Abnormal Development - Malaria
|Embryology - 22 Feb 2017 Expand to Translate|
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About 10,000 women and 200,000 babies die annually because of malaria in pregnancy, which can cause miscarriages, preterm births, and low-birth-weight births. There are about 156 species of Plasmodium which infect different vertebrate species. In humans there are four types of malaria caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum (main), Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae.
These malarial parasites are carried by the female mosquito (anopheles species) and about 100 different species can transmit human malaria. When an infected mosquito bites a human, the parasites can enter the bloodstream and travel for about an hour before entering the liver and then multiplying. Between 6 to 16 days (depending on the species), the parasites reenter the bloodstream to invade and multiply inside red blood cells (RBCs). These infected RBCs rupture and released more parasites that infect and destroy further RBCs.
Placental infection is common in regions where malaria is endemic with women carrying their first pregnancy (primigravida). (More? Placenta - Abnormalities)
|Global limits and endemicity of P. falciparum in 2007|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Cary Ma, Kasereka Masumbuko Claude, Zacharie Tsongo Kibendelwa, Hannah Brooks, Xiaonan Zheng, Michael Hawkes Is maternal education a social vaccine for childhood malaria infection? A cross-sectional study from war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo. Pathog Glob Health: 2017;1-9 PubMed 28220714
Michal Fried, Patrick E Duffy Malaria during Pregnancy. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med: 2017; PubMed 28213434
Stephen Nash, Alexander J Mentzer, Swaib A Lule, Dennison Kizito, Gaby Smits, Fiona R M van der Klis, Alison M Elliott The impact of prenatal exposure to parasitic infections and to anthelminthic treatment on antibody responses to routine immunisations given in infancy: Secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. PLoS Negl Trop Dis: 2017, 11(2);e0005213 PubMed 28178298
Tania C d'Almeida, Ibrahim Sadissou, Jacqueline Milet, Gilles Cottrell, Amandine Mondière, Euripide Avokpaho, Laure Gineau, Audrey Sabbagh, Achille Massougbodji, Kabirou Moutairou, Eduardo A Donadi, Benoit Favier, Edgardo Carosella, Philippe Moreau, Nathalie Rouas-Freiss, David Courtin, André Garcia Soluble human leukocyte antigen -G during pregnancy and infancy in Benin: Mother/child resemblance and association with the risk of malaria infection and low birth weight. PLoS ONE: 2017, 12(2);e0171117 PubMed 28166246
J W T Elston, C Cartwright, P Ndumbi, J Wright The health impact of the 2014-15 Ebola outbreak. Public Health: 2017, 143;60-70 PubMed 28159028
Pregnant women have an increased susceptibility to malaria infection. Malarial infection of the placenta by sequestration of the infected red blood cells leading to low birth weight and other effects.
- Several infective agents may cross into the placenta from the maternal circulation, as well as enter the embryo/fetal circulation.
- Pregnant women have an increased susceptibility to malaria infection.
- Malarial infection of the placenta by sequestration of the infected red blood cells leading to low birth weight and other effects.
Mouse E18 neurovasculature MicroCT
- Stephanie Dellicour, Andrew J Tatem, Carlos A Guerra, Robert W Snow, Feiko O ter Kuile Quantifying the number of pregnancies at risk of malaria in 2007: a demographic study. PLoS Med.: 2010, 7(1);e1000221 PubMed 20126256
- Chloë R McDonald, Lindsay S Cahill, Keith T Ho, Jimmy Yang, Hani Kim, Karlee L Silver, Peter A Ward, Howard T Mount, W Conrad Liles, John G Sled, Kevin C Kain Experimental Malaria in Pregnancy Induces Neurocognitive Injury in Uninfected Offspring via a C5a-C5a Receptor Dependent Pathway. PLoS Pathog.: 2015, 11(9);e1005140 PubMed 26402732 | PLoS Pathog.
- Alexandra J Umbers, Danielle I Stanisic, Maria Ome, Regina Wangnapi, Sarah Hanieh, Holger W Unger, Leanne J Robinson, Elvin Lufele, Francesca Baiwog, Peter M Siba, Christopher L King, James G Beeson, Ivo Mueller, John D Aplin, Jocelyn D Glazier, Stephen J Rogerson Does malaria affect placental development? Evidence from in vitro models. PLoS ONE: 2013, 8(1);e55269 PubMed 23383132 | PLoS One.
- Marcus J Rijken, Aris T Papageorghiou, Supan Thiptharakun, Suporn Kiricharoen, Saw Lu Mu Dwell, Jacher Wiladphaingern, Mupawjay Pimanpanarak, Stephen H Kennedy, François Nosten, Rose McGready Ultrasound evidence of early fetal growth restriction after maternal malaria infection. PLoS ONE: 2012, 7(2);e31411 PubMed 22347473
- Scott J Westenberger, Colleen M McClean, Rana Chattopadhyay, Neekesh V Dharia, Jane M Carlton, John W Barnwell, William E Collins, Stephen L Hoffman, Yingyao Zhou, Joseph M Vinetz, Elizabeth A Winzeler A systems-based analysis of Plasmodium vivax lifecycle transcription from human to mosquito. PLoS Negl Trop Dis: 2010, 4(4);e653 PubMed 20386602
- Marcus J Rijken, William E Moroski, Suporn Kiricharoen, Noaeni Karunkonkowit, Gordon Stevenson, Eric O Ohuma, J Alison Noble, Stephen H Kennedy, Rose McGready, Aris T Papageorghiou, François H Nosten Effect of malaria on placental volume measured using three-dimensional ultrasound: a pilot study. Malar. J.: 2012, 11;5 PubMed 22222152 | Malar J.
- Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria. 3rd edition. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK294440/
- Bioinformatics in Tropical Disease Research: A Practical and Case-Study Approach Gruber, Arthur; Durham, Alan M.; Huynh, Chuong; del Portillo, Hernando A., editors Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), NCBI; 2008 Control of Gene Expression in Plasmodium
Ricardo Ataíde, Alfredo Mayor, Stephen J Rogerson Malaria, primigravidae, and antibodies: knowledge gained and future perspectives. Trends Parasitol.: 2014, 30(2);85-94 PubMed 24388420
Stephen J Rogerson, Victor Mwapasa, Steven R Meshnick Malaria in pregnancy: linking immunity and pathogenesis to prevention. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.: 2007, 77(6 Suppl);14-22 PubMed 18165470
Stephen J Rogerson, Lars Hviid, Patrick E Duffy, Rose F G Leke, Diane W Taylor Malaria in pregnancy: pathogenesis and immunity. Lancet Infect Dis: 2007, 7(2);105-17 PubMed 17251081
J G Beeson, P E Duffy The immunology and pathogenesis of malaria during pregnancy. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol.: 2005, 297;187-227 PubMed 16265906
Search Pubmed: Placental Malaria
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- CDC Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria Malaria
- Toronto General Hospital/Research Institute Kevin Kain
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Abnormal Development - Malaria. Retrieved February 22, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Malaria
- © Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G