Neural - Hippocampus Development
|Embryology - 15 Dec 2018 Expand to Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Development Overview
- 4 Early Brain Vesicles
- 5 Human Hippocampus Development
- 6 Mouse Hippocampus
- 7 References
- 8 External Links
- 9 Glossary Links
Recent studies have shown that secondary brain vesicle (telencephalon) dorsomedial region described as the "cortical hem" is involved with hippocampus development. The cortical hem is the source for 2 patterning signals; Wingless-related (WNT) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP).
Neural development is one of the earliest systems to begin and the last to be completed after birth. This development generates the most complex structure within the embryo and the long time period of development means in utero insult during pregnancy may have consequences to development of the nervous system.
The early central nervous system begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Failure of these opening to close contributes a major class of neural abnormalities (neural tube defects).
Within the neural tube stem cells generate the 2 major classes of cells that make the majority of the nervous system : neurons and glia. Both these classes of cells differentiate into many different types generated with highly specialized functions and shapes. This section covers the establishment of neural populations, the inductive influences of surrounding tissues and the sequential generation of neurons establishing the layered structure seen in the brain and spinal cord.
- Neural development beginnings quite early, therefore also look at notes covering Week 3 - neural tube and Week 4 - early nervous system.
- Neural Parts: neural | prosencephalon | telencephalon cerebrum | amygdala | hippocampus | basal ganglia | lateral ventricles | diencephalon | Epithalamus | thalamus | hypothalamus | pituitary | pineal | third ventricle | mesencephalon | tectum | cerebral aqueduct | rhombencephalon | metencephalon | pons | cerebellum | myelencephalon | medulla oblongata | spinal cord | neural vascular | meninges | Category:Neural
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Ying Chen, Lu Zhu, Lei Ji, Ying Yang, Lu Lu, Xiaodong Wang, Guomim Zhou Silencing the ACAT1 Gene in Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells Inhibits the Expression of Cyclo-Oxygenase 2 (COX2) and Reduces β-Amyloid-Induced Toxicity Due to Activation of Protein Kinase C (PKC) and ERK. Med. Sci. Monit.: 2018, 24;9007-9018 PubMed 30541014
Stefan C Weise, Ganeshkumar Arumugam, Alejandro Villarreal, Pavankumar Videm, Stefanie Heidrich, Nils Nebel, Verónica I Dumit, Farahnaz Sananbenesi, Viktoria Reimann, Madeline Craske, Oliver Schilling, Wolfgang R Hess, Andre Fischer, Rolf Backofen, Tanja Vogel FOXG1 Regulates PRKAR2B Transcriptionally and Posttranscriptionally via miR200 in the Adult Hippocampus. Mol. Neurobiol.: 2018; PubMed 30539330
Feng Xiong, Wei Ge, Chao Ma Quantitative proteomics reveals distinct composition of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement: 2018; PubMed 30502339
Murat Çakır, Suat Tekin, Züleyha Doğanyiğit, Yavuz Erden, Merve Soytürk, Yılmaz Çiğremiş, Süleyman Sandal Cannabinoid type 2 receptor agonist JWH-133, attenuates Okadaic acid induced spatial memory impairment and neurodegeneration in rats. Life Sci.: 2018; PubMed 30500552
Libin Liao, Xueqin Wang, Xueping Yao, Bin Zhang, Lihong Zhou, Jufang Huang Gestational stress induced differential expression of HDAC2 in male rat offspring hippocampus during development. Neurosci. Res.: 2018; PubMed 30452948
| These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.
Neuralation begins at the trilaminar embryo with formation of the notochord and somites, both of which underly the ectoderm and do not contribute to the nervous system, but are involved with patterning its initial formation. The central portion of the ectoderm then forms the neural plate that folds to form the neural tube, that will eventually form the entire central nervous system.
- Early developmental sequence: Epiblast - Ectoderm - Neural Plate - Neural groove and Neural Crest - Neural Tube and Neural Crest
|Neural Tube||Primary Vesicles||Secondary Vesicles||Adult Structures|
|week 3||week 4||week 5||adult|
|Prosencephalon||Telencephalon||Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Cerebrum (Cortex), Hypothalamus, Pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles|
|Diencephalon||Epithalamus, Thalamus, Subthalamus, Pineal, third ventricle|
|Mesencephalon||Mesencephalon||Tectum, Cerebral peduncle, Pretectum, cerebral aqueduct|
Early Brain Vesicles
Human Hippocampus Development
Human and rodent hippocampus developmental markers.
- 13 to 14 weeks - unfolded hippocampus, on the medial surface of the temporal lobe, surrounds a widely open hippocampal sulcus (hippocampal fissure)
- 15 to 16 weeks - dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis have started to infold. The hippocampal sulcus remains open. The parahippocampal gyrus is larger and more medially positioned. The CA1, CA2, and CA3 fields of the cornu ammonis are arranged linearly. The dentate gyrus has a narrow U shape.
- 18 to 20 weeks - fetal hippocampus begins to resemble the adult hippocampus. The dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis have folded into the temporal lobe. The hippocampus and subiculum approximate each other across a narrow hippocampal sulcus. The CA1-3 fields form an arc and the CA4 field has increased in size within the widened arch of the dentate gyrus.
The following data is from a postnatal magnetic resonance imaging study.
