Abnormal Development - Hypoxia

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Educational Use Only - Embryology is an educational resource for learning concepts in embryological development, no clinical information is provided and content should not be used for any other purpose.

Introduction

Image of normal human oxygen exchange levels
Human normal oxygen exchange levels.

Hypoxia (hypoxiation or anoxemia) is the condition of reduced oxygen content. Postnatally, environmental hypoxia can effect the function/survival of many systems, while prenatal hypoxia (including birth) has been shown to have many detrimental effects for the growing fetus/neonate. It should be noted that normal prenatal development typically occurs in an environment that is hypoxic compared to the maternal or postnatal environment. The hypoxia discussed here refers to reduced maternal oxygen or fetal hypoxia below that occurring in normal development. Exposure to altitude hypoxia normally results in physiological responses that act to preserve maternal and fetal oxygenation.


Maternal smoking, in addition to vasoconstriction, has associated carbon monoxide inhalation that has also been suggested to interfere with delivery of oxygen to the fetus. (More? smoking)


Historically, hypoxia was identified in growing mice and rats as influencing the growth of caudal vertebrae.[1] More recently hypoxia has now been shown to influence many different developing systems including neural, heart and skeletal systems.


Environmental Links: Introduction | low folic acid | iodine deficiency | Nutrition | Drugs | Australian Drug Categories | USA Drug Categories | thalidomide | herbal drugs | Illegal Drugs | smoking | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | TORCH | viral infection | bacterial infection | fungal infection | zoonotic infection | toxoplasmosis | Malaria | maternal diabetes | maternal hypertension | maternal hyperthermia | Maternal Inflammation | Maternal Obesity | hypoxia | Biological Toxins | chemicals | heavy metals | air pollution | radiation | Prenatal Diagnosis | Neonatal Diagnosis | International Classification of Diseases | Fetal Origins Hypothesis

Some Recent Findings

  • Clinical, genetic and environmental factors associated with congenital vertebral malformations[2] "Congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) pose a significant health problem because they can be associated with spinal deformities, such as congenital scoliosis and kyphosis, in addition to various syndromes and other congenital malformations. ... Maternal diabetes during pregnancy most commonly contributes to the occurrence of CVM, followed by other factors such as hypoxia and anticonvulsant medications."
More recent papers  
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Search term: Fetal Hypoxia | Maternal Hypoxia

Musculoskeletal Effects

Axial Skeleton


Links: axial skeleton

Cardiac Effects

Links: Cardiovascular System Development

Neural Effects

Animal Models

References

  1. Hunter C & Clegg EJ. (1973). The effects of hypoxia on the caudal vertebrae of growing mice and rats. J. Anat. , 116, 227-44. PMID: 4783417
  2. Giampietro PF, Raggio CL, Blank RD, McCarty C, Broeckel U & Pickart MA. (2013). Clinical, genetic and environmental factors associated with congenital vertebral malformations. Mol Syndromol , 4, 94-105. PMID: 23653580 DOI.

Journals

Reviews

Herrera EA, Krause B, Ebensperger G, Reyes RV, Casanello P, Parra-Cordero M & Llanos AJ. (2014). The placental pursuit for an adequate oxidant balance between the mother and the fetus. Front Pharmacol , 5, 149. PMID: 25009498 DOI.

Stanek J. (2013). Hypoxic patterns of placental injury: a review. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. , 137, 706-20. PMID: 23627456 DOI.

Tal R. (2012). The role of hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in preeclampsia pathogenesis. Biol. Reprod. , 87, 134. PMID: 23034156 DOI.

Jean D & Moore LG. (2012). Travel to high altitude during pregnancy: frequently asked questions and recommendations for clinicians. High Alt. Med. Biol. , 13, 73-81. PMID: 22724609 DOI.

Mwaniki MK, Atieno M, Lawn JE & Newton CR. (2012). Long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes after intrauterine and neonatal insults: a systematic review. Lancet , 379, 445-52. PMID: 22244654 DOI.

Bosco C & Diaz E. (2012). Placental hypoxia and foetal development versus alcohol exposure in pregnancy. Alcohol Alcohol. , 47, 109-17. PMID: 22241888 DOI.

Articles

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Environmental Links: Introduction | low folic acid | iodine deficiency | Nutrition | Drugs | Australian Drug Categories | USA Drug Categories | thalidomide | herbal drugs | Illegal Drugs | smoking | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | TORCH | viral infection | bacterial infection | fungal infection | zoonotic infection | toxoplasmosis | Malaria | maternal diabetes | maternal hypertension | maternal hyperthermia | Maternal Inflammation | Maternal Obesity | hypoxia | Biological Toxins | chemicals | heavy metals | air pollution | radiation | Prenatal Diagnosis | Neonatal Diagnosis | International Classification of Diseases | Fetal Origins Hypothesis


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, May 20) Embryology Abnormal Development - Hypoxia. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Hypoxia

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G