Musculoskeletal System - Joint Development
|Embryology - 25 Sep 2017 Expand to Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Joint Types
- 4 Synovial Joint Development
- 5 Knee
- 6 Joint Abnormalities
- 7 References
- 8 Additional Images
- 9 External Links
- 10 Glossary Links
In the adult, the region where two skeletal bones meet and articulate is called a "joint", that are classified based upon their: anatomical structure, mobility and shape.
In the embryo, the majority of the vertebrate skeleton is initially formed as a cartilage template, that is later replaced by bone except at the interface between two adjacent bones, leaving in the adult a layer of cartilage in this region. The musculoskeletal system consists of skeletal muscle, bone, and cartilage and is mainly mesoderm in origin with some neural crest contribution.
- Joint Links: Temporomandibular Joint | Joint Development | Category:Joint | Musculoskeletal System Development
Historic Embryology: 1940 Synovial Joints
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Laura D Straus, Sean P A Drummond, Victoria B Risbrough, Sonya B Norman Sleep Disruption, Safety Learning, and Fear Extinction in Humans: Implications for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Curr Top Behav Neurosci: 2017; PubMed 28942597
Ernest R Vina, Di Ran, Erin L Ashbeck, Charles Ratzlaff, C Kent Kwoh Race, sex, and risk factors in radiographic worsening of knee osteoarthritis. Semin. Arthritis Rheum.: 2017; PubMed 28941552
Dilek Solmaz, Sadettin Uslu, Didem Kozacı, Neslihan Karaca, Hale Bulbul, Emine Figen Tarhan, Mustafa Ozmen, Gercek Can, Servet Akar Evaluation of periostin and factors associated with new bone formation in ankylosing spondylitis: Periostin may be associated with the Wnt pathway. Int J Rheum Dis: 2017; PubMed 28941122
Janusz J Jadasz, Lena Tepe, Felix Beyer, Iria Samper Agrelo, Rainer Akkermann, Lucas-Sebastian Spitzhorn, Maria Elena Silva, Richard O C Oreffo, Hans-Peter Hartung, Alessandro Prigione, Francisco J Rivera, James Adjaye, Patrick Küry Human mesenchymal factors induce rat hippocampal- and human neural stem cell dependent oligodendrogenesis. Glia: 2017; PubMed 28940767
L Kaiser, S Dupas, A Branca, E A Herniou, C W Clarke, C Capdevielle Dulac, J Obonyo, R Benoist, J Gauthier, P A Calatayud, J F Silvain, B P Le Ru The Cotesia sesamiae story: insight into host-range evolution in a Hymenoptera parasitoid and implication for its use in biological control programs. Genetica: 2017; PubMed 28939989
- Fibrous (synarthrodial) - immoveable joints found in cranial vault and teeth
- Cartilagenous (synchondroses and sympheses) - partially moveable joints
- Synovial (diarthrosis) - freely moveable joints are the most common found in the skeleton
- Hinge - (elbow and knee) Flexion/Extension
- Pivot - (neck, atlas and axis bones) Rotation of one bone around another
- Ball and Socket - (shoulder and hip)
- Saddle - (thumb)
- Condyloid - (wrist joints)
- Gliding - (intercarpal joints) Gliding movements
Synovial Joint Development
| Skeletal joint cavity development (cavitation) occurs along planes of the future articular surfaces of synovial joints. A number of different markers have been shown to be present in the interzone at the time of cavitation (hyaluronan and hyaluronan synthase, but not chondroitin sulphates).
Fibroblast-like cells (and/or adjacent chondrocytes) with uridine-diphospho glucose dehydrogenase (UDPGD) activity contribute to glycosaminoglycan levels (increases in hyaluronan). These cells are located on the intimal surface of the synovial lining and have been suggested as the possible cavitation mechanism, switching from cellular cohesion to dissociation.
In human embryo at week 7 the femur and tibia cartilage template is present (stage 18), by week 8 the posterior cruciate ligament appears (stage 21), and by stage 23 the knee cavity and the anterior cruciate ligament are both also present.
Figure from recent BMP review.
