Kangaroo Development

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Introduction

Red-necked wallaby

Macropodid marsupial have short five digit forelimbs and large four digit hindlimbs specially adapted for hopping. The hindlimb digits differ from mammals by a missing digit 1, fused digits 2 and 3 and an elongated digit 4.


  • tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii)


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Historic - Monotremata and Marsupialia Embryology | Historic - 1915 The Monotreme Skull | 1880 - The Cochlea of the Ornithorhynchus platypus Compared with That of Ordinary Mammals and of Birds.

The Hill Collection contains much histology of echidna and platypus embryonic development.

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Some Recent Findings

  • The tammar wallaby genome and transcriptome A cross-journal collection of articles from the tammar wallaby genome and transcriptome sequencing project. BMC Genomics
  • Desert hedgehog is a mammal-specific gene expressed during testicular and ovarian development in a marsupial.[1] "These data suggest that there is a highly conserved role for DHH signalling in the differentiation and function of the mammalian testis and that DHH may be necessary for marsupial ovarian development. The receptors PTCH1 and PTCH2 are highly conserved mediators of hedgehog signalling in both the developing and adult marsupial gonads. Together these findings indicate DHH is an essential therian mammal-specific morphogen in gonadal development and gametogenesis."
  • Developmental origins of precocial forelimbs in marsupial neonates[2] "We present the genome sequence of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, which is a member of the kangaroo family and the first representative of the iconic hopping mammals that symbolize Australia to be sequenced. The tammar has many unusual biological characteristics, including the longest period of embryonic diapause of any mammal, extremely synchronized seasonal breeding and prolonged and sophisticated lactation within a well-defined pouch. Like other marsupials, it gives birth to highly altricial young, and has a small number of very large chromosomes, making it a valuable model for genomics, reproduction and development. The genome has been sequenced to 2x coverage using Sanger sequencing, enhanced with additional next generation sequencing and the integration of extensive physical and linkage maps to build the genome assembly. We also sequenced the tammar transcriptome across many tissues and developmental time points. Our analyses of these data shed light on mammalian reproduction, development and genome evolution: there is innovation in reproductive and lactational genes, rapid evolution of germ cell genes, and incomplete, locus-specific X inactivation. We also observe novel retrotransposons and a highly rearranged major histocompatibility complex, with many class I genes located outside the complex. Novel microRNAs in the tammar HOX clusters uncover new potential mammalian HOX regulatory elements."
More recent papers  
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
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Search term: Rabbit Embryology

Vengamanaidu Modepalli, Lyn A Hinds, Julie A Sharp, Christophe Lefevre, Kevin R Nicholas Role of marsupial tammar wallaby milk in lung maturation of pouch young. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2014, 15(1);16 PubMed 25888082

Robert Stickels, Kevin Clark, Thomas N Heider, Deidre M Mattiske, Marilyn B Renfree, Andrew J Pask DAX1/NR0B1 Was Expressed During Mammalian Gonadal Development and Gametogenesis Before It Was Recruited to the Eutherian X-Chromosome. Biol. Reprod.: 2014; PubMed 25395677

Wm Kirk Suedmeyer, Jacqueline Pearce, Meredith Persky, Marlys L Houck Peters anomaly in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus). J. Zoo Wildl. Med.: 2014, 45(3);715-8 PubMed 25314851

Marilyn B Renfree, Geoff Shaw Embryo-endometrial interactions during early development after embryonic diapause in the marsupial tammar wallaby. Int. J. Dev. Biol.: 2014, 58(2-4);175-81 PubMed 25023683

K Y Chew, A J Pask, D Hickford, G Shaw, M B Renfree A dual role for SHH during phallus development in a marsupial. Sex Dev: 2014, 8(4);166-77 PubMed 24480851


Search term: Wallaby Embryology

Vengamanaidu Modepalli, Lyn A Hinds, Julie A Sharp, Christophe Lefevre, Kevin R Nicholas Role of marsupial tammar wallaby milk in lung maturation of pouch young. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2014, 15(1);16 PubMed 25888082

Robert Stickels, Kevin Clark, Thomas N Heider, Deidre M Mattiske, Marilyn B Renfree, Andrew J Pask DAX1/NR0B1 Was Expressed During Mammalian Gonadal Development and Gametogenesis Before It Was Recruited to the Eutherian X-Chromosome. Biol. Reprod.: 2014; PubMed 25395677

Wm Kirk Suedmeyer, Jacqueline Pearce, Meredith Persky, Marlys L Houck Peters anomaly in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus). J. Zoo Wildl. Med.: 2014, 45(3);715-8 PubMed 25314851

