Paper - The early development of the otic vesicle in staged human embryos

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O'Rahilly R. The early development of the otic vesicle in staged human embryos. (1963) J Embryol Exp Morphol., 11: 741-55 PMID 14081992

Sensory - Hearing and Balance Development | Carnegie Embryos

The Early Development of the Otic Vesicle in Staged Human Embryos

by Ronan O'Rahilly


Carnegie Human Embryos Used in this Study

Carnegie Embryos - O'Rahilly (1963) Otic Vesicle  
Carnegie Stage Embryo No. Somites
9 1878 2
10 3709 4
391 8
1201 8
5074 10
3710 11
3707 12
9870 12
11 7611 16
470 17
5072 17
8116 17
12 8943 22
8505b 23
9154 24
6097 25
7852 25
8942 25
5923 28
7724 29
13 836 4.0
7889 4.2
9297 4.5
8581 4.8
8372 5.6
14 8308 5.85
8999 6.0
6503 6.3
8552 6.5
8314 8.0
15 8997 9.0
16 8773 13.0
17 8998 11.0
8789 11.7
18 8355 15.0
9247 15.0
Otic Vesicle in Staged Embryos
  • Stage 9 - (1-3 somites) (Plate 1, fig. A) The otic region can first be distinguished in the embryo (No. 1878) of two somites as a thickening on the lateral aspect of the neural fold (Text-fig. 1). It is lined by a basement membrane that is continuous with that of the rhombencephalic neural groove.
  • Stage 10 - (4-12 somites) (Plate 1, fig. B) The nuclei of the otic plate occupy mostly a basal position, leaving a superficial cytoplasmic zone termed the marginal velum. The velum appears to be covered by a terminal bar net (as is the lens at a later stage) and a brush border. Mitotic figures, in this and subsequent stages, are found in the superficial (later central) portion of the plate (as is also the case in the wall of the neural groove and tube). The first indication of invagination of the otic plate is ob- served at ten somites. Neural crest cells, recognizable in this region first at four somites, delaminate from the wall of the neural groove and proceed laterally and ventrally. They are presumed to be the facial, or the so-called acousticofacial, crest.
  • Stage 11 - (13-20 somites) (Plate 1, fig. C) The otic pit forms in the otic plate during this period, in a manner reminiscent of the formation of the lens pit three stages later (Text-fig. 2).
  • Stage 12 - (21-29 somites) (Plate 1, fig. D) The otic vesicle is forming and its cavity communicates with the surface by a narrowing pore.
  • Stage 13 - (30 or more somites; approximately 4-6 mm) (Plate 1, figs. E, F , and Plate 2, figs. G, H) The otic pit becomes closed from the surface to form the otic vesicle, or otocyst, the dorsomedial portion of which can be distinguished as the endolymphatic appendage.
  • Stage 14 - {5-7 mm) As usual, the mitotic figures are placed centrally, that is, near the cavity of the vesicle. Remnants of the connecting stalk may still be seen in some speci- mens. The endolymphatic appendage is set off from the future utricular portion of the vesicle by a developing fold.
  • Stage 15 - (7-9 mm) The utriculo-endolymphatic fold becomes more pronounced. Ventro-medially, the tip of the vesicle represents the cochlear duct. The thickness of the wall of the vesicle varies from one portion to another; the wall of the endolymphatic appendage is becoming thinner.
  • Stage 16 (7-11 mm) - Thickenings in the wall of the main, or vestibular, portion of the vesicle presage the appearance of the semicircular ducts.
  • Stage 17 - (11-14 mm) (Plate 2, fig. I) - Portions of the wall of the vestibular part of the. otic vesicle become thinner and approximated as a prelude to the cellular disintegration that takes place during the formation of the semicircular ducts at the next stage.
  • Stage 18 - (12-17 mm) - During the formation of each of the semicircular ducts from thickened areas of epithelium, the adjacent portions of the epithelium become thinned, the cells lose their individuality, and their basement membrane disappears, so that the tissue merges with the underlying mesoderm (Plate 2, fig. K). Obliteration of the corresponding portions of the cavity of the otic vesicle ensues, so that the hollow ledges are converted into semicircular tubes, and so that continuity of the remaining epithelium and also of the remaining basement membrane is immediately restored. The wall of the semicircular duct opposite the site of sealing is thickened considerably (Plate 2,fig.L).
Reference:O'Rahilly R. The early development of the otic vesicle in staged human embryos. (1963) J Embryol Exp Morphol., 11: 741-55 PMID 14081992
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Categories: Hearing | Outer Ear | Middle Ear | Inner Ear

