|Embryology - 21 Aug 2018 Expand to Translate|
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This page introduces the fly, drosophila, as a developmental model organism. The small drosophila fruitfly has been used by genetisists for many years now and much is now understood about its development in relation to gene expression and regulatory mechanisms.
In recent years, using developmental mutants, many mechanisms of development in the fly have been shown to be almost identical to those seen in humans and other animals. In fact, these developmental mechanisms have become the "paradigm" for our understanding of development.
The fruitfly (drosophila) was and is the traditional geneticist's tool. It has been transformed to an magnificent tool for the embryologist, with many developmental mechanisms being uncovered in this system combined with homolgy gene searches in other species.
There is also a difference in basic body structure between males and females, males lack the seventh abdominal segment (A7) present in females. This has recently been shown to be due to a down-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity and fewer histoblasts in the male A7 in the early pupae.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Sami H Jezzini, Amelia Merced, Jonathan M Blagburn Shaking-B misexpression increases the formation of gap junctions but not chemical synapses between auditory sensory neurons and the giant fiber of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE: 2018, 13(8);e0198710 PubMed 30118493
Roman V Frolov, Esa-Ville Immonen, Paulus Saari, Päivi H Torkkeli, Hongxia Liu, Andrew S French ##Title## J. Gen. Physiol.: 2018; PubMed 30115661
Jill R Crittenden, Efthimios M C Skoulakis, Elliott S Goldstein, Ronald L Davis ##Title## Biol Open: 2018; PubMed 30115617
Felipe Berti Valer, Maiaro Cabral Rosa Machado, Rui Milton Patrício Silva-Junior, Ricardo Guelerman Pinheiro Ramos Expression of Hbs, Kirre and Rst during Drosophila ovarian development. Genesis: 2018; PubMed 30114331
Elena Drosopoulou, Dimitris Vlastos, Ioanna Efthimiou, Paraskevi Kyrizaki, Sofia Tsamadou, Maria Anagnostopoulou, Danai Kofidou, Maxim Gavriilidis, Despoina Mademtzoglou, Penelope Mavragani-Tsipidou In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of the major Chios mastic water constituents. Sci Rep: 2018, 8(1);12200 PubMed 30111795
Taxonomy Id: 32346 Rank: species group
Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 5 Lineage( abbreviated ): Eukaryota; Metazoa; Arthropoda; Tracheata; Hexapoda; Insecta; Pterygota; Neoptera; Endopterygota; Diptera; Brachycera; Muscomorpha; Ephydroidea; Drosophilidae; Drosophila
The drosophila lifespan varies with temperature and is about 30 days at 29 °C.
|Fly wild-type head||Fly antennapedia mutant head|
This is the classic mutation that gave rise to the discovery of Hox genes and other genes related to body pattern formation. In this mutant during development the fly embryo incorrectly positioned where (antenna) should have be two legs (pedia). The discovery of this mutant in Walter Gehring's lab opened up the field of developmental genes and this field has been rewarded with the 1995 Nobel prize in Medicine.
The Hippo (Hpo) pathway, first identified in Drosophila, controls organ size by regulating cell proliferation (inhibition) and apoptosis (induction). In contrast, the TOR signalling pathway regulates organ size by stimulating cell growth, thus increasing cell size.
|Fly Phenotype (dorsal view head thorax SEM)|
|Hippo-type (hpo)||Wild-type (WT)|
Summary of neural development from neural stem cell population and the gene regulation involved.