Marilyn B Renfree, Geoff Shaw Embryo-endometrial interactions during early development after embryonic diapause in the marsupial tammar wallaby. Int. J. Dev. Biol.: 2014, 58(2-4);175-81 PubMed 25023683

Christa E Flück, Amit V Pandey Steroidogenesis of the testis -- new genes and pathways. Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris): 2014, 75(2);40-7 PubMed 24793988

Taxon

Taxonomy ID: 9322

Genbank common name: kangaroo

Inherited blast name: marsupials

Rank: species

Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard)

Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 2 (Vertebrate Mitochondrial)

Lineage ( full )

cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Coelomata; Deuterostomia; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Gnathostomata; Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Metatheria; Diprotodontia; Macropodidae; Macropus

Links: Taxonomy Browser Macropus

Development Overview

  • short pregnancy period (tammar wallaby 26.5 days)
  • pregnancy can be maternally delayed (diapause) at blastocyst stage
  • born in altricial (underdeveloped) state
  • development continues attached to a teat in the pouch
  • during pouch period growth controlled by milk composition changes
  • immune system, thyroid and thermoregulation develops after birth

Tammar Wallaby

The following images are from a recent paper on placental evolution.[3]

Tammar wallaby limb development 01.jpg

Tammar Wallaby Limb Development[4]

The development of tammar fetal limbs at selected stages before birth. (A) day 19, (B) day 20, (C) day 22, (D) day 24 and (E) day 25 (one day before birth).

Tammar Limbs: day 19-25 | day 19 | day 20 | day 22 | day 24 | day 25 | Limb Development | Kangaroo Development

Genome

Tammar wallaby karyotype.jpg

The tammar wallaby karyotype (2 n = 16) consists of 7 autosomes and the two sex chromosomes.[5]


Gonad Development

The following data is from the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) study.[6]

Female ovary

  • migrate caudally between days 10 and 20 after birth.
  • gubernaculum differentiates into:
    • round ligament in the abdomen
    • extra-abdominally as the ilio-marsupialis muscle of the mammary glands.

Male testis

  • migrate to the internal inguinal ring by day 20 post partum (pp).
  • migrate then to the scrotum between days 20 and 65 pp.
  • cremaster muscle development begins day 10 pp and structure completed by day 60 pp.
  • inguinal canal closed between days 50 and 60 pp.

Rock-Wallaby

Rock-wallaby Australian distribution.jpg

Rock-wallaby Australian taxa distribution[7]

Taxa are colored in accordance with their chromosomal groupings:
  • red - brachyotis group
  • yellow - xanthopus group
  • blue - lateralis group
  • green - penicillata group

Mitochondrial coding genes - 12 genes, 11,373 bp.

