Fly Development

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Fly animation.gif

Introduction

Drosophila melanogaster drawing

This page introduces the fly, drosophila, as a developmental model organism. The small drosophila fruitfly has been used by genetisists for many years now and much is now understood about its development in relation to gene expression and regulatory mechanisms.

In recent years, using developmental mutants, many mechanisms of development in the fly have been shown to be almost identical to those seen in humans and other animals. In fact, these developmental mechanisms have become the "paradigm" for our understanding of development.

The fruitfly (drosophila) was and is the traditional geneticist's tool. It has been transformed to an magnificent tool for the embryologist, with many developmental mechanisms being uncovered in this system combined with homolgy gene searches in other species.

Drosophila researchers have received to date received 5 Nobel prizes (1933, 1995, 2011). The most recent in 2011 "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity".

There is also a difference in basic body structure between males and females, males lack the seventh abdominal segment (A7) present in females. This has recently been shown to be due to a down-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity and fewer histoblasts in the male A7 in the early pupae.[1]


Fly Links: ANAT2341 Project (2009) | Homeobox | Category:Fly

Some Recent Findings

Scanning EM of adult fly head
  • High throughput in vivo functional validation of candidate congenital heart disease genes in Drosophila[2] "We developed a Drosophila-based functional system to screen candidate disease genes identified from Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) patients. 134 genes were tested in the Drosophila heart using RNAi-based gene silencing. Quantitative analyses of multiple cardiac phenotypes demonstrated essential structural, functional, and developmental roles for more than 70 genes, including a subgroup encoding histone H3K4 modifying proteins. We also demonstrated the use of Drosophila to evaluate cardiac phenotypes resulting from specific, patient-derived alleles of candidate disease genes. We describe the first high throughput in vivo validation system to screen candidate disease genes identified from patients." cardiovascular abnormalities


More recent papers  
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches


Search term: Drosophila Development

Irmgard U Haussmann, Pinar Ustaoglu, Ulrike Brauer, Yash Hemani, Thomas C Dix, Matthias Soller Plasmid-based gap-repair recombineered transgenes reveal a central role for introns in mutually exclusive alternative splicing in Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule exon 4. Nucleic Acids Res.: 2018; PubMed 30541104

Nikolay Postika, Mario Metzler, Markus Affolter, Martin Müller, Paul Schedl, Pavel Georgiev, Olga Kyrchanova Boundaries mediate long-distance interactions between enhancers and promoters in the Drosophila Bithorax complex. PLoS Genet.: 2018, 14(12);e1007702 PubMed 30540750

Eric T Hall, Elizabeth Hoesing, Endre Sinkovics, Esther M Verheyen Actomyosin contractility modulates Wnt signaling through adherens junction stability. Mol. Biol. Cell: 2018;mbcE18060345 PubMed 30540525

Adeela Syed, Tamás Lukacsovich, Miles Pomeroy, A Jane Bardwell, Gentry Thomas Decker, Katrina G Waymire, Judith Purcell, Weijian Huang, James Gui, Emily M Padilla, Cindy Park, Antor Paul, Thai Bin T Pham, Yanete Rodriguez, Stephen Wei, Shane Worthge, Ronak Zebarjedi, Bing Zhang, Lee Bardwell, J Lawrence Marsh, Grant R MacGregor Miles to go (mtgo) encodes FNDC3 proteins that interact with the chaperonin subunit CCT3 and are required for NMJ branching and growth in Drosophila. Dev. Biol.: 2019, 445(1);37-53 PubMed 30539716

Rebecca Kirsch, Stefan E Seemann, Walter L Ruzzo, Stephen M Cohen, Peter F Stadler, Jan Gorodkin Identification and characterization of novel conserved RNA structures in Drosophila. BMC Genomics: 2018, 19(1);899 PubMed 30537930