Historic Hearing Embryology 
Historic Embryology: 1880 Platypus cochlea | 1902 Development of Hearing | 1906 Membranous Labyrinth | 1910 Auditory Nerve | 1913 Tectorial Membrane | 1918 Human Embryo Otic Capsule | 1918 Cochlea | 1918 Grays Anatomy | 1922 Human Auricle | 1922 Otic Primordia | 1931 Internal Ear Scalae | 1932 Otic Capsule 1 | 1933 Otic Capsule 2 | 1936 Otic Capsule 3 | 1933 Endolymphatic Sac | 1934 Otic Vesicle | 1934 Membranous Labyrinth | 1938 Stapes - 7 to 21 weeks | 1938 Stapes - Term to Adult | 1942 Stapes - Embryo 6.7 to 50 mm | 1943 Stapes - Fetus 75 to 150 mm | 1948 Stapes - Fetus 160 mm to term | 1959 Auditory Ossicles | 1963 Human Otocyst | Historic Disclaimer
Stage No. Somites
9 1878 2
10 3709 4
391 8
1201 8
5074 10
3710 11
3707 12
9870 12
11 7611 16
470 17
5072 17
8116 17
12 8943 22
8505b 23
9154 24
6097 25
7852 25
8942 25
5923 28
7724 29
Stage No. CRL
13 836 4.0
7889 4.2
9297 4.5
8581 4.8
8372 5.6
14 8308 5.85
8999 6.0
6503 6.3
8552 6.5
8314 8.0
15 8997 9.0
16 8773 13.0
17 8998 11.0
8789 11.7
18 8355 15.0
9247 15.0

Otic Vesicle in Staged Embryos

  • Stage 9 - (1-3 somites) (Plate 1, fig. A) The otic region can first be distinguished in the embryo (No. 1878) of two somites as a thickening on the lateral aspect of the neural fold (Text-fig. 1). It is lined by a basement membrane that is continuous with that of the rhombencephalic neural groove.
  • Stage 10 - (4-12 somites) (Plate 1, fig. B) The nuclei of the otic plate occupy mostly a basal position, leaving a superficial cytoplasmic zone termed the marginal velum. The velum appears to be covered by a terminal bar net (as is the lens at a later stage) and a brush border. Mitotic figures, in this and subsequent stages, are found in the superficial (later central) portion of the plate (as is also the case in the wall of the neural groove and tube). The first indication of invagination of the otic plate is ob- served at ten somites. Neural crest cells, recognizable in this region first at four somites, delaminate from the wall of the neural groove and proceed laterally and ventrally. They are presumed to be the facial, or the so-called acousticofacial, crest.
  • Stage 11 - (13-20 somites) (Plate 1, fig. C) The otic pit forms in the otic plate during this period, in a manner reminiscent of the formation of the lens pit three stages later (Text-fig. 2).
  • Stage 12 - (21-29 somites) (Plate 1, fig. D) The otic vesicle is forming and its cavity communicates with the surface by a narrowing pore.
  • Stage 13 - (30 or more somites; approximately 4-6 mm) (Plate 1, figs. E, F , and Plate 2, figs. G, H) The otic pit becomes closed from the surface to form the otic vesicle, or otocyst, the dorsomedial portion of which can be distinguished as the endolymphatic appendage.
  • Stage 14 - {5-7 mm) As usual, the mitotic figures are placed centrally, that is, near the cavity of the vesicle. Remnants of the connecting stalk may still be seen in some speci- mens. The endolymphatic appendage is set off from the future utricular portion of the vesicle by a developing fold.
  • Stage 15 - (7-9 mm) The utriculo-endolymphatic fold becomes more pronounced. Ventro-medially, the tip of the vesicle represents the cochlear duct. The thickness of the wall of the vesicle varies from one portion to another; the wall of the endolymphatic appendage is becoming thinner.
  • Stage 16 (7-11 mm) - Thickenings in the wall of the main, or vestibular, portion of the vesicle presage the appearance of the semicircular ducts.
  • Stage 17 - (11-14 mm) (Plate 2, fig. I) - Portions of the wall of the vestibular part of the. otic vesicle become thinner and approximated as a prelude to the cellular disintegration that takes place during the formation of the semicircular ducts at the next stage.
  • Stage 18 - (12-17 mm) - During the formation of each of the semicircular ducts from thickened areas of epithelium, the adjacent portions of the epithelium become thinned, the cells lose their individuality, and their basement membrane disappears, so that the tissue merges with the underlying mesoderm (Plate 2, fig. K). Obliteration of the corresponding portions of the cavity of the otic vesicle ensues, so that the hollow ledges are converted into semicircular tubes, and so that continuity of the remaining epithelium and also of the remaining basement membrane is immediately restored. The wall of the semicircular duct opposite the site of sealing is thickened considerably (Plate 2,fig.L).

Reference

O'Rahilly R. The early development of the otic vesicle in staged human embryos. (1963) J Embryol Exp Morphol., 11: 741-55 PMID 14081992



Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Paper - The early development of the otic vesicle in staged human embryos. Retrieved November 23, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Paper_-_The_early_development_of_the_otic_vesicle_in_staged_human_embryos

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