|Embryology - 30 Mar 2017 Expand to Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Taxon
- 4 Animal Models
- 5 Reproductive Overview
- 6 Normal Stages
- 7 Uterus and Ovary
- 8 Estrous Cycle
- 9 Male Pig
- 10 Neural Development
- 11 Palate Development
- 12 Additional Images
- 13 References
- 14 External Links
- 15 Glossary Links
Pig (Sus scrofa) developmental model is studied extensively due to the commercial applications of pigs for meat production and for health issues such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and organ transplantation (xenotransplantation).
Historically, there is an excellent description of the pig reproductive estrous cycle and the cyclic changes that occur within the ovary.
- Pig Links: Introduction | Estrous Cycle | Pig Embryo Development Plates (1897) | Estrous and Implantation (1921) | Limb Arteries (1922) | Category:Pig
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Tereza Žalmanová, Kristýna Hošková, Jan Nevoral, Kateřina Adámková, Tomáš Kott, Miloslav Šulc, Zora Kotíková, Šárka Prokešová, František Jílek, Milena Králíčková, Jaroslav Petr Bisphenol S negatively affects the meotic maturation of pig oocytes. Sci Rep: 2017, 7(1);485 PubMed 28352085
Tamás Kovács-Öller, Gábor Debertin, Márton Balogh, Alma Ganczer, József Orbán, Miklós Nyitrai, Lajos Balogh, Orsolya Kántor, Béla Völgyi Connexin36 Expression in the Mammalian Retina: A Multiple-Species Comparison. Front Cell Neurosci: 2017, 11;65 PubMed 28337128
Mengmeng Xu, Long Che, Zhenguo Yang, Pan Zhang, Jiankai Shi, Jian Li, Yan Lin, Zhengfeng Fang, Lianqiang Che, Bin Feng, De Wu, Shengyu Xu Proteomic Analysis of Fetal Ovaries Reveals That Primordial Follicle Formation and Transition Are Differentially Regulated. Biomed Res Int: 2017, 2017;6972030 PubMed 28265575
P Hamouzova, P Cizek, R Novotny, A Bartoskova, F Tichy Distribution of mast cells in the feline ovary in various phases of the oestrous cycle. Reprod. Domest. Anim.: 2017; PubMed 28211113
Waad Hassan, Christoph Viebahn A correlative study of the allantois in pig and rabbit highlighting the diversity of extraembryonic tissues in four mammalian species, including mouse and man. J. Morphol.: 2017; PubMed 28165148
Libang Yang, Zachery R Gregorich, Wenxuan Cai, Patrick Zhang, Bernice Young, Yiwen Gu, Jianyi Zhang, Ying Ge Quantitative Proteomics and Immunohistochemistry Reveal Insights into Cellular and Molecular Processes in the Infarct Border Zone One Month after Myocardial Infarction. J. Proteome Res.: 2017; PubMed 28347137
B S Pickering, B Collignon, G Smith, P Marszal, G Kobinger, H M Weingartl Detection of Zaire ebolavirus in swine: Assay development and optimization. Transbound Emerg Dis: 2017; PubMed 28345293
Kuo-Sheng Liu, Tse-Hung Huang, Ibrahim A Aljuffali, En-Li Chen, Jhi-Joung Wang, Jia-You Fang Exploring the structure-permeation relationship of topical tricyclic antidepressants used for skin analgesia. Int J Pharm: 2017; PubMed 28344173
Debin Tian, Dianjun Cao, C Lynn Heffron, Danielle M Yugo, Adam J Rogers, Christopher Overend, Shannon R Matzinger, Sakthivel Subramaniam, Tanja Opriessnig, Tanya LeRoith, Xiang-Jin Meng Enhancing heterologous protection in pigs vaccinated with chimeric porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus containing the full-length sequences of shuffled structural genes of multiple heterologous strains. Vaccine: 2017; PubMed 28343773
Taxonomy ID: 9823
Genbank common name: pig
Inherited blast name: even-toed ungulates
Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard)
Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 2 (Vertebrate Mitochondrial)
Other names: wild boar, swine, pigs
Lineage (full): cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Fungi/Metazoa group; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Coelomata; Deuterostomia; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Gnathostomata; Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Suina; Suidae; Sus
|Postnatal Animal Models||Mouse||Rat||Pig|
|Pregnancy period (days)||18 – 21||21 – 23||110 – 118|
|Placenta type|| Discoidal, decidual
| Discoidal, decidual
|Litter size||6 – 12||6 – 15||11 – 16|
|Birth weight (g)||0.5 – 1.5||3 – 5||900 – 1600|
|Weaning weight male/female (g)||18 – 25/16 – 25||55 – 90/45 – 80||6000 – 8000|
|Suckling period (days)||21–28||21||28–49|
|Solid diet beginning (days)||10||12||12 – 15|
|Puberty male/female (week)||4 – 6/5||6/6 – 8||20 – 28|
|Life expectancy (years)||1 - 2||2 - 3||14 – 18|
Carnegie Stages Comparison Table
- Links: Carnegie Stage Comparison
- The gestation period of a pig is 112 to 114 days.
