|Embryology - 19 Feb 2019 Expand to Translate|
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This page introduces the fly, drosophila, as a developmental model organism. The small drosophila fruitfly has been used by genetisists for many years now and much is now understood about its development in relation to gene expression and regulatory mechanisms.
In recent years, using developmental mutants, many mechanisms of development in the fly have been shown to be almost identical to those seen in humans and other animals. In fact, these developmental mechanisms have become the "paradigm" for our understanding of development.
The fruitfly (drosophila) was and is the traditional geneticist's tool. It has been transformed to an magnificent tool for the embryologist, with many developmental mechanisms being uncovered in this system combined with homolgy gene searches in other species.
There is also a difference in basic body structure between males and females, males lack the seventh abdominal segment (A7) present in females. This has recently been shown to be due to a down-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity and fewer histoblasts in the male A7 in the early pupae.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.
|These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.
Taxonomy Id: 32346 Rank: species group
Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 5 Lineage( abbreviated ): Eukaryota; Metazoa; Arthropoda; Tracheata; Hexapoda; Insecta; Pterygota; Neoptera; Endopterygota; Diptera; Brachycera; Muscomorpha; Ephydroidea; Drosophilidae; Drosophila
The drosophila lifespan varies with temperature and is about 30 days at 29 °C.
|Fly wild-type head||Fly antennapedia mutant head|
This is the classic mutation that gave rise to the discovery of Hox genes and other genes related to body pattern formation. In this mutant during development the fly embryo incorrectly positioned where (antenna) should have be two legs (pedia). The discovery of this mutant in Walter Gehring's lab opened up the field of developmental genes and this field has been rewarded with the 1995 Nobel prize in Medicine.
The Hippo (Hpo) pathway, first identified in Drosophila, controls organ size by regulating cell proliferation (inhibition) and apoptosis (induction). In contrast, the TOR signalling pathway regulates organ size by stimulating cell growth, thus increasing cell size.
|Fly Phenotype (dorsal view head thorax SEM)|
|Hippo-type (hpo)||Wild-type (WT)|
Summary of neural development from neural stem cell population and the gene regulation involved.
- Foronda D, Martín P & Sánchez-Herrero E. (2012). Drosophila Hox and sex-determination genes control segment elimination through EGFR and extramacrochetae activity. PLoS Genet. , 8, e1002874. PMID: 22912593 DOI.
- Yang Y, Zhou M, Fang Q & Shen HB. (2019). AnnoFly: Annotating Drosophila Embryonic Images Based on an Attention-Enhanced RNN Model. Bioinformatics , , . PMID: 30601935 DOI.
- Zhu JY, Fu Y, Nettleton M, Richman A & Han Z. (2017). High throughput in vivo functional validation of candidate congenital heart disease genes inDrosophila. Elife , 6, . PMID: 28084990 DOI.
- Hartenstein V, Younossi-Hartenstein A, Lovick JK, Kong A, Omoto JJ, Ngo KT & Viktorin G. (2015). Lineage-associated tracts defining the anatomy of the Drosophila first instar larval brain. Dev. Biol. , 406, 14-39. PMID: 26141956 DOI.
- de Navascués J & Modolell J. (2010). The pronotum LIM-HD gene tailup is both a positive and a negative regulator of the proneural genes achaete and scute of Drosophila. Mech. Dev. , 127, 393-406. PMID: 20580820 DOI.
- Karlsson D, Baumgardt M & Thor S. (2010). Segment-specific neuronal subtype specification by the integration of anteroposterior and temporal cues. PLoS Biol. , 8, e1000368. PMID: 20485487 DOI.
- Yu L, Lee T, Lin N & Wolf MJ. (2010). Affecting Rhomboid-3 function causes a dilated heart in adult Drosophila. PLoS Genet. , 6, e1000969. PMID: 20523889 DOI.
- Turner FR & Mahowald AP. (1976). Scanning electron microscopy of Drosophila embryogenesis. 1. The structure of the egg envelopes and the formation of the cellular blastoderm. Dev. Biol. , 50, 95-108. PMID: 817949
- Turner FR & Mahowald AP. (1977). Scanning electron microscopy of Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis. II. Gastrulation and segmentation. Dev. Biol. , 57, 403-16. PMID: 406152
- Alper PR. (1975). Letter: Lawsuit motivation. J Leg Med (N Y) , 3, 7. PMID: 1081572
- Turner FR & Mahowald AP. (1979). Scanning electron microscopy of Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis. III. Formation of the head and caudal segments. Dev. Biol. , 68, 96-109. PMID: 108157
- Johnson R & Halder G. (2014). The two faces of Hippo: targeting the Hippo pathway for regenerative medicine and cancer treatment. Nat Rev Drug Discov , 13, 63-79. PMID: 24336504 DOI.
Journal of Neurobiology
- Special Issue: Unexpected Roles for Morphogens in the Development and Regeneration of the CNS Volume 64, Issue 4 (15 September 2005)
- Marques G. Morphogens and synaptogenesis in Drosophila. J Neurobiol. 2005 Sep 15;64(4):417-34.
Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th Edn) Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, Alexander; Lewis, Julian; Raff, Martin; Roberts, Keith; Walter, Peter. New York: Garland Publishing; 2002.
- Figure 21-24. Synopsis of Drosophila development from egg to adult fly
- Drosophila Begins Its Development as a Syncytium
- Figure 21-2. Homologous proteins functioning interchangeably in the development of mice and flies
Developmental Biology (6th Edn) Gilbert, Scott F. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates, Inc.; c2000.
- Early Drosophila Development
- Snapshot Summary: Drosophila Development and Axis Specification
- Limb formation
Tadros W & Lipshitz HD. (2005). Setting the stage for development: mRNA translation and stability during oocyte maturation and egg activation in Drosophila. Dev. Dyn. , 232, 593-608. PMID: 15704150 DOI.
Weigmann K, Klapper R, Strasser T, Rickert C, Technau G, Jäckle H, Janning W & Klämbt C. (2003). FlyMove--a new way to look at development of Drosophila. Trends Genet. , 19, 310-1. PMID: 12801722 DOI.
Search Aug2005 "drosophila development" 13228 reference articles of which 1899 were reviews.
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
- Genetics Society of America Annual Drosophila Conference
There are a number of excellent internet resources for Fly development.
- Flybase - A Database of the Drosophila Genome http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu/
- The Interactive Fly - looks at genes and development http://www.sdbonline.org/fly/aimain/1aahome.htm This site is very well organized and allows an exploration of the molecular mechanisms of development. Remember that this is where molecular mammalian embryology all started through homology.
- Flybrain - An Online Atlas and Database of the Drosophila Nervous System http://flybrain.neurobio.arizona.edu/
- FlyServer - A Drosophila Image Database and A Drosophila Multimedia Database http://pbio07.uni-muenster.de/
- NCBI Taxonomy Browser | Drosophila Genome Resources
- AnnoFly - Annotating Drosophila Embryonic Images Based on an Attention-Enhanced RNN Model
- Development of Drosophila - by Katherine Plewes, Becky Wong and Leon W. Browder http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/eduweb/virtualembryo/flies.html
- BIO 114 Virtual Fly - lntroductory Biology Lab course at the WKU Glasgow extended campus http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/Biol114/Vfly1.asp
- Chapter 13A: Drosophila Development - Kenyon College http://biology.kenyon.edu/courses/biol114/Chap13/Chapter_13A.html
- Journal of Visualized Experiments Live Imaging Of Drosophila melanogaster Embryonic Hemocyte Migrations