Musculoskeletal System - Joint Development
|Embryology - 22 Jun 2018 Expand to Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Joint Types
- 4 Synovial Joint Development
- 5 Shoulder
- 6 Knee
- 7 Joint Abnormalities
- 8 References
- 9 Additional Images
- 10 External Links
- 11 Glossary Links
In the adult, the region where two skeletal bones meet and articulate is called a "joint", that are classified based upon their: anatomical structure, mobility and shape.
In the embryo, the majority of the vertebrate skeleton is initially formed as a cartilage template, that is later replaced by bone except at the interface between two adjacent bones, leaving in the adult a layer of cartilage in this region. The musculoskeletal system consists of skeletal muscle, bone, and cartilage and is mainly mesoderm in origin with some neural crest contribution.
|Joint Links: joint | temporomandibular joint | musculoskeletal | cartilage | Category:Joint|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Callum G Brownstein, Paul Ansdell, Jakob Škarabot, Ash Frazer, Dawson Kidgell, Glyn Howatson, Stuart Goodall, Kevin Thomas Motor cortical and corticospinal function differ during an isometric squat compared to isometric knee extension. Exp. Physiol.: 2018; PubMed 29928769
Yue Yang, Yang Wang, Yawei Kong, Xiaoning Zhang, He Zhang, Yi Gang, Lunhao Bai Carnosine Prevents Type 2 Diabetes-Induced Osteoarthritis Through the ROS/NF-κB Pathway. Front Pharmacol: 2018, 9;598 PubMed 29928231
Richard N McNeely, Salissou Moutari, Samuel Arba-Mosquera, Shwetabh Verma, Jonathan E Moore An alternative application of Rasch analysis to assess data from ophthalmic patient-reported outcome instruments. PLoS ONE: 2018, 13(6);e0197503 PubMed 29928004
Anneliese Synnot, Peter Bragge, Carole Lunny, David Menon, Ornella Clavisi, Loyal Pattuwage, Victor Volovici, Stefania Mondello, Maryse C Cnossen, Emma Donoghue, Russell L Gruen, Andrew Maas The currency, completeness and quality of systematic reviews of acute management of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: A comprehensive evidence map. PLoS ONE: 2018, 13(6);e0198676 PubMed 29927963
Kingsley Appiah, Jianguo Du, John Poku Causal relationship between agricultural production and carbon dioxide emissions in selected emerging economies. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int: 2018; PubMed 29926327
- Fibrous (synarthrodial) - immoveable joints found in cranial vault and teeth
- Cartilagenous (synchondroses and sympheses) - partially moveable joints
- Synovial (diarthrosis) - freely moveable joints are the most common found in the skeleton
- Hinge - (elbow and knee) Flexion/Extension
- Pivot - (neck, atlas and axis bones) Rotation of one bone around another
- Ball and Socket - (shoulder and hip)
- Saddle - (thumb)
- Condyloid - (wrist joints)
- Gliding - (intercarpal joints) Gliding movements
Synovial Joint Development
| Skeletal joint cavity development (cavitation) occurs along planes of the future articular surfaces of synovial joints. A number of different markers have been shown to be present in the interzone at the time of cavitation (hyaluronan and hyaluronan synthase, but not chondroitin sulphates).
Fibroblast-like cells (and/or adjacent chondrocytes) with uridine-diphospho glucose dehydrogenase (UDPGD) activity contribute to glycosaminoglycan levels (increases in hyaluronan). These cells are located on the intimal surface of the synovial lining and have been suggested as the possible cavitation mechanism, switching from cellular cohesion to dissociation.
This timeline data comes from a recent study of 32 human embryos (Carnegie stages 16-23) and 26 fetuses (9-13 weeks.
|17||chondrogenic progenitor of the humerus and the medial border of the scapula can be observed.|
|18||chondrogenic progenitor for rest of the scapula appears.|
|19||glenohumeral joint will begin delaminating and showing a looser central band (interzone). Denser lateral bands will join the humeral head (caput humeri) and the margins of the articular surface of the scapula, thus forming the glenoid labrum (glenoid ligament).|
|21||long head of the biceps tendon present|
|22||glenoid labrum (glenoid ligament) present|
|23||coracohumeral ligament present|
|Fetal Week 10||osteogenic process begins in the humeral head. Primitive glenohumeral ligament present|
|Fetal Week 11||osteogenic process begins in the scapula|
|Links: shoulder | joint | limb | timeline Data from human histological study.|
In human embryo at week 7 the femur and tibia cartilage template is present (stage 18), by week 8 the posterior cruciate ligament appears (stage 21), and by stage 23 the knee cavity and the anterior cruciate ligament are both also present.
