Neural - Myelencephalon Development
|Embryology - 13 Dec 2018 Expand to Translate|
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Neural development is one of the earliest systems to begin and the last to be completed after birth. This development generates the most complex structure within the embryo and the long time period of development means in utero insult during pregnancy may have consequences to development of the nervous system.
The early central nervous system begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Failure of these opening to close contributes a major class of neural abnormalities (neural tube defects).
Within the neural tube stem cells generate the 2 major classes of cells that make the majority of the nervous system : neurons and glia. Both these classes of cells differentiate into many different types generated with highly specialized functions and shapes. This section covers the establishment of neural populations, the inductive influences of surrounding tissues and the sequential generation of neurons establishing the layered structure seen in the brain and spinal cord.
- Neural development beginnings quite early, therefore also look at notes covering Week 3- neural tube and Week 4-early nervous system.
- Development of the neural crest and sensory systems (hearing/vision/smell) are only introduced in these notes and are covered in other notes sections.
- Neural Parts: neural | prosencephalon | telencephalon cerebrum | amygdala | hippocampus | basal ganglia | lateral ventricles | diencephalon | Epithalamus | thalamus | hypothalamus | pituitary | pineal | third ventricle | mesencephalon | tectum | cerebral aqueduct | rhombencephalon | metencephalon | pons | cerebellum | myelencephalon | medulla oblongata | spinal cord | neural vascular | meninges | Category:Neural
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Reinhard Altmann, Christian Specht, Iris Scharnreitner, Caroline Schertler, Richard Mayer, Wolfgang Arzt, Matthias Scheier Reference Ranges for Transvaginal Examined Fossa Posterior Structures in Fetuses from 45 to 84 mm Crown-Rump Length. Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.: 2018;1-6 PubMed 29870989
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Manuel Narváez, Patrizia Ambrogini, Luca Ferraro, Ismel Brito, Wilber Romero-Fernandez, Yuniesky Andrade-Talavera, Antonio Flores-Burgess, Carmelo Millon, Belen Gago, Jose Angel Narvaez, Yuji Odagaki, Miklos Palkovits, Zaida Diaz-Cabiale, Kjell Fuxe Receptor⁻Receptor Interactions in Multiple 5-HT1A Heteroreceptor Complexes in Raphe-Hippocampal 5-HT Transmission and Their Relevance for Depression and Its Treatment. Molecules: 2018, 23(6); PubMed 29865267
Tao Chen, Wataru Taniguchi, Qi-Yu Chen, Hidetoshi Tozaki-Saitoh, Qian Song, Ren-Hao Liu, Kohei Koga, Tsuyoshi Matsuda, Yae Kaito-Sugimura, Jian Wang, Zhi-Hua Li, Ya-Cheng Lu, Kazuhide Inoue, Makoto Tsuda, Yun-Qing Li, Terumasa Nakatsuka, Min Zhuo Top-down descending facilitation of spinal sensory excitatory transmission from the anterior cingulate cortex. Nat Commun: 2018, 9(1);1886 PubMed 29760484
Tomasz Krzywkowski, Mats Nilsson Padlock Probes to Detect Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms. Methods Mol. Biol.: 2018, 1649;209-229 PubMed 29130200
A-M Kiviranta, C Rusbridge, O Laitinen-Vapaavuori, A Hielm-Björkman, A K Lappalainen, S P Knowler, T S Jokinen Syringomyelia and Craniocervical Junction Abnormalities in Chihuahuas. J. Vet. Intern. Med.: 2017, 31(6);1771-1781 PubMed 28892202
Neuralation begins at the trilaminar embryo with formation of the notochord and somites, both of which underly the ectoderm and do not contribute to the nervous system, but are involved with patterning its initial formation. The central portion of the ectoderm then forms the neural plate that folds to form the neural tube, that will eventually form the entire central nervous system.
- Early developmental sequence: Epiblast - Ectoderm - Neural Plate - Neural groove and Neural Crest - Neural Tube and Neural Crest
|Neural Tube||Primary Vesicles||Secondary Vesicles||Adult Structures|
|week 3||week 4||week 5||adult|
|Prosencephalon||Telencephalon||Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Cerebrum (Cortex), Hypothalamus, Pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles|
|Diencephalon||Epithalamus, Thalamus, Subthalamus, Pineal, third ventricle|
|Mesencephalon||Mesencephalon||Tectum, Cerebral peduncle, Pretectum, cerebral aqueduct|
Early Brain Vesicles
- Harukazu Nakamura, Tatsuya Sato, Asuka Suzuki-Hirano Isthmus organizer for mesencephalon and metencephalon. Dev. Growth Differ.: 2008, 50 Suppl 1;S113-8 PubMed 18494704
- Eiji Matsunaga, Tatsuya Katahira, Harukazu Nakamura Role of Lmx1b and Wnt1 in mesencephalon and metencephalon development. Development: 2002, 129(22);5269-77 PubMed 12399317
- M Wassef, A L Joyner Early mesencephalon/metencephalon patterning and development of the cerebellum. Perspect Dev Neurobiol: 1997, 5(1);3-16 PubMed 9509514
Nicholas D E Greene, Andrew J Copp Development of the vertebrate central nervous system: formation of the neural tube. Prenat. Diagn.: 2009, 29(4);303-11 PubMed 19206138
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, December 13) Embryology Neural - Myelencephalon Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_-_Myelencephalon_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G