Canada Statistics

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A personal message from Dr Mark Hill (May 2020)  
Mark Hill.jpg
I have decided to take early retirement in September 2020. During the many years online I have received wonderful feedback from many readers, researchers and students interested in human embryology. I especially thank my research collaborators and contributors to the site. The good news is Embryology will remain online and I will continue my association with UNSW Australia. I look forward to updating and including the many exciting new discoveries in Embryology!



This page links to the current online resources available to explore Canadian population and birth data. See also the recent report on ART in Canada.

Statistics Links: Introduction | Reports | World Population | World Fertility | World Infant Mortality | Maternal Mortality | Australia | Brazil | Canada | China | Germany | India | Indonesia | Europe | Myanmar | Netherlands | Spain | United Kingdom | Romania | Uganda | United States | BGD Tutorial - Applied Embryology and Teratology | National Perinatal Statistics Unit | AIHW | Category:Statistics
Australia’s mothers and babies: 2017 | 2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | National Perinatal Statistics Unit | AIHW | Australian Statistics | birth

| Category:Canada

Some Recent Findings

  • Adolescent Pregnancy Guidelines[1] "Objective - To describe the needs and evidence-based practice specific to care of the pregnant adolescent in Canada, including special populations. Outcomes - Healthy pregnancies for adolescent women in Canada, with culturally sensitive and age-appropriate care to ensure the best possible outcomes for these young women and their infants and young families, and to reduce repeat pregnancy rates."
  • 2014 - Pregnancy outcomes after assisted human reproduction[2] "To review the effect of assisted human reproduction (AHR) on perinatal outcomes, to identify areas requiring further research with regard to birth outcomes and AHR, and to provide guidelines to optimize obstetrical management and counselling of prospective Canadian parents. "

Low Birth Weight by Region

Canada low birth weight by region.jpg

Source: Health Indicator Maps, catalogue no. 82-583-XIE, Vol. 2010, No.1. (CANSIM Table 102-4303). Produced by the Geography Division for the Health Statistics Division, Statistics Canada, 2010.

Canadian Growth Charts

General Statistics

Population: 34,030,589 (July 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 37

Age structure

  • 0-14 years: 15.7% (male 2,736,737/female 2,602,342)
  • 15-64 years: 68.5% (male 11,776,611/female 11,517,972)
  • 65 years and over: 15.9% (male 2,372,356/female 3,024,571) (2011 est.)

Median age

  • total: 41 years
  • male: 39.8 years
  • female: 42.1 years (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

  • 0.794% (2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 136

Birth rate

  • 10.28 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 187

Death rate

  • 7.98 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 105

Sex ratio

  • at birth: 1.056 male(s)/female
  • under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  • 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  • 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
  • total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Infant mortality rate

  • total: 4.92 deaths/1,000 live births
  • country comparison to the world: 183
  • male: 5.26 deaths/1,000 live births
  • female: 4.56 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

  • total population: 81.38 years
  • country comparison to the world: 12
  • male: 78.81 years
  • female: 84.1 years (2011 est.)

Total fertility rate

  • 1.58 children born/woman (2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 178

Age structure

  • 0-14 years: 20.1% (male 32,107,900/female 30,781,823)
  • 15-64 years: 66.8% (male 104,411,352/female 104,808,064)
  • 65 years and over: 13.1% (male 17,745,363/female 23,377,542) (2011 est.)

Median age

  • total: 36.9 years
  • male: 35.6 years
  • female: 38.2 years (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

  • 0.963% (2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 119

Birth rate

  • 13.83 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 149

Death rate

  • 8.38 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 89

Sex ratio

  • at birth: 1.047 male(s)/female
  • under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  • 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  • 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
  • total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Infant mortality rate

  • total: 6.06 deaths/1,000 live births
  • country comparison to the world: 176
  • male: 6.72 deaths/1,000 live births
  • female: 5.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

  • total population: 78.37 years
  • country comparison to the world: 50
  • male: 75.92 years
  • female: 80.93 years (2011 est.)