- 3 months - a longitudinal fasciculus of high signal intensity was seen in the white matter beneath the subiculum
- birth to 2 years - volume increases rapidly
- after 2 years - volume increases slowly thereafter
- hippocampal formations on the right side were larger than those on the left in 38 cases (91%)
- anterior temporal lobes on the right were larger than those on the left in 32 cases (76%)
- right-left asymmetry of the hippocampal formations and anterior temporal lobes was observed from early infancy
The following data is from an magnetic resonance imaging study of adult Chinese aged 6 to 82 years. Other studies have described a reduction in the hippocampal volume during ageing.
- volume of right hippocampus was larger than that of the left side (p<0.001)
- right side volume of hippocampus - 2.204 to 2.944 cm3
- left side volume of hippocampus - 2.068 to 2.700 cm3
- no statistically significant differences among different age and gender groups (p>0.05)
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is influenced by both external stimuli and internal growth factors (BDNF, VEGF and IGF-1).
The following data is from a histological study of postmortem hippocampi neurons.
- Bilateral coronal sections from postmortem hippocampus, 24 to 76 weeks postmenstrual age (gestational age plus postnatal age), were studied.
- Cell body (soma) size correlated positively and significantly with age in CA2 and CA3, bilaterally.
- CA2 somata were significantly larger (left, 34%; right, 32%) than adjacent CA3 somata.
- Variability in soma form or size increased appreciably with age, in both subfields, bilaterally
- Variability in soma orientation was weakly correlated with brain growth.
The developmental changes of GFP+ newborn mouse dentate granule cells.
- Caronia-Brown G, Yoshida M, Gulden F, Assimacopoulos S & Grove EA. (2014). The cortical hem regulates the size and patterning of neocortex. Development , 141, 2855-65. PMID: 24948604 DOI.
- Sorrells SF, Paredes MF, Cebrian-Silla A, Sandoval K, Qi D, Kelley KW, James D, Mayer S, Chang J, Auguste KI, Chang EF, Gutierrez AJ, Kriegstein AR, Mathern GW, Oldham MC, Huang EJ, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Yang Z & Alvarez-Buylla A. (2018). Human hippocampal neurogenesis drops sharply in children to undetectable levels in adults. Nature , 555, 377-381. PMID: 29513649 DOI.
- Feng S, Shi T, Qiu J, Yang H, Wu Y, Zhou W, Wang W & Wu H. (2017). Notch1 deficiency in postnatal neural progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus leads to emotional and cognitive impairment. FASEB J. , 31, 4347-4358. PMID: 28611114 DOI.
- Hevner RF. (2016). Evolution of the mammalian dentate gyrus. J. Comp. Neurol. , 524, 578-94. PMID: 26179319 DOI.
- Montiel JF, Vasistha NA, Garcia-Moreno F & Molnár Z. (2016). From sauropsids to mammals and back: New approaches to comparative cortical development. J. Comp. Neurol. , 524, 630-45. PMID: 26234252 DOI.
- Striedter GF. (2016). Evolution of the hippocampus in reptiles and birds. J. Comp. Neurol. , 524, 496-517. PMID: 25982694 DOI.
- Li D, Takeda N, Jain R, Manderfield LJ, Liu F, Li L, Anderson SA & Epstein JA. (2015). Hopx distinguishes hippocampal from lateral ventricle neural stem cells. Stem Cell Res , 15, 522-529. PMID: 26451648 DOI.
- Bekiari C, Giannakopoulou A, Siskos N, Grivas I, Tsingotjidou A, Michaloudi H & Papadopoulos GC. (2015). Neurogenesis in the septal and temporal part of the adult rat dentate gyrus. Hippocampus , 25, 511-23. PMID: 25394554 DOI.
- Zhang Z, Liu S, Lin X, Teng G, Yu T, Fang F & Zang F. (2011). Development of laminar organization of the fetal cerebrum at 3.0T and 7.0T: a postmortem MRI study. Neuroradiology , 53, 177-84. PMID: 20981415 DOI.
- Knoth R, Singec I, Ditter M, Pantazis G, Capetian P, Meyer RP, Horvat V, Volk B & Kempermann G. (2010). Murine features of neurogenesis in the human hippocampus across the lifespan from 0 to 100 years. PLoS ONE , 5, e8809. PMID: 20126454 DOI.
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- Utsunomiya H, Takano K, Okazaki M & Mitsudome A. (1999). Development of the temporal lobe in infants and children: analysis by MR-based volumetry. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol , 20, 717-23. PMID: 10319988
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- Lee E & Son H. (2009). Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and related neurotrophic factors. BMB Rep , 42, 239-44. PMID: 19470236
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- Zhao S, Zhou Y, Gross J, Miao P, Qiu L, Wang D, Chen Q & Feng G. (2010). Fluorescent labeling of newborn dentate granule cells in GAD67-GFP transgenic mice: a genetic tool for the study of adult neurogenesis. PLoS ONE , 5, . PMID: 20824075 DOI.
Hippocampus - "source for investigators seeking the latest research on the hippocampal formation and related structures and is widely read by neuroscientists, anatomists, behavioral scientists, physiologists, biochemists, and cellular, developmental, and molecular biologists." Wiley
Gilchrist C, Cumberland A, Walker D & Tolcos M. (2018). Intrauterine growth restriction and development of the hippocampus: implications for learning and memory in children and adolescents. Lancet Child Adolesc Health , 2, 755-764. PMID: 30236384 DOI.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, December 15) Embryology Neural - Hippocampus Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_-_Hippocampus_Development
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