Older papers  
  • Lineage-associated tracts defining the anatomy of the drosophila first instar larval brain[3] "Fixed lineages derived from unique, genetically specified neuroblasts form the anatomical building blocks of the Drosophila brain. Neurons belonging to the same lineage project their axons in a common tract, which is labeled by neuronal markers. In this paper, we present a detailed atlas of the lineage-associated tracts forming the brain of the early Drosophila larva, based on the use of global markers (anti-Neuroglian, anti-Neurotactin, Inscuteable-Gal4>UAS-chRFP-Tub) and lineage-specific reporters. We describe 68 discrete fiber bundles that contain axons of one lineage or pairs/small sets of adjacent lineages. Bundles enter the neuropil at invariant locations, the lineage tract entry portals. Within the neuropil, these fiber bundles form larger fascicles that can be classified, by their main orientation, into longitudinal, transverse, and vertical (ascending/descending) fascicles. We present 3D digital models of lineage tract entry portals and neuropil fascicles, set into relationship to commonly used, easily recognizable reference structures such as the mushroom body, the antennal lobe, the optic lobe, and the Fasciclin II-positive fiber bundles that connect the brain and ventral nerve cord. Correspondences and differences between early larval tract anatomy and the previously described late larval and adult lineage patterns are highlighted."
  • Development of the imaginal wing disc[4] "LIM-HD gene tailup (islet), together with the HD genes of the iroquois complex, specify the notum territory of the disc. Later, tailup has been shown to act as a prepattern gene that antagonizes formation of sensory bristles on the notum of this fly. ...We conclude that tailup acts on bristle development by several, even antagonistic, mechanisms."
  • The four-dimensional pattern of fly neuron development[5] "We show that segment-specific generation of the Ap cluster neurons is achieved by the integration of the anteroposterior and temporal cues in several different ways. Generation of the Ap neurons in abdominal segments is prevented by anteroposterior cues stopping the cell cycle in the stem cell at an early stage. In brain segments, late-born neurons are generated, but are differently specified due to the presence of different anteroposterior and temporal cues. Finally, in thoracic segments, the temporal and spatial cues integrate on a highly limited set of target genes to specify the Ap cluster neurons."
  • Heart Development[6] "We used an optical coherence tomography imaging technique that provided images similar to echocardiography in humans to measure the cardiac function in adult flies. We identified mutants in members of the rhomboid protease family and epidermal growth factor receptor that cause an enlarged cardiac chamber. Interestingly, abnormalities in the function of members of the epidermal growth factor receptor family in humans that undergo certain chemotherapies are associated with the development of dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Our results suggest that epidermal growth factor receptor signaling may be an evolutionarily conserved pathway that is necessary to maintain normal adult cardiac function."

Taxon

melanogaster group

Taxonomy Id: 32346 Rank: species group

Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 5 Lineage( abbreviated ): Eukaryota; Metazoa; Arthropoda; Tracheata; Hexapoda; Insecta; Pterygota; Neoptera; Endopterygota; Diptera; Brachycera; Muscomorpha; Ephydroidea; Drosophilidae; Drosophila


Development

The drosophila lifespan varies with temperature and is about 30 days at 29 °C.

A series of papers published between 1976 to 1979 by Turner and Mahowald, characterised the stages of drosophila development in beautiful scanning electron microscope (SEM) images.[7][8][9]

Hox Genes

Fly wild-type head.jpg Fly antennapedia head.jpg
Fly wild-type head[10] Fly antennapedia mutant head[10]

This is the classic mutation that gave rise to the discovery of Hox genes and other genes related to body pattern formation. In this mutant during development the fly embryo incorrectly positioned where (antenna) should have be two legs (pedia)[10]. The discovery of this mutant in Walter Gehring's lab opened up the field of developmental genes and this field has been rewarded with the 1995 Nobel prize in Medicine.


Links: Hox | 1995 Nobel Prize

Hippo Genes

The Hippo (Hpo) pathway, first identified in Drosophila, controls organ size by regulating cell proliferation (inhibition) and apoptosis (induction). In contrast, the TOR signalling pathway regulates organ size by stimulating cell growth, thus increasing cell size.

