Musculoskeletal System - Joint Development
|Embryology - 17 Feb 2018 Expand to Translate|
|Google Translate - select your language from the list shown below (this will open a new external page)|
العربية | català | 中文 | 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | اردو | ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. (More? About Translations)
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Joint Types
- 4 Synovial Joint Development
- 5 Knee
- 6 Joint Abnormalities
- 7 References
- 8 Additional Images
- 9 External Links
- 10 Glossary Links
In the adult, the region where two skeletal bones meet and articulate is called a "joint", that are classified based upon their: anatomical structure, mobility and shape.
In the embryo, the majority of the vertebrate skeleton is initially formed as a cartilage template, that is later replaced by bone except at the interface between two adjacent bones, leaving in the adult a layer of cartilage in this region. The musculoskeletal system consists of skeletal muscle, bone, and cartilage and is mainly mesoderm in origin with some neural crest contribution.
- Joint Links: Temporomandibular Joint | Joint Development | Category:Joint | Musculoskeletal System Development
Historic Embryology: 1940 Synovial Joints
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Ali Mobasheri, Csaba Matta, Ilona Uzielienè, Emma Budd, Pablo Martín-Vasallo, Eiva Bernotiene The Chondrocyte Channelome: A Narrative Review. Joint Bone Spine: 2018; PubMed 29452304
Andreu Fernández-Codina, Blanca Pinilla, Iago Pinal-Fernández, Cristina López, Guadalupe Fraile-Rodríguez, Eva Fonseca-Aizpuru, Iago Carballo, Pilar Brito-Zerón, Carlos Feijóo-Massó, Miguel López-Dupla, Maria Cinta Cid, Fernando Martínez-Valle, Spanish Registry of IgG4 Related Disease (REERIGG4) investigators, Autoimmune Diseases Group (GEAS), Spanish Internal Medicine Society (SEMI) Treatment and outcomes in patients with IgG4-related disease using the IgG4 responder index. Joint Bone Spine: 2018; PubMed 29452298
Kai Fan, Min Zhang Recent Developments in the Food Quality Detected by Non-Invasive Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technology. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr: 2018;1-58 PubMed 29451810
Aijian Wang, Jun Ye, Mark G Humphrey, Chi Zhang Graphene and Carbon-Nanotube Nanohybrids Covalently Functionalized by Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines for Optoelectronic Properties. Adv. Mater. Weinheim: 2018; PubMed 29450914
Cassandra Vonnes, Darcy Wolf Fall risk and prevention agreement: engaging patients and families with a partnership for patient safety. BMJ Open Qual: 2017, 6(2);e000038 PubMed 29450267
- Fibrous (synarthrodial) - immoveable joints found in cranial vault and teeth
- Cartilagenous (synchondroses and sympheses) - partially moveable joints
- Synovial (diarthrosis) - freely moveable joints are the most common found in the skeleton
- Hinge - (elbow and knee) Flexion/Extension
- Pivot - (neck, atlas and axis bones) Rotation of one bone around another
- Ball and Socket - (shoulder and hip)
- Saddle - (thumb)
- Condyloid - (wrist joints)
- Gliding - (intercarpal joints) Gliding movements
Synovial Joint Development
| Skeletal joint cavity development (cavitation) occurs along planes of the future articular surfaces of synovial joints. A number of different markers have been shown to be present in the interzone at the time of cavitation (hyaluronan and hyaluronan synthase, but not chondroitin sulphates).
Fibroblast-like cells (and/or adjacent chondrocytes) with uridine-diphospho glucose dehydrogenase (UDPGD) activity contribute to glycosaminoglycan levels (increases in hyaluronan). These cells are located on the intimal surface of the synovial lining and have been suggested as the possible cavitation mechanism, switching from cellular cohesion to dissociation.
In human embryo at week 7 the femur and tibia cartilage template is present (stage 18), by week 8 the posterior cruciate ligament appears (stage 21), and by stage 23 the knee cavity and the anterior cruciate ligament are both also present.
Figure from recent BMP review.