- Female pigs can become pregnant at around 8 to 18 months of age.
- The pig has an estrus cycle occurring every 21 days if not bred.
- Male pigs become sexually active at 8 to 10 months of age.
- Embryos begin to attach to the uterus on days 13–14 of pregnancy.
- Day 15-20 implanted and expansion of allantois.
- A litter of piglets is between 6 and 12 piglets.
The images below are from the 1897 Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbeltiere - Sus scrofa domesticus (Normal Plates of the Development of the Pig Embryo) by Franz Keibel
- Normal Plates Series: 1 Pig (1897) | 2 Chicken (1900) | 3 Lungfish (1901) | 4 Sand Lizard (1904) | 5 Rabbit (1905) | 6 Deer (1906) | 7 Tarsiers (1907) | 8 Human (1908) | 9 Northern Lapwing (1909) | 10 South American and African Lungfish (1909) | 11 Salamander (1910) | Franz Keibel | Embryology History
Uterus and Ovary
Diagram showing form and dimensions of the uterus and Fallopian tubes of the sow. Drawn from an average specimen taken from a young mature animal.
Female pig is called a sow.
Events of the average cycle of 21 days in the non-pregnant sow.
Diagram showing relationship between oestrua, ovulation, corpus luteum development, and the progress of the ova in the sow.
Events of the first weeks of pregnancy.
Diagram showing relationship between oestrua, ovulation, corpus luteum development, and the progress of the ova in the sow.
Scanning electron microscope images of the endometrial surface of a Day 13 pregnant sow.
Male pig is called a boar.
Capacitation alters the ultrastructure of the apical head and the acrosome of boar sperm.
Model for capacitation-induced stable docking of the acrosome to the sperm plasma membrane.
- 7 somite embryo - first apposition of the neural folds occurs at somite levels 5-7. (corresponds to closure site I in mouse).
- next stage - rostral and caudal parts of the rhombencephalic folds appose, leaving an opening in between.
- at this stage four neuropores can be distinguished, of which the anterior and posterior ones will remain open longest. (two rhombencephalic closure sites have no counterpart in the mouse, but do have some resemblance to those of the rabbit)
- closes in three phases
- dorsal folds slowly align and then close instantaneously, the slow progression being likely due to a counteracting effect of the mesencephalic flexure
- dorso-lateral folds close in a zipper-like fashion in caudo-rostral direction
- final round aperture is likely to close by circumferential growth.
22 somite embryo - anterior neuropore is completely closed. (closure sites for the anterior neuropore in mouse embryo, none of these were detected in the pig embryo)
- closes initially very fast in the somitic region, but this process almost stops thereafter.
- stage 20-22 somites the posterior neuropore suddenly reduces in size but thereafter a small neuropore remains for 5 somite stages.
- closure of the posterior neuropore is completed at the stage of 28 somites.
8-20 somite embryos - the width of the posterior neuropore does not change, while the rate of closure gradually increases.
Plates below are from a 1916 thesis on palate development in the pig.
- Corner, G.W., Cyclic changes in the ovaries and uterus of swine, and their relations to the mechanism of implantation. Contributions to Embryology Carnegie Institution, 1922, No.64 117-146.