Total fertility rate

  • 2.06 children born/woman (2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 123


adult prevalence rate

  • 0.3% (2009 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 91

people living with HIV/AIDS

  • 68,000 (2009 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 50


  • fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 69

Ethnic groups

British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed background 26%

Data: The World Factbook Canada

Assisted Reproductive Technology

Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada - Pregnancy outcomes after assisted human reproduction[3]

Summary Statements (for January 2005 to December 2012)

  1. There is increasing evidence that infertility or subfertility is an independent risk factor for obstetrical complications and adverse perinatal outcomes, even without the addition of assisted human reproduction.
  2. The relative risk for an imprinting phenotype such as Silver-Russell syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, or Angelman syndrome is increased in the assisted reproduction population, but the actual risk for one of these phenotypes to occur in an assisted pregnancy is estimated to be low, at less than 1 in 5000. The exact biological etiology for this increased imprinting risk is likely heterogeneous and requires more research. (II-2) Recommendations 1. All men with severe oligozoospermia or azoospermia (sperm count < 5 million/hpf) should be offered genetic/clinical counselling, karyotype assessment for chromosomal abnormalities, and Y-chromosome microdeletion testing prior to in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection. (II-2A) 2. All men with unexplained obstructive azoospermia should be offered genetic/clinical counselling and genetic testing for cystic fibrosis prior to in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
  3. Multiple pregnancy is the most powerful predictive factor for adverse maternal, obstetrical, and perinatal outcomes. Couples should be thoroughly counselled about the significant risks of multiple pregnancies associated with all assisted human reproductive treatments.
  4. The benefits and cumulative pregnancy rates of elective single embryo transfer support a policy of using this protocol in couples with good prognosis for success, and elective single embryo transfer should be strongly encouraged in this population.
  5. To reduce the incidence of multiple pregnancy, health care policies that support public funding for assisted human reproduction, with regulations promoting best practice regarding elective single embryo transfer, should be strongly encouraged.
  6. Among singleton pregnancies, assisted reproductive technology is associated with increased risks of preterm birth and low birth weight infants, and ovulation induction is associated with an increased risk of low birth weight infants. Until sufficient research has clarified the independent roles of infertility and treatment for infertility, couples should be counselled about the risks associated with treatment. (II-2B) There is a role for closer obstetric surveillance of women who conceive with assisted human reproduction.
  7. There is growing evidence that pregnancy outcomes are better for cryopreserved embryos fertilized in vitro than for fresh embryo transfers. This finding supports a policy of elective single embryo transfer for women with a good prognosis (with subsequent use of cryopreserved embryos as necessary), and may reassure women who are considering in vitro fertilization. (II-2A)
  8. Women and couples considering assisted human reproduction and concerned about perinatal outcomes in singleton pregnancies should be advised that (1) intracytoplasmic sperm injection does not appear to confer increased adverse perinatal or maternal risk over standard in vitro fertilization, and (2) the use of donor oocytes increases successful pregnancy rates in selected women, but even when accounting for maternal age, can increase the risks of low birth weight and preeclampsia.
  9. Any assisted reproductive technology procedure should be prefaced by a discussion of fetal outcomes and the slight increase in the risk of congenital structural abnormalities, with emphasis on known confounding factors such as infertility and body mass index.
  10. In pregnancies achieved by artificial reproductive technology, routine anatomic ultrasound for congenital structural abnormalities is recommended between 18 and 22 weeks. (II-2A)
  11. Pregnancies conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection may be at increased risk of chromosomal aberrations, including sex chromosome abnormalities. Diagnostic testing should be offered after appropriate counselling.
  12. The possible increased risk for late onset cancer due to gene dysregulation for tumour suppression requires more long-term follow-up before the true risk can be determined.
  13. The clinical application of preimplantation genetic testing in fertile couples must balance the benefits of avoiding disease transmission with the medical risks and financial burden of in vitro fertilization.
  14. Preimplantation screening for aneuploidy is associated with inconsistent findings for improving pregnancy outcomes. Any discussion of preimplantation genetic screening with patients should clarify that there is no adequate information on the long-term effect of embryo single cell biopsy.
Links: Assisted Reproductive Technology


  1. <pubmed>26474231</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>24444289</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>24444289</pubmed>

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, May 29) Embryology Canada Statistics. Retrieved from

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© Dr Mark Hill 2020, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G