Abnormal Development - Malaria
|Embryology - 20 May 2019 Expand to Translate|
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About 10,000 women and 200,000 babies die annually because of malaria in pregnancy, which can cause miscarriages, preterm births, and low-birth-weight births. There are about 156 species of Plasmodium which infect different vertebrate species. In humans there are four types of malaria caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum (main), Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae.
These malarial parasites are carried by the female mosquito (anopheles species) and about 100 different species can transmit human malaria. When an infected mosquito bites a human, the parasites can enter the bloodstream and travel for about an hour before entering the liver and then multiplying. Between 6 to 16 days (depending on the species), the parasites reenter the bloodstream to invade and multiply inside red blood cells (RBCs). These infected RBCs rupture and released more parasites that infect and destroy further RBCs.
Placental infection is common in regions where malaria is endemic with women carrying their first pregnancy (primigravida). (More? Placenta - Abnormalities)
|Global limits and endemicity of P. falciparum in 2007|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.
<pubmed limit=5>Maternal Malaria</pubmed>
Pregnant women have an increased susceptibility to malaria infection. Malarial infection of the placenta by sequestration of the infected red blood cells leading to low birth weight and other effects.
- Several infective agents may cross into the placenta from the maternal circulation, as well as enter the embryo/fetal circulation.
- Pregnant women have an increased susceptibility to malaria infection.
- Malarial infection of the placenta by sequestration of the infected red blood cells leading to low birth weight and other effects.
Mouse E18 neurovasculature MicroCT
- Dellicour S, Tatem AJ, Guerra CA, Snow RW & ter Kuile FO. (2010). Quantifying the number of pregnancies at risk of malaria in 2007: a demographic study. PLoS Med. , 7, e1000221. PMID: 20126256 DOI.
- McDonald CR, Cahill LS, Ho KT, Yang J, Kim H, Silver KL, Ward PA, Mount HT, Liles WC, Sled JG & Kain KC. (2015). Experimental Malaria in Pregnancy Induces Neurocognitive Injury in Uninfected Offspring via a C5a-C5a Receptor Dependent Pathway. PLoS Pathog. , 11, e1005140. PMID: 26402732 DOI.
- Umbers AJ, Stanisic DI, Ome M, Wangnapi R, Hanieh S, Unger HW, Robinson LJ, Lufele E, Baiwog F, Siba PM, King CL, Beeson JG, Mueller I, Aplin JD, Glazier JD & Rogerson SJ. (2013). Does malaria affect placental development? Evidence from in vitro models. PLoS ONE , 8, e55269. PMID: 23383132 DOI.
- Rijken MJ, Papageorghiou AT, Thiptharakun S, Kiricharoen S, Dwell SL, Wiladphaingern J, Pimanpanarak M, Kennedy SH, Nosten F & McGready R. (2012). Ultrasound evidence of early fetal growth restriction after maternal malaria infection. PLoS ONE , 7, e31411. PMID: 22347473 DOI.
- Westenberger SJ, McClean CM, Chattopadhyay R, Dharia NV, Carlton JM, Barnwell JW, Collins WE, Hoffman SL, Zhou Y, Vinetz JM & Winzeler EA. (2010). A systems-based analysis of Plasmodium vivax lifecycle transcription from human to mosquito. PLoS Negl Trop Dis , 4, e653. PMID: 20386602 DOI.
- Rijken MJ, Moroski WE, Kiricharoen S, Karunkonkowit N, Stevenson G, Ohuma EO, Noble JA, Kennedy SH, McGready R, Papageorghiou AT & Nosten FH. (2012). Effect of malaria on placental volume measured using three-dimensional ultrasound: a pilot study. Malar. J. , 11, 5. PMID: 22222152 DOI.
- Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria. 3rd edition. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK294440/
- Bioinformatics in Tropical Disease Research: A Practical and Case-Study Approach Gruber, Arthur; Durham, Alan M.; Huynh, Chuong; del Portillo, Hernando A., editors Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), NCBI; 2008 Control of Gene Expression in Plasmodium
Rogerson SJ, Mwapasa V & Meshnick SR. (2007). Malaria in pregnancy: linking immunity and pathogenesis to prevention. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. , 77, 14-22. PMID: 18165470
Beeson JG & Duffy PE. (2005). The immunology and pathogenesis of malaria during pregnancy. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. , 297, 187-227. PMID: 16265906
Search Pubmed: Placental Malaria
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- CDC Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria Malaria
- Toronto General Hospital/Research Institute Kevin Kain
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, May 20) Embryology Abnormal Development - Malaria. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Malaria
- © Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G