Neural - Hippocampus Development
|Embryology - 21 Apr 2021 Expand to Translate|
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Recent studies have shown that secondary brain vesicle (telencephalon) dorsomedial region described as the "cortical hem" is involved with hippocampus development. The cortical hem is the source for 2 patterning signals; Wingless-related (WNT) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP).
Neural development is one of the earliest systems to begin and the last to be completed after birth. This development generates the most complex structure within the embryo and the long time period of development means in utero insult during pregnancy may have consequences to development of the nervous system.
The early central nervous system begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Failure of these opening to close contributes a major class of neural abnormalities (neural tube defects).
Within the neural tube stem cells generate the 2 major classes of cells that make the majority of the nervous system : neurons and glia. Both these classes of cells differentiate into many different types generated with highly specialized functions and shapes. This section covers the establishment of neural populations, the inductive influences of surrounding tissues and the sequential generation of neurons establishing the layered structure seen in the brain and spinal cord.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.
|These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.
Neuralation begins at the trilaminar embryo with formation of the notochord and somites, both of which underly the ectoderm and do not contribute to the nervous system, but are involved with patterning its initial formation. The central portion of the ectoderm then forms the neural plate that folds to form the neural tube, that will eventually form the entire central nervous system.
- Early developmental sequence: Epiblast - Ectoderm - Neural Plate - Neural groove and Neural Crest - Neural Tube and Neural Crest
|Neural Tube||Primary Vesicles||Secondary Vesicles||Adult Structures|
|week 3||week 4||week 5||adult|
|prosencephalon (forebrain)||telencephalon||Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, hippocampus, cerebrum (cortex), hypothalamus, pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles|
|diencephalon||epithalamus, thalamus, Subthalamus, pineal, posterior commissure, pretectum, third ventricle|
|mesencephalon (midbrain)||mesencephalon||tectum, Cerebral peduncle, cerebral aqueduct, pons|
|myelencephalon||medulla oblongata, isthmus|
|spinal cord, pyramidal decussation, central canal|
Early Brain Vesicles
Human Hippocampus Development
Human and rodent hippocampus developmental markers.
- 13 to 14 weeks - unfolded hippocampus, on the medial surface of the temporal lobe, surrounds a widely open hippocampal sulcus (hippocampal fissure)
- 15 to 16 weeks - dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis have started to infold. The hippocampal sulcus remains open. The parahippocampal gyrus is larger and more medially positioned. The CA1, CA2, and CA3 fields of the cornu ammonis are arranged linearly. The dentate gyrus has a narrow U shape.
- 18 to 20 weeks - fetal hippocampus begins to resemble the adult hippocampus. The dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis have folded into the temporal lobe. The hippocampus and subiculum approximate each other across a narrow hippocampal sulcus. The CA1-3 fields form an arc and the CA4 field has increased in size within the widened arch of the dentate gyrus.
The following data is from a postnatal magnetic resonance imaging study.
- 3 months - a longitudinal fasciculus of high signal intensity was seen in the white matter beneath the subiculum
- birth to 2 years - volume increases rapidly
- after 2 years - volume increases slowly thereafter
- hippocampal formations on the right side were larger than those on the left in 38 cases (91%)
- anterior temporal lobes on the right were larger than those on the left in 32 cases (76%)
- right-left asymmetry of the hippocampal formations and anterior temporal lobes was observed from early infancy
The following data is from an magnetic resonance imaging study of adult Chinese aged 6 to 82 years. Other studies have described a reduction in the hippocampal volume during ageing.
- volume of right hippocampus was larger than that of the left side (p<0.001)
- right side volume of hippocampus - 2.204 to 2.944 cm3
- left side volume of hippocampus - 2.068 to 2.700 cm3
- no statistically significant differences among different age and gender groups (p>0.05)
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is influenced by both external stimuli and internal growth factors (BDNF, VEGF and IGF-1).
The following data is from a histological study of postmortem hippocampi neurons.
- Bilateral coronal sections from postmortem hippocampus, 24 to 76 weeks postmenstrual age (gestational age plus postnatal age), were studied.
- Cell body (soma) size correlated positively and significantly with age in CA2 and CA3, bilaterally.
- CA2 somata were significantly larger (left, 34%; right, 32%) than adjacent CA3 somata.
