Musculoskeletal System - Joint Development
|Embryology - 11 Dec 2018 Expand to Translate|
|Google Translate - select your language from the list shown below (this will open a new external page)|
العربية | català | 中文 | 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | اردو | ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. (More? About Translations)
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Joint Types
- 4 Synovial Joint Development
- 5 Shoulder
- 6 Knee
- 7 Joint Abnormalities
- 8 References
- 9 Additional Images
- 10 External Links
- 11 Glossary Links
In the adult, the region where two skeletal bones meet and articulate is called a "joint", that are classified based upon their: anatomical structure, mobility and shape.
In the embryo, the majority of the vertebrate skeleton is initially formed as a cartilage template, that is later replaced by bone except at the interface between two adjacent bones, leaving in the adult a layer of cartilage in this region. The musculoskeletal system consists of skeletal muscle, bone, and cartilage and is mainly mesoderm in origin with some neural crest contribution.
|Joint Links: joint | temporomandibular joint | musculoskeletal | cartilage | Category:Joint|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Lili Wang, Xiaofeng Zhang, Yingying Niu, Adel Fahmi Ahmed, Jinmei Wang, Wenyi Kang Anticoagulant activity of two novel polysaccharides from flowers of Apocynum venetum L. Int. J. Biol. Macromol.: 2018; PubMed 30521914
Zhuo Wang, Ming Yan, Jia'an Li, Jiafu Long, Yan Li, Hongmin Zhang Dual functions of STAT3 in LPS-induced angiogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res: 2018; PubMed 30521872
Ryo Hisada, Masaru Kato, Naoki Ohnishi, Eri Sugawara, Yuichiro Fujieda, Kenji Oku, Toshiyuki Bohgaki, Olga Amengual, Shinsuke Yasuda, Tatsuya Atsumi Antiphospholipid score is a novel risk factor for idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatology (Oxford): 2018; PubMed 30521019
Junji Zhang, Xianzhi Chai, Xiao-Peng He, Hae-Jo Kim, Juyoung Yoon, He Tian Fluorogenic probes for disease-relevant enzymes. Chem Soc Rev: 2018; PubMed 30520895
Xiao-Tan Zhang, Guang Wang, Yan Li, Manli Chuai, Kenneth Ka Ho Lee, Xuesong Yang Role of FGF signalling in neural crest cell migration during early chick embryo development. Zygote: 2018;1-8 PubMed 30520400
- Fibrous (synarthrodial) - immoveable joints found in cranial vault and teeth
- Cartilagenous (synchondroses and sympheses) - partially moveable joints
- Synovial (diarthrosis) - freely moveable joints are the most common found in the skeleton
- Hinge - (elbow and knee) Flexion/Extension
- Pivot - (neck, atlas and axis bones) Rotation of one bone around another
- Ball and Socket - (shoulder and hip)
- Saddle - (thumb)
- Condyloid - (wrist joints)
- Gliding - (intercarpal joints) Gliding movements
Synovial Joint Development
| Skeletal joint cavity development (cavitation) occurs along planes of the future articular surfaces of synovial joints. A number of different markers have been shown to be present in the interzone at the time of cavitation (hyaluronan and hyaluronan synthase, but not chondroitin sulphates).
Fibroblast-like cells (and/or adjacent chondrocytes) with uridine-diphospho glucose dehydrogenase (UDPGD) activity contribute to glycosaminoglycan levels (increases in hyaluronan). These cells are located on the intimal surface of the synovial lining and have been suggested as the possible cavitation mechanism, switching from cellular cohesion to dissociation.
This timeline data comes from a recent study of 32 human embryos (Carnegie stages 16-23) and 26 fetuses (9-13 weeks.
|17||chondrogenic progenitor of the humerus and the medial border of the scapula can be observed.|
|18||chondrogenic progenitor for rest of the scapula appears.|
|19||glenohumeral joint will begin delaminating and showing a looser central band (interzone). Denser lateral bands will join the humeral head (caput humeri) and the margins of the articular surface of the scapula, thus forming the glenoid labrum (glenoid ligament).|
|21||long head of the biceps tendon present|
|22||glenoid labrum (glenoid ligament) present|
|23||coracohumeral ligament present|
|Fetal Week 10||osteogenic process begins in the humeral head. Primitive glenohumeral ligament present|
|Fetal Week 11||osteogenic process begins in the scapula|
|Links: shoulder | joint | limb | timeline Data from human histological study.|
In human embryo at week 7 the femur and tibia cartilage template is present (stage 18), by week 8 the posterior cruciate ligament appears (stage 21), and by stage 23 the knee cavity and the anterior cruciate ligament are both also present.