Fly Phenotype (dorsal view head thorax SEM)
Fly Hippo-type dorsal view head thorax SEM.jpg Fly WT dorsal view head thorax SEM.jpg
Hippo-type (hpo) Wild-type (WT)
Image source[11]
Links: Developmental Signals - Hippo

Neural Development

Summary of neural development from neural stem cell population and the gene regulation involved.[5]

Fly neural development 01.png

References

  1. Foronda D, Martín P & Sánchez-Herrero E. (2012). Drosophila Hox and sex-determination genes control segment elimination through EGFR and extramacrochetae activity. PLoS Genet. , 8, e1002874. PMID: 22912593 DOI.
  2. Zhu JY, Fu Y, Nettleton M, Richman A & Han Z. (2017). High throughput in vivo functional validation of candidate congenital heart disease genes inDrosophila. Elife , 6, . PMID: 28084990 DOI.
  3. Hartenstein V, Younossi-Hartenstein A, Lovick JK, Kong A, Omoto JJ, Ngo KT & Viktorin G. (2015). Lineage-associated tracts defining the anatomy of the Drosophila first instar larval brain. Dev. Biol. , 406, 14-39. PMID: 26141956 DOI.
  4. de Navascués J & Modolell J. (2010). The pronotum LIM-HD gene tailup is both a positive and a negative regulator of the proneural genes achaete and scute of Drosophila. Mech. Dev. , 127, 393-406. PMID: 20580820 DOI.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Karlsson D, Baumgardt M & Thor S. (2010). Segment-specific neuronal subtype specification by the integration of anteroposterior and temporal cues. PLoS Biol. , 8, e1000368. PMID: 20485487 DOI.
  6. Yu L, Lee T, Lin N & Wolf MJ. (2010). Affecting Rhomboid-3 function causes a dilated heart in adult Drosophila. PLoS Genet. , 6, e1000969. PMID: 20523889 DOI.
  7. Turner FR & Mahowald AP. (1976). Scanning electron microscopy of Drosophila embryogenesis. 1. The structure of the egg envelopes and the formation of the cellular blastoderm. Dev. Biol. , 50, 95-108. PMID: 817949
  8. Turner FR & Mahowald AP. (1977). Scanning electron microscopy of Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis. II. Gastrulation and segmentation. Dev. Biol. , 57, 403-16. PMID: 406152
  9. Alper PR. (1975). Letter: Lawsuit motivation. J Leg Med (N Y) , 3, 7. PMID: 1081572
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Turner FR & Mahowald AP. (1979). Scanning electron microscopy of Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis. III. Formation of the head and caudal segments. Dev. Biol. , 68, 96-109. PMID: 108157
  11. Johnson R & Halder G. (2014). The two faces of Hippo: targeting the Hippo pathway for regenerative medicine and cancer treatment. Nat Rev Drug Discov , 13, 63-79. PMID: 24336504 DOI.

Journals

Developmental Dynamics

Journal of Neurobiology

Online Textbooks

Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th Edn) Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, Alexander; Lewis, Julian; Raff, Martin; Roberts, Keith; Walter, Peter. New York: Garland Publishing; 2002.

Developmental Biology (6th Edn) Gilbert, Scott F. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates, Inc.; c2000.

Search NLM Online Textbooks- "drosophila development" : Molecular Biology of the Cell | Molecular Cell Biology | The Cell- A molecular Approach

Reviews

Sen A & Cox RT. (2017). Fly Models of Human Diseases: Drosophila as a Model for Understanding Human Mitochondrial Mutations and Disease. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. , 121, 1-27. PMID: 28057297 DOI.

Tadros W & Lipshitz HD. (2005). Setting the stage for development: mRNA translation and stability during oocyte maturation and egg activation in Drosophila. Dev. Dyn. , 232, 593-608. PMID: 15704150 DOI.

Pereanu W & Hartenstein V. (2004). Digital three-dimensional models of Drosophila development. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. , 14, 382-91. PMID: 15261654 DOI.

Voas MG & Rebay I. (2004). Signal integration during development: insights from the Drosophila eye. Dev. Dyn. , 229, 162-75. PMID: 14699588 DOI.

Weigmann K, Klapper R, Strasser T, Rickert C, Technau G, Jäckle H, Janning W & Klämbt C. (2003). FlyMove--a new way to look at development of Drosophila. Trends Genet. , 19, 310-1. PMID: 12801722 DOI.

Articles

Shingleton AW, Das J, Vinicius L & Stern DL. (2005). The temporal requirements for insulin signaling during development in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. , 3, e289. PMID: 16086608 DOI.

Search PubMed

Search Aug2005 "drosophila development" 13228 reference articles of which 1899 were reviews.

Search Pubmed: fly development | drosophila development

External Links

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Databases

There are a number of excellent internet resources for Fly development.

Fly Pages



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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, December 13) Embryology Fly Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Fly_Development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G