- Variability in soma form or size increased appreciably with age, in both subfields, bilaterally
- Variability in soma orientation was weakly correlated with brain growth.
|Timeline comparison of the migration and layer arrangement in neocortex and hippocampal CA1 during cortical development|
|(A) Neocortical neurons born between E10 and E12 radially migrate using the somal translocation mode. In contrast, late-born neurons transform their migration mode sequentially to multipolar migration, locomotion mode, and terminal translocation mode during their radial migration. These neurons form neocortical layers in a birthdate-dependent inside-out manner.
PP, preplate; VZ, ventricular zone; MZ, marginal zone; CP, cortical plate; IZ, intermediated zone; MAZ, multipolar cell accumulation zone; WM, white matter; HP, hippocampal plate; SLM, stratum lacunosum-moleculare; SR, stratum radiatum; SP, stratum pyramidale; SO, stratum oriens.
(text modified from original figure legend)
The developmental changes of GFP+ newborn mouse dentate granule cells.
- Caronia-Brown G, Yoshida M, Gulden F, Assimacopoulos S & Grove EA. (2014). The cortical hem regulates the size and patterning of neocortex. Development , 141, 2855-65. PMID: 24948604 DOI.
- Sorrells SF, Paredes MF, Cebrian-Silla A, Sandoval K, Qi D, Kelley KW, James D, Mayer S, Chang J, Auguste KI, Chang EF, Gutierrez AJ, Kriegstein AR, Mathern GW, Oldham MC, Huang EJ, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Yang Z & Alvarez-Buylla A. (2018). Human hippocampal neurogenesis drops sharply in children to undetectable levels in adults. Nature , 555, 377-381. PMID: 29513649 DOI.
- Feng S, Shi T, Qiu J, Yang H, Wu Y, Zhou W, Wang W & Wu H. (2017). Notch1 deficiency in postnatal neural progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus leads to emotional and cognitive impairment. FASEB J. , 31, 4347-4358. PMID: 28611114 DOI.
- Hevner RF. (2016). Evolution of the mammalian dentate gyrus. J. Comp. Neurol. , 524, 578-94. PMID: 26179319 DOI.
- Montiel JF, Vasistha NA, Garcia-Moreno F & Molnár Z. (2016). From sauropsids to mammals and back: New approaches to comparative cortical development. J. Comp. Neurol. , 524, 630-45. PMID: 26234252 DOI.
- Striedter GF. (2016). Evolution of the hippocampus in reptiles and birds. J. Comp. Neurol. , 524, 496-517. PMID: 25982694 DOI.
- Li D, Takeda N, Jain R, Manderfield LJ, Liu F, Li L, Anderson SA & Epstein JA. (2015). Hopx distinguishes hippocampal from lateral ventricle neural stem cells. Stem Cell Res , 15, 522-529. PMID: 26451648 DOI.
- Bekiari C, Giannakopoulou A, Siskos N, Grivas I, Tsingotjidou A, Michaloudi H & Papadopoulos GC. (2015). Neurogenesis in the septal and temporal part of the adult rat dentate gyrus. Hippocampus , 25, 511-23. PMID: 25394554 DOI.
- Zhang Z, Liu S, Lin X, Teng G, Yu T, Fang F & Zang F. (2011). Development of laminar organization of the fetal cerebrum at 3.0T and 7.0T: a postmortem MRI study. Neuroradiology , 53, 177-84. PMID: 20981415 DOI.
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- Li YJ, Ga SN, Huo Y, Li SY & Gao XG. (2007). Characteristics of hippocampal volumes in healthy Chinese from MRI. Neurol. Res. , 29, 803-6. PMID: 17601367 DOI.
- Lee E & Son H. (2009). Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and related neurotrophic factors. BMB Rep , 42, 239-44. PMID: 19470236
- Zaidel DW. (1999). Quantitative morphology of human hippocampus early neuron development. Anat. Rec. , 254, 87-91. PMID: 9892421
- Hayashi K, Kubo K, Kitazawa A & Nakajima K. (2015). Cellular dynamics of neuronal migration in the hippocampus. Front Neurosci , 9, 135. PMID: 25964735 DOI.
- Zhao S, Zhou Y, Gross J, Miao P, Qiu L, Wang D, Chen Q & Feng G. (2010). Fluorescent labeling of newborn dentate granule cells in GAD67-GFP transgenic mice: a genetic tool for the study of adult neurogenesis. PLoS ONE , 5, . PMID: 20824075 DOI.
Hippocampus - "source for investigators seeking the latest research on the hippocampal formation and related structures and is widely read by neuroscientists, anatomists, behavioral scientists, physiologists, biochemists, and cellular, developmental, and molecular biologists." Wiley
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, April 21) Embryology Neural - Hippocampus Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_-_Hippocampus_Development
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