FGFR-Related Craniosynostosis Syndromes
Pfeiffer syndrome, Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, Beare-Stevenson syndrome, FGFR2-related isolated coronal synostosis, Jackson-Weiss syndrome, Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans (AN), and Muenke syndrome
- Links: skull
Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia
Arthrogryposis (arthrogryposis multiplex congenital, AMC) is a congenital joint contracture occurring in two or more body regions.
Large range of causes including:
- single-gene disorders autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant or X-linked traits.
- part of chromosomal disorders (Trisomy 18, many microdeletions and micro duplications)
- connective tissue disorders
- Links: temporomandibular joint
Historic clinical term for a symmetrical joint swelling occurring in patients of both sexes between 5 to 20 years of age with congenital syphilis. Joint swelling is usually in the knees, but can also affect the ankles, elbows, wrists and fingers. Named after Henry Hugh Clutton who first described the condition in 1886.
- Links: syphilis)
- Singh PNP, Shea CA, Sonker SK, Rolfe RA, Ray A, Kumar S, Gupta P, Murphy P & Bandyopadhyay A. (2018). Precise spatial restriction of BMP signaling in developing joints is perturbed upon loss of embryo movement. Development , 145, . PMID: 29467244 DOI.
- Hita-Contreras F, Sánchez-Montesinos I, Martínez-Amat A, Cruz-Díaz D, Barranco RJ & Roda O. (2018). Development of the human shoulder joint during the embryonic and early fetal stages: anatomical considerations for clinical practice. J. Anat. , 232, 422-430. PMID: 29193070 DOI.
- Giorgi M, Carriero A, Shefelbine SJ & Nowlan NC. (2014). Mechanobiological simulations of prenatal joint morphogenesis. J Biomech , 47, 989-95. PMID: 24529755 DOI.
- Khan IM, Redman SN, Williams R, Dowthwaite GP, Oldfield SF & Archer CW. (2007). The development of synovial joints. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. , 79, 1-36. PMID: 17498545 DOI.
- Iwamoto M, Tamamura Y, Koyama E, Komori T, Takeshita N, Williams JA, Nakamura T, Enomoto-Iwamoto M & Pacifici M. (2007). Transcription factor ERG and joint and articular cartilage formation during mouse limb and spine skeletogenesis. Dev. Biol. , 305, 40-51. PMID: 17336282 DOI.
- Edwards JC, Wilkinson LS, Jones HM, Soothill P, Henderson KJ, Worrall JG & Pitsillides AA. (1994). The formation of human synovial joint cavities: a possible role for hyaluronan and CD44 in altered interzone cohesion. J. Anat. , 185 ( Pt 2), 355-67. PMID: 7525525
- Mérida-Velasco JA, Sánchez-Montesinos I, Espín-Ferra J, Mérida-Velasco JR, Rodríguez-Vázquez JF & Jiménez-Collado J. (1997). Development of the human knee joint ligaments. Anat. Rec. , 248, 259-68. PMID: 9185992
- Salazar VS, Gamer LW & Rosen V. (2016). BMP signalling in skeletal development, disease and repair. Nat Rev Endocrinol , 12, 203-21. PMID: 26893264 DOI.
Developmental Biology Gilbert, Scott F. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates, Inc. ; c2000 Forming the joints
Rountree RB, Schoor M, Chen H, Marks ME, Harley V, Mishina Y & Kingsley DM. (2004). BMP receptor signaling is required for postnatal maintenance of articular cartilage. PLoS Biol. , 2, e355. PMID: 15492776 DOI.
Mérida-Velasco JA, Sánchez-Montesinos I, Espín-Ferra J, Mérida-Velasco JR, Rodríguez-Vázquez JF & Jiménez-Collado J. (2000). Development of the human elbow joint. Anat. Rec. , 258, 166-75. PMID: 10645964
Koyama E, Leatherman JL, Shimazu A, Nah HD & Pacifici M. (1995). Syndecan-3, tenascin-C, and the development of cartilaginous skeletal elements and joints in chick limbs. Dev. Dyn. , 203, 152-62. PMID: 7544653 DOI.
Edwards JC, Wilkinson LS, Jones HM, Soothill P, Henderson KJ, Worrall JG & Pitsillides AA. (1994). The formation of human synovial joint cavities: a possible role for hyaluronan and CD44 in altered interzone cohesion. J. Anat. , 185 ( Pt 2), 355-67. PMID: 7525525
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, June 22) Embryology Musculoskeletal System - Joint Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Musculoskeletal_System_-_Joint_Development
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