References

  1. William A O'Hara, Walid J Azar, Richard R Behringer, Marilyn B Renfree, Andrew J Pask Desert hedgehog is a mammal-specific gene expressed during testicular and ovarian development in a marsupial. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2011, 11;72 PubMed 22132805
  2. Marilyn B Renfree, Anthony T Papenfuss, Janine E Deakin, James Lindsay, Thomas Heider, Katherine Belov, Willem Rens, Paul D Waters, Elizabeth A Pharo, Geoff Shaw, Emily S W Wong, Christophe M Lefèvre, Kevin R Nicholas, Yoko Kuroki, Matthew J Wakefield, Kyall R Zenger, Chenwei Wang, Malcolm Ferguson-Smith, Frank W Nicholas, Danielle Hickford, Hongshi Yu, Kirsty R Short, Hannah V Siddle, Stephen R Frankenberg, Keng Yih Chew, Brandon R Menzies, Jessica M Stringer, Shunsuke Suzuki, Timothy A Hore, Margaret L Delbridge, Hardip R Patel, Amir Mohammadi, Nanette Y Schneider, Yanqiu Hu, William O'Hara, Shafagh Al Nadaf, Chen Wu, Zhi-Ping Feng, Benjamin G Cocks, Jianghui Wang, Paul Flicek, Stephen M J Searle, Susan Fairley, Kathryn Beal, Javier Herrero, Dawn M Carone, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano, Atsushi Toyoda, Yoshiyuki Sakaki, Shinji Kondo, Yuichiro Nishida, Shoji Tatsumoto, Ion Mandiou, Arthur Hsu, Kaighin A McColl, Benjamin Lansdell, George Weinstock, Elizabeth Kuczek, Annette McGrath, Peter Wilson, Artem Men, Mehlika Hazar-Rethinam, Allison Hall, John Davis, David Wood, Sarah Williams, Yogi Sundaravadanam, Donna M Muzny, Shalini N Jhangiani, Lora R Lewis, Margaret B Morgan, Geoffrey O Okwuonu, San Juana Ruiz, Jireh Santibanez, Lynne Nazareth, Andrew Cree, Gerald Fowler, Christie L Kovar, Huyen H Dinh, Vandita Joshi, Chyn Jing, Fremiet Lara, Rebecca Thornton, Lei Chen, Jixin Deng, Yue Liu, Joshua Y Shen, Xing-Zhi Song, Janette Edson, Carmen Troon, Daniel Thomas, Amber Stephens, Lankesha Yapa, Tanya Levchenko, Richard A Gibbs, Desmond W Cooper, Terence P Speed, Asao Fujiyama, Jennifer A M Graves, Rachel J O'Neill, Andrew J Pask, Susan M Forrest, Kim C Worley Genome sequence of an Australian kangaroo, Macropus eugenii, provides insight into the evolution of mammalian reproduction and development. Genome Biol.: 2011, 12(8);R81 PubMed 21854559 Genome Biol.
  3. Brandon R Menzies, Andrew J Pask, Marilyn B Renfree Placental expression of pituitary hormones is an ancestral feature of therian mammals. Evodevo: 2011, 2;16 PubMed 21854600 | PMC3170617 | Evodevo.
  4. Keng Yih Chew, Hongshi Yu, Andrew J Pask, Geoffrey Shaw, Marilyn B Renfree HOXA13 and HOXD13 expression during development of the syndactylous digits in the marsupial Macropus eugenii. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2012, 12;2 PubMed 22235805 | BMC Dev Biol.
  5. Carol A Edwards, Willem Rens, Oliver Clarke, Andrew J Mungall, Timothy Hore, Jennifer A Marshall Graves, Ian Dunham, Anne C Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith The evolution of imprinting: chromosomal mapping of orthologues of mammalian imprinted domains in monotreme and marsupial mammals. BMC Evol. Biol.: 2007, 7;157 PubMed 17822525 | BMC Evol Biol.
  6. Douglas Coveney, Geoffrey Shaw, John M Hutson, Marilyn B Renfree The development of the gubernaculum and inguinal closure in the marsupial Macropus eugenii. J. Anat.: 2002, 201(3);239-56 PubMed 12363275
  7. Potter S, Bragg JG, Blom MPK, Deakin JE, Kirkpatrick M, Eldridge MDB and Moritz C (2017) Chromosomal Speciation in the Genomics Era: Disentangling Phylogenetic Evolution of Rock-wallabies. Front. Genet. 8:10. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2017.00010

Reviews

Marilyn B Renfree, Eleanor I Ager, Geoff Shaw, Andrew J Pask Genomic imprinting in marsupial placentation. Reproduction: 2008, 136(5);523-31 PubMed 18805821


Articles

Kim Huyhn, Marilyn B Renfree, Jennifer A Graves, Andrew J Pask ATRX has a critical and conserved role in mammalian sexual differentiation. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2011, 11;39 PubMed 21672208

J W Chung, A J Pask, H Yu, M B Renfree Fibroblast growth factor-9 in marsupial testicular development. Sex Dev: 2011, 5(3);131-40 PubMed 21540568

S U McCluskey, L R Marotte, K W S Ashwell Development of the vestibular apparatus and central vestibular connections in a wallaby (Macropus eugenii). Brain Behav. Evol.: 2008, 71(4);271-86 PubMed 18431054

K W S Ashwell, L R Marotte, Gang Cheng Development of the olfactory system in a wallaby (Macropus eugenii). Brain Behav. Evol.: 2008, 71(3);216-30 PubMed 18322362

Christopher M Butler, Geoff Shaw, Joan Clark, Marilyn B Renfree The functional development of Leydig cells in a marsupial. J. Anat.: 2008, 212(1);55-66 PubMed 18069991

Claudia Freyer, Ulrich Zeller, Marilyn B Renfree Ultrastructure of the placenta of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii: comparison with the grey short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica. J. Anat.: 2002, 201(2);101-19 PubMed 12220120

M B Renfree, C H Tyndale-Biscoe Intrauterine development after diapause in the marsupial Macropus eugenii. Dev. Biol.: 1973, 32(1);28-40 PubMed 4791592


Books

  • Life of Marsupials by Hugh Tyndale-Biscoe Publisher: CSIRO Publishing (2005).
  • Kangaroo - A Portrait of an Extraordinary Marsupial by Stephen Jackson and Karl Vernes Publisher: Allen & Unwin (2010).

Search PubMed

Search PubMed: Kangaroo development | Macropus eugenii | marsupial development

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Kangaroo Development. Retrieved May 24, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Kangaroo_Development

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