7 somite embryo - first apposition of the neural folds occurs at somite levels 5-7. (corresponds to closure site I in mouse).
  • next stage - rostral and caudal parts of the rhombencephalic folds appose, leaving an opening in between.
    • at this stage four neuropores can be distinguished, of which the anterior and posterior ones will remain open longest. (two rhombencephalic closure sites have no counterpart in the mouse, but do have some resemblance to those of the rabbit)

anterior neuropore

  • closes in three phases
  1. dorsal folds slowly align and then close instantaneously, the slow progression being likely due to a counteracting effect of the mesencephalic flexure
  2. dorso-lateral folds close in a zipper-like fashion in caudo-rostral direction
  3. final round aperture is likely to close by circumferential growth.

22 somite embryo - anterior neuropore is completely closed. (closure sites for the anterior neuropore in mouse embryo, none of these were detected in the pig embryo)

posterior neuropore

  • closes initially very fast in the somitic region, but this process almost stops thereafter.
  • stage 20-22 somites the posterior neuropore suddenly reduces in size but thereafter a small neuropore remains for 5 somite stages.
  • closure of the posterior neuropore is completed at the stage of 28 somites.

8-20 somite embryos - the width of the posterior neuropore does not change, while the rate of closure gradually increases.

Palate Development

Plates below are from a 1916 thesis on palate development in the pig.[10]

Baumgartner1916 plate01.jpg Baumgartner1916 plate01.jpg
Fig. 1. Frontal view of the head of the 12 mm. pig embryo.

Fig. 2. Ventral view of the roof of the primitive mouth of the 17 mm. embryo.

Fig. 3. Ventral view of the roof of the primitive mouth of the 20 mm. embryo.

Fig.4. Ventral view of the roof of the primitive mouth of the 25 mm. embryo.

Fig. 5. Ventral View of the roof of the primitive mouth of the 27 mm. embryo.

Fig. 6. Ventral view of the roof of the secondary mouth of the 50 mm. embryo.

Fig. 7. Ventral view of the roof of the secondary mouth of the 39 mm. embryo.

Fig. 8. Ventral View of the roof of the secondary mouth of the 70 mm. embryo.

Fig. 9. Cross-section of the head of the 12 mm embryo, slightly oblique, thus showing on one side, the fused processes where mesenchyme has invaded the area, on the other, the bucco-nasal membrane.

Fig. 10. Cross-section of the head of the 12 mm. embryo posterior fig. 9, showing the union of the processes on one side and the blind sac on the other.

Fig. 11. Cross-section through the head of a 17 mm. embryo showing primitive choanae.

Fig. 12. Cross~section through the anterior region of the head of a 27 mm embryo showing the shorter palatal processes.

Fig. 13. Cross-section through the head of a 27 mm. embryo posterior to fig. 12, to show the processes longer in this middle region.

Fig. 14. Cross-section of the head of the 50 mm. embryo, showing the anterior communication of the nasal and mouth cavities.

Fig. 15. Cross-section through the head of the 30 mm. embryo, posterior to fig. 14, to show the fusion of the processes, the slight indication of the invasion of mesemchyme and the fusion of the processes with the nasal septum.

Fig. 16. Cross-section through the head of the 30 mm. embryo in the posterior region to show the ventral separation.

Fig. 17. Cross-section of the 39 mm. embryo cut slightly oblique, showing on one side the respiratory duct cut off,on the other, the connexion with the respiratory cavity.

Additional Images


References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Corner GW. Abnormalities of the mammalian embryo occurring before implantation. (1922) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 60, : 61-66.
  2. Xue B, Li Y, He Y, Wei R, Sun R, Yin Z, Bou G & Liu Z. (2016). Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo. PLoS ONE , 11, e0151737. PMID: 26991423 DOI.
  3. Conrad MS, Sutton BP, Dilger RN & Johnson RW. (2014). An in vivo three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging-based averaged brain collection of the neonatal piglet (Sus scrofa). PLoS ONE , 9, e107650. PMID: 25254955 DOI.
  4. Freeman TC, Ivens A, Baillie JK, Beraldi D, Barnett MW, Dorward D, Downing A, Fairbairn L, Kapetanovic R, Raza S, Tomoiu A, Alberio R, Wu C, Su AI, Summers KM, Tuggle CK, Archibald AL & Hume DA. (2012). A gene expression atlas of the domestic pig. BMC Biol. , 10, 90. PMID: 23153189 DOI.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Tsai PS, Garcia-Gil N, van Haeften T & Gadella BM. (2010). How pig sperm prepares to fertilize: stable acrosome docking to the plasma membrane. PLoS ONE , 5, e11204. PMID: 20585455 DOI.
  6. Hassoun R, Schwartz P, Feistel K, Blum M & Viebahn C. (2009). Axial differentiation and early gastrulation stages of the pig embryo. Differentiation , 78, 301-11. PMID: 19683851 DOI.
  7. Otis EM and Brent R. Equivalent ages in mouse and human embryos. (1954) Anat Rec. 120(1):33-63. PMID 13207763
  8. Ren Q, Guan S, Fu J & Wang A. (2010). Temporal and spatial expression of Muc1 during implantation in sows. Int J Mol Sci , 11, 2322-35. PMID: 20640155 DOI.
  9. van Straaten HW, Peeters MC, Hekking JW & van der Lende T. (2000). Neurulation in the pig embryo. Anat. Embryol. , 202, 75-84. PMID: 10985427
  10. Baumgartner RA. Development of the palate and the definitive choanae in the pig. (1916) Thesis, University of Illinois.


Recent References

Reviews

Somfai T, Kikuchi K & Nagai T. (2012). Factors affecting cryopreservation of porcine oocytes. J. Reprod. Dev. , 58, 17-24. PMID: 22450280

Ostrup E, Hyttel P & Ostrup O. (2011). Embryo-maternal communication: signalling before and during placentation in cattle and pig. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. , 23, 964-75. PMID: 22127002 DOI.

Waclawik A. (2011). Novel insights into the mechanisms of pregnancy establishment: regulation of prostaglandin synthesis and signaling in the pig. Reproduction , 142, 389-99. PMID: 21677026 DOI.

Robison OW. (1976). Growth patterns in swine. J. Anim. Sci. , 42, 1024-35. PMID: 770410

Book SA & Bustad LK. (1974). The fetal and neonatal pig in biomedical research. J. Anim. Sci. , 38, 997-1002. PMID: 4596894

Moor RM. (1968). Foetal homeostasis: conceptus-ovary endocrine balance. Proc. R. Soc. Med. , 61, 1217-26. PMID: 4973146

Moor RM. (1968). Effect of embryo on corpus luteum function. J. Anim. Sci. , 27 Suppl 1, 97-118. PMID: 4951167

Articles

Hassoun R, Schwartz P, Rath D, Viebahn C & Männer J. (2010). Germ layer differentiation during early hindgut and cloaca formation in rabbit and pig embryos. J. Anat. , 217, 665-78. PMID: 20874819 DOI.

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, July 20) Embryology Pig Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Pig_Development

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