- David Foronda, Paloma Martín, Ernesto Sánchez-Herrero Drosophila Hox and sex-determination genes control segment elimination through EGFR and extramacrochetae activity. PLoS Genet.: 2012, 8(8);e1002874 PubMed 22912593
- Jun-Yi Zhu, Yulong Fu, Margaret Nettleton, Adam Richman, Zhe Han High throughput in vivo functional validation of candidate congenital heart disease genes in Drosophila. Elife: 2017, 6; PubMed 28084990 eLife
- Volker Hartenstein, Amelia Younossi-Hartenstein, Jennifer Lovick, Angel Kong, Jaison Omoto, Kathy Ngo, Gudrun Viktorin Lineage-associated tracts defining the anatomy of the drosophila first instar larval brain. Dev. Biol.: 2015; PubMed 26141956
- Joaquín de Navascués, Juan Modolell The pronotum LIM-HD gene tailup is both a positive and a negative regulator of the proneural genes achaete and scute of Drosophila. Mech. Dev.: 2010, 127(9-12);393-406 PubMed 20580820
- Daniel Karlsson, Magnus Baumgardt, Stefan Thor Segment-specific neuronal subtype specification by the integration of anteroposterior and temporal cues. PLoS Biol.: 2010, 8(5);e1000368 PubMed 20485487 | PLoS
- Lin Yu, Teresa Lee, Na Lin, Matthew J Wolf Affecting Rhomboid-3 function causes a dilated heart in adult Drosophila. PLoS Genet.: 2010, 6(5);e1000969 PubMed 20523889
- F R Turner, A P Mahowald Scanning electron microscopy of Drosophila embryogenesis. 1. The structure of the egg envelopes and the formation of the cellular blastoderm. Dev. Biol.: 1976, 50(1);95-108 PubMed 817949
- F R Turner, A P Mahowald Scanning electron microscopy of Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis. II. Gastrulation and segmentation. Dev. Biol.: 1977, 57(2);403-16 PubMed 406152
- P R Alper Letter: Lawsuit motivation. J Leg Med (N Y): 1975, 3(10);7 PubMed 1081572
- F R Turner, A P Mahowald Scanning electron microscopy of Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis. III. Formation of the head and caudal segments. Dev. Biol.: 1979, 68(1);96-109 PubMed 108157
- Randy Johnson, Georg Halder The two faces of Hippo: targeting the Hippo pathway for regenerative medicine and cancer treatment. Nat Rev Drug Discov: 2014, 13(1);63-79 PubMed 24336504 | Nat Rev Drug Discov.
Journal of Neurobiology
- Special Issue: Unexpected Roles for Morphogens in the Development and Regeneration of the CNS Volume 64, Issue 4 (15 September 2005)
- Marques G. Morphogens and synaptogenesis in Drosophila. J Neurobiol. 2005 Sep 15;64(4):417-34.
Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th Edn) Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, Alexander; Lewis, Julian; Raff, Martin; Roberts, Keith; Walter, Peter. New York: Garland Publishing; 2002.
- Figure 21-24. Synopsis of Drosophila development from egg to adult fly
- Drosophila Begins Its Development as a Syncytium
- Figure 21-2. Homologous proteins functioning interchangeably in the development of mice and flies
Developmental Biology (6th Edn) Gilbert, Scott F. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates, Inc.; c2000.
- Early Drosophila Development
- Snapshot Summary: Drosophila Development and Axis Specification
- Limb formation
Wael Tadros, Howard D Lipshitz Setting the stage for development: mRNA translation and stability during oocyte maturation and egg activation in Drosophila. Dev. Dyn.: 2005, 232(3);593-608 PubMed 15704150
Wayne Pereanu, Volker Hartenstein Digital three-dimensional models of Drosophila development. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev.: 2004, 14(4);382-91 PubMed 15261654
Matthew G Voas, Ilaria Rebay Signal integration during development: insights from the Drosophila eye. Dev. Dyn.: 2004, 229(1);162-75 PubMed 14699588
Katrin Weigmann, Robert Klapper, Thomas Strasser, Christof Rickert, Gerd Technau, Herbert Jäckle, Wilfried Janning, Christian Klämbt FlyMove--a new way to look at development of Drosophila. Trends Genet.: 2003, 19(6);310-1 PubMed 12801722
Alexander W Shingleton, Jayatri Das, Lucio Vinicius, David L Stern The temporal requirements for insulin signaling during development in Drosophila. PLoS Biol.: 2005, 3(9);e289 PubMed 16086608
Search Aug2005 "drosophila development" 13228 reference articles of which 1899 were reviews.
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
- Genetics Society of America Annual Drosophila Conference
There are a number of excellent internet resources for Fly development.
- Flybase - A Database of the Drosophila Genome http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu/
- The Interactive Fly - looks at genes and development http://www.sdbonline.org/fly/aimain/1aahome.htm This site is very well organized and allows an exploration of the molecular mechanisms of development. Remember that this is where molecular mammalian embryology all started through homology.
- Flybrain - An Online Atlas and Database of the Drosophila Nervous System http://flybrain.neurobio.arizona.edu/
- FlyServer - A Drosophila Image Database and A Drosophila Multimedia Database http://pbio07.uni-muenster.de/
- NCBI Taxonomy Browser | Drosophila Genome Resources
- Development of Drosophila - by Katherine Plewes, Becky Wong and Leon W. Browder http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/eduweb/virtualembryo/flies.html
- BIO 114 Virtual Fly - lntroductory Biology Lab course at the WKU Glasgow extended campus http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/Biol114/Vfly1.asp
- Chapter 13A: Drosophila Development - Kenyon College http://biology.kenyon.edu/courses/biol114/Chap13/Chapter_13A.html
- Journal of Visualized Experiments Live Imaging Of Drosophila melanogaster Embryonic Hemocyte Migrations