- Binghua Xue, Yan Li, Yilong He, Renyue Wei, Ruizhen Sun, Zhi Yin, Gerelchimeg Bou, Zhonghua Liu Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo. PLoS ONE: 2016, 11(3);e0151737 PubMed 26991423
- Matthew S Conrad, Bradley P Sutton, Ryan N Dilger, Rodney W Johnson An In Vivo Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Averaged Brain Collection of the Neonatal Piglet (Sus scrofa). PLoS ONE: 2014, 9(9);e107650 PubMed 25254955 | PLoS One.
- Tom C Freeman, Alasdair Ivens, J Kenneth Baillie, Dario Beraldi, Mark W Barnett, David Dorward, Alison Downing, Lynsey Fairbairn, Ronan Kapetanovic, Sobia Raza, Andru Tomoiu, Ramiro Alberio, Chunlei Wu, Andrew I Su, Kim M Summers, Christopher K Tuggle, Alan L Archibald, David A Hume A gene expression atlas of the domestic pig. BMC Biol.: 2012, 10;90 PubMed 23153189
- Pei-Shiue Tsai, Núria Garcia-Gil, Theo van Haeften, Bart M Gadella How pig sperm prepares to fertilize: stable acrosome docking to the plasma membrane. PLoS ONE: 2010, 5(6);e11204 PubMed 20585455
- Romia Hassoun, Peter Schwartz, Kerstin Feistel, Martin Blum, Christoph Viebahn Axial differentiation and early gastrulation stages of the pig embryo. Differentiation: 2009, 78(5);301-11 PubMed 19683851
- Corner, G.W., Cyclic changes in the ovaries and uterus of swine, and their relations to the mechanism of implantation. Carnegie Institution - Contributions to Embryology No.64 (1922) 117-146.
- Qian Ren, Shu Guan, Jinluan Fu, Aiguo Wang Temporal and spatial expression of Muc1 during implantation in sows. Int J Mol Sci: 2010, 11(6);2322-35 PubMed 20640155 | PMC2904919
- Pei-Shiue Tsai, Núria Garcia-Gil, Theo van Haeften, Bart M Gadella How pig sperm prepares to fertilize: stable acrosome docking to the plasma membrane. PLoS ONE: 2010, 5(6);e11204 PubMed 20585455 | PLoS One.
- H W van Straaten, M C Peeters, J W Hekking, T van der Lende Neurulation in the pig embryo. Anat. Embryol.: 2000, 202(2);75-84 PubMed 10985427
- Baumgartner RA. Development of the palate and the definitive choanae in the pig. (1916) Thesis, University of Illinois.
Tamás Somfai, Kazuhiro Kikuchi, Takashi Nagai Factors affecting cryopreservation of porcine oocytes. J. Reprod. Dev.: 2012, 58(1);17-24 PubMed 22450280
Esben Ostrup, Poul Hyttel, Olga Ostrup Embryo-maternal communication: signalling before and during placentation in cattle and pig. Reprod. Fertil. Dev.: 2011, 23(8);964-75 PubMed 22127002
Agnieszka Waclawik Novel insights into the mechanisms of pregnancy establishment: regulation of prostaglandin synthesis and signaling in the pig. Reproduction: 2011, 142(3);389-99 PubMed 21677026
O W Robison Growth patterns in swine. J. Anim. Sci.: 1976, 42(4);1024-35 PubMed 770410
S A Book, L K Bustad The fetal and neonatal pig in biomedical research. J. Anim. Sci.: 1974, 38(5);997-1002 PubMed 4596894
R M Moor Foetal homeostasis: conceptus-ovary endocrine balance. Proc. R. Soc. Med.: 1968, 61(11 Pt 2);1217-26 PubMed 4973146
R M Moor Effect of embryo on corpus luteum function. J. Anim. Sci.: 1968, 27 Suppl 1;97-118 PubMed 4951167
Romia Hassoun, Peter Schwartz, Detlef Rath, Christoph Viebahn, Jörg Männer Germ layer differentiation during early hindgut and cloaca formation in rabbit and pig embryos. J. Anat.: 2010, 217(6);665-78 PubMed 20874819
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
- NCBI - Pig Genome
- USA - PigBase a computer database that includes information on papers published about gene mapping in the pig.
- NSW Agriculture - Pig breeds and breeding
- AGBU - Pig Genetics
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Pig Development. Retrieved March 30, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Pig_Development