FGFR-Related Craniosynostosis Syndromes
Pfeiffer syndrome, Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, Beare-Stevenson syndrome, FGFR2-related isolated coronal synostosis, Jackson-Weiss syndrome, Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans (AN), and Muenke syndrome
Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia
Arthrogryposis (arthrogryposis multiplex congenital, AMC) is a congenital joint contracture occurring in two or more body regions.
Large range of causes including:
- single-gene disorders autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant or X-linked traits.
- part of chromosomal disorders (Trisomy 18, many microdeletions and micro duplications)
- connective tissue disorders
Historic clinical term for a symmetrical joint swelling occurring in patients of both sexes between 5 to 20 years of age with congenital syphilis. Joint swelling is usually in the knees, but can also affect the ankles, elbows, wrists and fingers. Named after Henry Hugh Clutton who first described the condition in 1886.
- Links: Abnormal Development - Syphilis)
- Mario Giorgi, Alessandra Carriero, Sandra J Shefelbine, Niamh C Nowlan Mechanobiological simulations of prenatal joint morphogenesis. J Biomech: 2014, 47(5);989-95 PubMed 24529755
- I M Khan, S N Redman, R Williams, G P Dowthwaite, S F Oldfield, C W Archer The development of synovial joints. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol.: 2007, 79;1-36 PubMed 17498545
- Masahiro Iwamoto, Yoshihiro Tamamura, Eiki Koyama, Toshihisa Komori, Nobuo Takeshita, Julie A Williams, Takashi Nakamura, Motomi Enomoto-Iwamoto, Maurizio Pacifici Transcription factor ERG and joint and articular cartilage formation during mouse limb and spine skeletogenesis. Dev. Biol.: 2007, 305(1);40-51 PubMed 17336282
- J C Edwards, L S Wilkinson, H M Jones, P Soothill, K J Henderson, J G Worrall, A A Pitsillides The formation of human synovial joint cavities: a possible role for hyaluronan and CD44 in altered interzone cohesion. J. Anat.: 1994, 185 ( Pt 2);355-67 PubMed 7525525
- J A Mérida-Velasco, I Sánchez-Montesinos, J Espín-Ferra, J R Mérida-Velasco, J F Rodríguez-Vázquez, J Jiménez-Collado Development of the human knee joint ligaments. Anat. Rec.: 1997, 248(2);259-68 PubMed 9185992
- Valerie S Salazar, Laura W Gamer, Vicki Rosen BMP signalling in skeletal development, disease and repair. Nat Rev Endocrinol: 2016; PubMed 26893264
Developmental Biology Gilbert, Scott F. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates, Inc. ; c2000 Forming the joints
Ryan B Rountree, Michael Schoor, Hao Chen, Melissa E Marks, Vincent Harley, Yuji Mishina, David M Kingsley BMP receptor signaling is required for postnatal maintenance of articular cartilage. PLoS Biol.: 2004, 2(11);e355 PubMed 15492776
J A Mérida-Velasco, I Sánchez-Montesinos, J Espín-Ferra, J R Mérida-Velasco, J F Rodríguez-Vázquez, J Jiménez-Collado Development of the human elbow joint. Anat. Rec.: 2000, 258(2);166-75 PubMed 10645964
E Koyama, J L Leatherman, A Shimazu, H D Nah, M Pacifici Syndecan-3, tenascin-C, and the development of cartilaginous skeletal elements and joints in chick limbs. Dev. Dyn.: 1995, 203(2);152-62 PubMed 7544653
J C Edwards, L S Wilkinson, H M Jones, P Soothill, K J Henderson, J G Worrall, A A Pitsillides The formation of human synovial joint cavities: a possible role for hyaluronan and CD44 in altered interzone cohesion. J. Anat.: 1994, 185 ( Pt 2);355-67 PubMed 7525525
Search July 2010 "Joint Development" All (19900) Review (3137) Free Full Text (3325)
Search Pubmed: Joint Development
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
- A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols
Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, February 17) Embryology Musculoskeletal System - Joint Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Musculoskeletal_System_-_Joint_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G