FGFR-Related Craniosynostosis Syndromes
Pfeiffer syndrome, Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, Beare-Stevenson syndrome, FGFR2-related isolated coronal synostosis, Jackson-Weiss syndrome, Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans (AN), and Muenke syndrome
- Links: skull
Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia
Arthrogryposis (arthrogryposis multiplex congenital, AMC) is a congenital joint contracture occurring in two or more body regions.
Large range of causes including:
- single-gene disorders autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant or X-linked traits.
- part of chromosomal disorders (Trisomy 18, many microdeletions and micro duplications)
- connective tissue disorders
- Links: temporomandibular joint
Historic clinical term for a symmetrical joint swelling occurring in patients of both sexes between 5 to 20 years of age with congenital syphilis. Joint swelling is usually in the knees, but can also affect the ankles, elbows, wrists and fingers. Named after Henry Hugh Clutton who first described the condition in 1886.
- Links: syphilis)
- Singh PNP, Shea CA, Sonker SK, Rolfe RA, Ray A, Kumar S, Gupta P, Murphy P & Bandyopadhyay A. (2018). Precise spatial restriction of BMP signaling in developing joints is perturbed upon loss of embryo movement. Development , 145, . PMID: 29467244 DOI.
- Hita-Contreras F, Sánchez-Montesinos I, Martínez-Amat A, Cruz-Díaz D, Barranco RJ & Roda O. (2018). Development of the human shoulder joint during the embryonic and early fetal stages: anatomical considerations for clinical practice. J. Anat. , 232, 422-430. PMID: 29193070 DOI.
- Giorgi M, Carriero A, Shefelbine SJ & Nowlan NC. (2014). Mechanobiological simulations of prenatal joint morphogenesis. J Biomech , 47, 989-95. PMID: 24529755 DOI.
- Khan IM, Redman SN, Williams R, Dowthwaite GP, Oldfield SF & Archer CW. (2007). The development of synovial joints. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. , 79, 1-36. PMID: 17498545 DOI.
- Iwamoto M, Tamamura Y, Koyama E, Komori T, Takeshita N, Williams JA, Nakamura T, Enomoto-Iwamoto M & Pacifici M. (2007). Transcription factor ERG and joint and articular cartilage formation during mouse limb and spine skeletogenesis. Dev. Biol. , 305, 40-51. PMID: 17336282 DOI.
- Edwards JC, Wilkinson LS, Jones HM, Soothill P, Henderson KJ, Worrall JG & Pitsillides AA. (1994). The formation of human synovial joint cavities: a possible role for hyaluronan and CD44 in altered interzone cohesion. J. Anat. , 185 ( Pt 2), 355-67. PMID: 7525525
- Mérida-Velasco JA, Sánchez-Montesinos I, Espín-Ferra J, Mérida-Velasco JR, Rodríguez-Vázquez JF & Jiménez-Collado J. (1997). Development of the human knee joint ligaments. Anat. Rec. , 248, 259-68. PMID: 9185992
- Salazar VS, Gamer LW & Rosen V. (2016). BMP signalling in skeletal development, disease and repair. Nat Rev Endocrinol , 12, 203-21. PMID: 26893264 DOI.
Developmental Biology Gilbert, Scott F. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates, Inc. ; c2000 Forming the joints
Rountree RB, Schoor M, Chen H, Marks ME, Harley V, Mishina Y & Kingsley DM. (2004). BMP receptor signaling is required for postnatal maintenance of articular cartilage. PLoS Biol. , 2, e355. PMID: 15492776 DOI.
Mérida-Velasco JA, Sánchez-Montesinos I, Espín-Ferra J, Mérida-Velasco JR, Rodríguez-Vázquez JF & Jiménez-Collado J. (2000). Development of the human elbow joint. Anat. Rec. , 258, 166-75. PMID: 10645964
Koyama E, Leatherman JL, Shimazu A, Nah HD & Pacifici M. (1995). Syndecan-3, tenascin-C, and the development of cartilaginous skeletal elements and joints in chick limbs. Dev. Dyn. , 203, 152-62. PMID: 7544653 DOI.
Edwards JC, Wilkinson LS, Jones HM, Soothill P, Henderson KJ, Worrall JG & Pitsillides AA. (1994). The formation of human synovial joint cavities: a possible role for hyaluronan and CD44 in altered interzone cohesion. J. Anat. , 185 ( Pt 2), 355-67. PMID: 7525525
Search July 2010 "Joint Development" All (19900) Review (3137) Free Full Text (3325)
Search Pubmed: Joint Development
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
- Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link
Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, December 11) Embryology Musculoskeletal System - Joint Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Musculoskeletal_System_-_Joint_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G