FGFR-Related Craniosynostosis Syndromes
Pfeiffer syndrome, Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, Beare-Stevenson syndrome, FGFR2-related isolated coronal synostosis, Jackson-Weiss syndrome, Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans (AN), and Muenke syndrome
Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia
Arthrogryposis (arthrogryposis multiplex congenital, AMC) is a congenital joint contracture occurring in two or more body regions.
Large range of causes including:
- single-gene disorders autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant or X-linked traits.
- part of chromosomal disorders (Trisomy 18, many microdeletions and micro duplications)
- connective tissue disorders
Historic clinical term for a symmetrical joint swelling occurring in patients of both sexes between 5 to 20 years of age with congenital syphilis. Joint swelling is usually in the knees, but can also affect the ankles, elbows, wrists and fingers. Named after Henry Hugh Clutton who first described the condition in 1886.
- Links: Abnormal Development - Syphilis)
- Mario Giorgi, Alessandra Carriero, Sandra J Shefelbine, Niamh C Nowlan Mechanobiological simulations of prenatal joint morphogenesis. J Biomech: 2014, 47(5);989-95 PubMed 24529755
- I M Khan, S N Redman, R Williams, G P Dowthwaite, S F Oldfield, C W Archer The development of synovial joints. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol.: 2007, 79;1-36 PubMed 17498545
- Masahiro Iwamoto, Yoshihiro Tamamura, Eiki Koyama, Toshihisa Komori, Nobuo Takeshita, Julie A Williams, Takashi Nakamura, Motomi Enomoto-Iwamoto, Maurizio Pacifici Transcription factor ERG and joint and articular cartilage formation during mouse limb and spine skeletogenesis. Dev. Biol.: 2007, 305(1);40-51 PubMed 17336282
- J C Edwards, L S Wilkinson, H M Jones, P Soothill, K J Henderson, J G Worrall, A A Pitsillides The formation of human synovial joint cavities: a possible role for hyaluronan and CD44 in altered interzone cohesion. J. Anat.: 1994, 185 ( Pt 2);355-67 PubMed 7525525
- J A Mérida-Velasco, I Sánchez-Montesinos, J Espín-Ferra, J R Mérida-Velasco, J F Rodríguez-Vázquez, J Jiménez-Collado Development of the human knee joint ligaments. Anat. Rec.: 1997, 248(2);259-68 PubMed 9185992
- Valerie S Salazar, Laura W Gamer, Vicki Rosen BMP signalling in skeletal development, disease and repair. Nat Rev Endocrinol: 2016; PubMed 26893264
Developmental Biology Gilbert, Scott F. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates, Inc. ; c2000 Forming the joints
Ryan B Rountree, Michael Schoor, Hao Chen, Melissa E Marks, Vincent Harley, Yuji Mishina, David M Kingsley BMP receptor signaling is required for postnatal maintenance of articular cartilage. PLoS Biol.: 2004, 2(11);e355 PubMed 15492776
J A Mérida-Velasco, I Sánchez-Montesinos, J Espín-Ferra, J R Mérida-Velasco, J F Rodríguez-Vázquez, J Jiménez-Collado Development of the human elbow joint. Anat. Rec.: 2000, 258(2);166-75 PubMed 10645964
E Koyama, J L Leatherman, A Shimazu, H D Nah, M Pacifici Syndecan-3, tenascin-C, and the development of cartilaginous skeletal elements and joints in chick limbs. Dev. Dyn.: 1995, 203(2);152-62 PubMed 7544653
J C Edwards, L S Wilkinson, H M Jones, P Soothill, K J Henderson, J G Worrall, A A Pitsillides The formation of human synovial joint cavities: a possible role for hyaluronan and CD44 in altered interzone cohesion. J. Anat.: 1994, 185 ( Pt 2);355-67 PubMed 7525525
Search July 2010 "Joint Development" All (19900) Review (3137) Free Full Text (3325)
Search Pubmed: Joint Development
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Musculoskeletal System - Joint Development. Retrieved September 25, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Musculoskeletal_System_-_Joint_Development
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