|Embryology - 26 Sep 2017 Expand to Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Taxon
- 4 Animal Models
- 5 Reproductive Overview
- 6 Normal Stages
- 7 Uterus and Ovary
- 8 Estrous Cycle
- 9 Male Pig
- 10 Neural Development
- 11 Palate Development
- 12 Additional Images
- 13 References
- 14 External Links
- 15 Glossary Links
Pig (Sus scrofa) developmental model is studied extensively due to the commercial applications of pigs for meat production and for health issues such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and organ transplantation (xenotransplantation).
Historically, there is an excellent description of the pig reproductive estrous cycle and the cyclic changes that occur within the ovary.
|Pig Links: Introduction | Estrous Cycle | 1897 Pig Embryo Development Plates | 1911 Prenatal Growth | 1921 Estrous and Implantation | 1922 Limb Arteries | 1924 Pig | 1951 Pig Embryology | Category:Pig|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Chintan N Koyani, Ewald Kolesnik, Gerald Woelkart, Niroj Shrestha, Susanne Scheruebel, Christopher Trummer, Klaus Zorn-Pauly, Astrid Hammer, Petra Lang, Helga Reicher, Heinrich Maechler, Klaus Groschner, Bernd Mayer, Peter P Rainer, Harald Sourij, Wolfgang Sattler, Ernst Malle, Brigitte Pelzmann, Dirk von Lewinski Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 independent cardiac dysfunction links saxagliptin to heart failure. Biochem. Pharmacol.: 2017; PubMed 28859968
Haifeng Liu, Xiaohua Wang, Ruijie Han, Kuiyang Zuo, Xiaohuan Yuan, Yuting Li, Jinglin Zhou, Lei Yan, Yanhui Chu Isolation and molecular cloning of hepatocyte growth factor from guinea pig (gHGF), and expression of truncated variant of gHGF with improved anti-fibrotic activity in Escherichia coli. Int. J. Biol. Macromol.: 2017; PubMed 28837849
Jill P J M Hikspoors, Mathijs M J P Peeters, Hayelom K Mekonen, Nutmethee Kruepunga, Greet M C Mommen, Pieter Cornillie, S Eleonore Köhler, Wouter H Lamers The fate of the vitelline and umbilical veins during the development of the human liver. J. Anat.: 2017; PubMed 28786203
Shin Hayashi, Daniela Tiaki Uehara, Kousuke Tanimoto, Seiji Mizuno, Yasutsugu Chinen, Shinobu Fukumura, Jun-Ichi Takanashi, Hitoshi Osaka, Nobuhiko Okamoto, Johji Inazawa Comprehensive investigation of CASK mutations and other genetic etiologies in 41 patients with intellectual disability and microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH). PLoS ONE: 2017, 12(8);e0181791 PubMed 28783747
Laura A Amundson, Laura L Hernandez, Thomas D Crenshaw Serum and tissue 25-OH vitamin D3 concentrations do not predict bone abnormalities and molecular markers of vitamin D metabolism in the hypovitaminosis D kyphotic pig model. Br. J. Nutr.: 2017;1-11 PubMed 28745259
Xin Wen, Yan Wang, Yongde Zou, Baohua Ma, Yinbao Wu No evidential correlation between veterinary antibiotic degradation ability and resistance genes in microorganisms during the biodegradation of doxycycline. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.: 2017, 147;759-766 PubMed 28942279
Jiesi Luo, Lingfeng Qin, Mehmet H Kural, Jonas Schwan, Xia Li, Oscar Bartulos, Xiao-Qiang Cong, Yongming Ren, Liqiong Gui, Guangxin Li, Matthew W Ellis, Peining Li, Darrell N Kotton, Alan Dardik, Jordan S Pober, George Tellides, Marsha Rolle, Stuart Campbell, Robert J Hawley, David H Sachs, Laura E Niklason, Yibing Qyang Vascular smooth muscle cells derived from inbred swine induced pluripotent stem cells for vascular tissue engineering. Biomaterials: 2017, 147;116-132 PubMed 28942128
M Arias, C Jurado, C Gallardo, J Fernández-Pinero, J M Sánchez-Vizcaíno Gaps in African swine fever: Analysis and priorities. Transbound Emerg Dis: 2017; PubMed 28941208
Taxonomy ID: 9823
Genbank common name: pig
Inherited blast name: even-toed ungulates
Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard)
Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 2 (Vertebrate Mitochondrial)
Other names: wild boar, swine, pigs
Lineage (full): cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Fungi/Metazoa group; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Coelomata; Deuterostomia; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Gnathostomata; Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Suina; Suidae; Sus
|Postnatal Animal Models||Mouse||Rat||Pig|
|Pregnancy period (days)||18 – 21||21 – 23||110 – 118|
|Placenta type|| Discoidal, decidual
| Discoidal, decidual
|Litter size||6 – 12||6 – 15||11 – 16|
|Birth weight (g)||0.5 – 1.5||3 – 5||900 – 1600|
|Weaning weight male/female (g)||18 – 25/16 – 25||55 – 90/45 – 80||6000 – 8000|
|Suckling period (days)||21–28||21||28–49|
|Solid diet beginning (days)||10||12||12 – 15|
|Puberty male/female (week)||4 – 6/5||6/6 – 8||20 – 28|
|Life expectancy (years)||1 - 2||2 - 3||14 – 18|
Carnegie Stages Comparison Table
- Links: Carnegie Stage Comparison
- The gestation period of a pig is 112 to 114 days.
- Female pigs can become pregnant at around 8 to 18 months of age.
- The pig has an estrus cycle occurring every 21 days if not bred.
- Male pigs become sexually active at 8 to 10 months of age.
- Embryos begin to attach to the uterus on days 13–14 of pregnancy.
- Day 15-20 implanted and expansion of allantois.
- A litter of piglets is between 6 and 12 piglets.
The images below are from the 1897 Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbeltiere - Sus scrofa domesticus (Normal Plates of the Development of the Pig Embryo) by Franz Keibel
- Normal Plates Series: 1 Pig (1897) | 2 Chicken (1900) | 3 Lungfish (1901) | 4 Sand Lizard (1904) | 5 Rabbit (1905) | 6 Deer (1906) | 7 Tarsiers (1907) | 8 Human (1908) | 9 Northern Lapwing (1909) | 10 South American and African Lungfish (1909) | 11 Salamander (1910) | Franz Keibel | Embryology History
Uterus and Ovary
Diagram showing form and dimensions of the uterus and Fallopian tubes of the sow. Drawn from an average specimen taken from a young mature animal.
Female pig is called a sow.
Events of the average cycle of 21 days in the non-pregnant sow.
Diagram showing relationship between oestrua, ovulation, corpus luteum development, and the progress of the ova in the sow.
Events of the first weeks of pregnancy.
Diagram showing relationship between oestrua, ovulation, corpus luteum development, and the progress of the ova in the sow.
Scanning electron microscope images of the endometrial surface of a Day 13 pregnant sow.
Male pig is called a boar.
Capacitation alters the ultrastructure of the apical head and the acrosome of boar sperm.
Model for capacitation-induced stable docking of the acrosome to the sperm plasma membrane.
- 7 somite embryo - first apposition of the neural folds occurs at somite levels 5-7. (corresponds to closure site I in mouse).
- next stage - rostral and caudal parts of the rhombencephalic folds appose, leaving an opening in between.
- at this stage four neuropores can be distinguished, of which the anterior and posterior ones will remain open longest. (two rhombencephalic closure sites have no counterpart in the mouse, but do have some resemblance to those of the rabbit)
- closes in three phases
- dorsal folds slowly align and then close instantaneously, the slow progression being likely due to a counteracting effect of the mesencephalic flexure
- dorso-lateral folds close in a zipper-like fashion in caudo-rostral direction
- final round aperture is likely to close by circumferential growth.
22 somite embryo - anterior neuropore is completely closed. (closure sites for the anterior neuropore in mouse embryo, none of these were detected in the pig embryo)
- closes initially very fast in the somitic region, but this process almost stops thereafter.
- stage 20-22 somites the posterior neuropore suddenly reduces in size but thereafter a small neuropore remains for 5 somite stages.
- closure of the posterior neuropore is completed at the stage of 28 somites.
8-20 somite embryos - the width of the posterior neuropore does not change, while the rate of closure gradually increases.
Plates below are from a 1916 thesis on palate development in the pig.
- Corner, G.W., Cyclic changes in the ovaries and uterus of swine, and their relations to the mechanism of implantation. Contributions to Embryology Carnegie Institution, 1922, No.64 117-146.
- Binghua Xue, Yan Li, Yilong He, Renyue Wei, Ruizhen Sun, Zhi Yin, Gerelchimeg Bou, Zhonghua Liu Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo. PLoS ONE: 2016, 11(3);e0151737 PubMed 26991423
- Matthew S Conrad, Bradley P Sutton, Ryan N Dilger, Rodney W Johnson An In Vivo Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Averaged Brain Collection of the Neonatal Piglet (Sus scrofa). PLoS ONE: 2014, 9(9);e107650 PubMed 25254955 | PLoS One.
- Tom C Freeman, Alasdair Ivens, J Kenneth Baillie, Dario Beraldi, Mark W Barnett, David Dorward, Alison Downing, Lynsey Fairbairn, Ronan Kapetanovic, Sobia Raza, Andru Tomoiu, Ramiro Alberio, Chunlei Wu, Andrew I Su, Kim M Summers, Christopher K Tuggle, Alan L Archibald, David A Hume A gene expression atlas of the domestic pig. BMC Biol.: 2012, 10;90 PubMed 23153189
- Pei-Shiue Tsai, Núria Garcia-Gil, Theo van Haeften, Bart M Gadella How pig sperm prepares to fertilize: stable acrosome docking to the plasma membrane. PLoS ONE: 2010, 5(6);e11204 PubMed 20585455
- Romia Hassoun, Peter Schwartz, Kerstin Feistel, Martin Blum, Christoph Viebahn Axial differentiation and early gastrulation stages of the pig embryo. Differentiation: 2009, 78(5);301-11 PubMed 19683851
- Corner, G.W., Cyclic changes in the ovaries and uterus of swine, and their relations to the mechanism of implantation. Carnegie Institution - Contributions to Embryology No.64 (1922) 117-146.
- Qian Ren, Shu Guan, Jinluan Fu, Aiguo Wang Temporal and spatial expression of Muc1 during implantation in sows. Int J Mol Sci: 2010, 11(6);2322-35 PubMed 20640155 | PMC2904919
- Pei-Shiue Tsai, Núria Garcia-Gil, Theo van Haeften, Bart M Gadella How pig sperm prepares to fertilize: stable acrosome docking to the plasma membrane. PLoS ONE: 2010, 5(6);e11204 PubMed 20585455 | PLoS One.
- H W van Straaten, M C Peeters, J W Hekking, T van der Lende Neurulation in the pig embryo. Anat. Embryol.: 2000, 202(2);75-84 PubMed 10985427
- Baumgartner RA. Development of the palate and the definitive choanae in the pig. (1916) Thesis, University of Illinois.
Tamás Somfai, Kazuhiro Kikuchi, Takashi Nagai Factors affecting cryopreservation of porcine oocytes. J. Reprod. Dev.: 2012, 58(1);17-24 PubMed 22450280
Esben Ostrup, Poul Hyttel, Olga Ostrup Embryo-maternal communication: signalling before and during placentation in cattle and pig. Reprod. Fertil. Dev.: 2011, 23(8);964-75 PubMed 22127002
Agnieszka Waclawik Novel insights into the mechanisms of pregnancy establishment: regulation of prostaglandin synthesis and signaling in the pig. Reproduction: 2011, 142(3);389-99 PubMed 21677026
O W Robison Growth patterns in swine. J. Anim. Sci.: 1976, 42(4);1024-35 PubMed 770410
S A Book, L K Bustad The fetal and neonatal pig in biomedical research. J. Anim. Sci.: 1974, 38(5);997-1002 PubMed 4596894
R M Moor Foetal homeostasis: conceptus-ovary endocrine balance. Proc. R. Soc. Med.: 1968, 61(11 Pt 2);1217-26 PubMed 4973146
R M Moor Effect of embryo on corpus luteum function. J. Anim. Sci.: 1968, 27 Suppl 1;97-118 PubMed 4951167
Romia Hassoun, Peter Schwartz, Detlef Rath, Christoph Viebahn, Jörg Männer Germ layer differentiation during early hindgut and cloaca formation in rabbit and pig embryos. J. Anat.: 2010, 217(6);665-78 PubMed 20874819
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
- NCBI - Pig Genome
- USA - PigBase a computer database that includes information on papers published about gene mapping in the pig.
- NSW Agriculture - Pig breeds and breeding
- AGBU - Pig Genetics
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Pig Development. Retrieved September 26, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Pig_Development